4 Todays Agenda Introduction: Challenges in secondary school education What Does the Latest Research Indicate About AP? AP and admissions AP and credit/placement The AP communitys values, needs, and wants AP teachers College faculty Students AP Course Audit renewal process AP Course & Exam Review
5Presentation Title, Date here Source: OECD, PISA 2006 database U.S. Students Fall Behind in International Comparisons and Raise Concerns for U.S. Competitiveness In 2006, U.S. ranked 35 out of 57 countries in mathematics Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) U.S. source for internationally comparative information on math and science literacy of students in the upper grades Age 15 Assesses math and scientific literacy in terms of mastery of school curriculum, and important knowledge and skills needed for life In 2006, more than 400,000 students from 57 countries making up close to 90% of the world economy took part in PISA 2006
6Presentation Title, Date here Source: OECD, PISA 2006 database U.S. Students Fall Behind in International Comparisons and Raise Concerns for U.S. Competitiveness In 2006, U.S. ranked 29 out of 57 countries in science Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) U.S. source for internationally comparative information on math and science literacy of students in the upper grades Age 15 Assesses math and scientific literacy in terms of mastery of school curriculum, and important knowledge and skills needed for life In 2006, more than 400,000 students from 57 countries making up close to 90% of the world economy took part in PISA 2006
7Presentation Title, Date here 2006 PISA Results Teenagers in a majority of industrialized nations taking part in a leading international exam (PISA) showed greater scientific understanding than students in the United Statesand they far surpassed their American peers in mathematics, in results that seem likely to add to recent consternation over U.S. students core academic skills. - Education Week (Published Online: December 4, 2007)
8Presentation Title, Date here AP Student Performance in Math Source: Gonzalez, E., OConnor, K., & Miles, J. (2000). How well do Advanced Placement students perform on the TIMSS Advanced Mathematics and Physics Tests? Chestnut Hill, MA: The International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
9Presentation Title, Date here AP Student Performance in Physics Source: Gonzalez, E., OConnor, K., & Miles, J. (2000). How well do Advanced Placement students perform on the TIMSS Advanced Mathematics and Physics Tests? Chestnut Hill, MA: The International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
10Presentation Title, Date here College Eligible, not College Ready Approximately 70% of all students in public high schools graduate, and only 32% of all students leave high school qualified to attend four-year colleges. College readiness by ethnic group: African American 20% American Indian14% Asian American 38% Hispanic 16% White 37% Source: Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States, 9/03, Funded: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Jay P. Greene, Ph.D.; Greg Forster, Ph.D., Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.
11Presentation Title, Date here Percentage of First- and Second-Year Students Who Have Taken a Remedial Course Since High School Graduation by Type of Institution, 2003-04 Note: Remedial course is defined as a developmental course intended to improve basic skills in English, mathematics, reading, study skills, or writing. Sources: NPSAS: 2004 Undergraduates; College Board: Trends in College Pricing, 2006; NCES 2004a. Colleges have High Participation of Students in Remedial Courses Students earning a bachelor's degree within 8 years, 2004 Leading predictor of whether a student will dropout Estimated cost to the taxpayers is $1 billion
12Presentation Title, Date here Average Time to Degree Exceeds 5 Years for Both Public and Private Institutions Source: Wayne J. Camara, College Persistence, Graduation, and Remediation, College Board Research Notes RN-19, March 2003. Average years to complete a Bachelors degree by institution, 2000
13Presentation Title, Date here Todays Agenda Introduction: Challenges in secondary school education What Does the Latest Research Indicate About AP? AP and admissions AP and credit/placement The AP communitys values, needs, and wants AP teachers College faculty Students AP Course Audit renewal process AP Course & Exam Review
14Presentation Title, Date here AP and College Admissions In 2007, Crux Research interviewed admissions officers at colleges and universities nationwide, with a focus on institutions (selective and highly selective) whose applicants have higher-than-average numbers of AP courses.
15Presentation Title, Date here Approximately 85% of Admissions Officers from selective institutions feel that AP experience helps them make decisions AP course experience favorably impacts admissions decisions Admissions – Q340 Base: (n=125) We look favorably on students who have taken AP courses. The presence of AP courses is a sign that a student has chosen to challenge him/herself. AP Admissions Officer Online Bulletin Board About 85% of Admissions Officers from Selective Institutions
16Presentation Title, Date here Admissions Officers use AP to determine college preparedness, student motivation, and placement How does your institution use AP, if at all, to support admissions decisions? Admissions – Q301 Base: (n=125) We consider the learning environment for each applicant – how many APs are offered and how many has the student taken advantage of and grades earned. AP Admissions Officer Online Bulletin Board All uses are employed at a higher rate at selective institutions
17Presentation Title, Date here 98% of Admissions Officers anticipate increase or maintaining their current uses of AP in the future Admissions – Q705 Base: (n=125) Higher among selective institutions (47%) Think about the use of AP in admissions decisions at your institution. Five years from now, do you expect that …?
18Presentation Title, Date here Source: Chrys Dougherty, Lynn Mellor, and Shuling Jian, The Relationship Between Advanced Placement and College Graduation (National Center for Educational Accountability, 2006) Students scoring 3+ on AP Exams are experiencing much higher college graduation rates than comparable non-AP students Student Demographic AP Exam Grade of 3 or higher African-American21% higher Hispanic27% higher White19% higher Low-Income32% higher Not Low-Income23% higher College Graduation Rate differences between AP and non-AP students
19Presentation Title, Date here Hargrove, Godin, & Dodd Study (in press) Followed 5 cohorts of students in Texas colleges from 1988-2002. SAT scores and Reduced Price Lunch status were used as statistical control variables. Students who had taken one or more AP courses in a Texas high school: had higher graduation rates earned a higher subject-area GPA in sequent courses completed more courses in the discipline Earned higher first-year and fourth-year college GPAs (The increase was higher still for students who took both the AP Course and the corresponding AP Exam.)
20Presentation Title, Date here Todays Agenda Introduction: Challenges in secondary school education What Does the Latest Research Indicate About AP? AP and admissions AP and credit/placement The AP communitys values, needs, and wants AP teachers College faculty Students AP Course Audit renewal process AP Course & Exam Review
21Presentation Title, Date here There is a need for high-quality teachers to replace retiring AP teachers, with a need to build commitment, advocacy, and AP loyalty ISSUE #3 Which three of the following have been most influential to you when deciding whether to take an AP course?
22Presentation Title, Date here AP teachers want more AP teaching resources (e.g. mid-year assessments, classroom materials, online score reports) How important are each of the following potential changes the AP Program could make for teachers? % Extremely / Very Important
23Presentation Title, Date here New supports for AP teachers Free, new AP Released Exam delivered in secure manner to all authorized AP teachers (spring 2008) Online score reports (target: summer 2009) Formative assessments (Web downloads) New content-focused professional development Reduction of breadth, increase of depth in AP science
24Presentation Title, Date here While there remains healthy support for credit-by-examination business among the credit policymakers: higher ed faculty In general, would you say you favor or oppose allowing AP students to receive credit or placement in your department? Dept. Chairs – Q240 Base: (n=125) 76% Strongly Favor or Favor There were no differences based on selectivity
25Presentation Title, Date here When drilling down to the Top 200 universities, AP credit policies appear to be increasingly restrictive What is the minimum score/most typical score required by your department under its AP policy for advanced credit or placement? Admissions – Q345 Base: (n=125) Dept. Chairs – Q345 Base: (n=125) Among Admissions Officers, 57% of selective and 78% of Top Third institutions require a 4 or higher Dept. Chairs in Sciences and History tend to require higher scores than those in other subject areas
26Presentation Title, Date here AP Teachers generally rate higher ed policies as more essential to maintaining AP participation than other issues AP Teachers – Q345 Base: (n=3,417) To sustain your schools current level of participation in AP, how important is it that… % Extremely / Very Important
27Presentation Title, Date here % Very / Extremely Important For the gold standard to be in play, faculty and administrators need to have a greater sense of what AP actually is all about. College Faculty Member Online Bulletin Board. College faculty are looking for guarantees of AP quality, consistency, and rigor
28Presentation Title, Date here Initiatives needed to increase higher education satisfaction with AP Greater involvement of college faculty in the exam development and scoring processes Recognition and appropriate remuneration for expertise rendered Improved communications to academic departments Implementation of standard-setting colloquia that enable faculty from AP-receiving institutions to help define standards and expectations for AP student achievement
29Presentation Title, Date here Exam scores of 1 are proliferating, showing that many students are not receiving the preparation they deserve for AP CAGR: 17% CAGR: 10% CAGR: 8%
30Presentation Title, Date here Graphic is based upon a regression model. AP Exam Taking Taking the exam is just part of the whole AP experience My teacher expects me to take the AP Exam To potentially save money in college by earning college credit To show how well I mastered the college level course Drivers Being in the AP course is what really matters to get into college, not my exam score The AP Exam fee is too expensive I dont feel I will get a high enough score to obtain college credit I am weak in that subject area There wasnt enough test prep material offered Barriers ISSUE #4 Students cite lack of preparation among the primary barriers to AP Exam taking
31Presentation Title, Date here Initiatives necessary to foster student exam readiness Toolkit for conducting week-long AP Summer Camps to review skills necessary for success in an AP course Provision of free AP Course Study Guides (downloaded from collegeboard.com) for students and teachers to use throughout the academic year and in reviewing for exam day Exam review materials Continued organizational investment in Pre-AP programs and services such as SpringBoard
32Presentation Title, Date here Todays Agenda Introduction: Challenges in secondary school education What Does the Latest Research Indicate About AP? AP and admissions AP and credit/placement The AP communitys values, needs, and wants AP teachers College faculty Students Course Audit renewal process AP Course & Exam Review
33Presentation Title, Date here Why conduct an AP Course Audit? SchoolsExamsStudents 199611,712843,423537,428 200616,0002.3 million1.3 million Percent increase 37%174%150%
34Presentation Title, Date here Who participated? The AP community responded in overwhelming numbers to the inaugural, worldwide review of AP courses. Where 105,000 syllabi were anticipated, 141,000 were submitted --- and over 14,000 schools participated. Participant Type Count Teachers135,486 Principals3,066 Administrators9,744 District Officials883 College Faculty839 TOTAL149,179
35Presentation Title, Date here Who evaluated the syllabi? Nearly 850 college instructors have served as Reviewers and Senior Reviewers For all 37 AP subjects, each reviewer teaches the parallel college course Reviewers undergo training and qualifying experiences before beginning live evaluations
36Presentation Title, Date here The AP Course Ledger Searchable database of over 136,000 courses in more than 14,000 secondary schools worldwide authorized to carry the AP label Search database by high school, high school code, city, state, and subject Entire database is available for download into admission office systems collegeboard.com/apcourseledger
37Presentation Title, Date here What are College Faculty Saying About the Course Audit? My experience [conducting the audit] was very encouraging; almost without exception, the syllabi reflected serious preparation and a desire to facilitate learning. That is really what is important. – James Riddlesperger, Senior Faculty Reviewer, U.S. Government, Texas Christian University Some of these syllabi begin with broad themes, and then combine some texts that one might not naturally put together…these unique approaches make me think about the ingenuity of AP teachers. – Bruce Plourde, Senior Faculty Reviewer, English Literature, Temple University
38Presentation Title, Date here 67% of AP teachers --- and 81% of new AP teachers --- think the audit provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on their course Total Responses = 26,023 The audit provided a valuable and useful opportunity to reflect on my course 67% agree/strongly agree 62% of AP teachers in private schools thought that the audit provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on their course 81% of first-year AP teachers felt the audit provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on their course
39Presentation Title, Date here Almost half of AP Teachers felt that they improved their course as a result of the Audit % strongly agree/agree 66% 49% 33 % 18% 14% 13% 11%
40Presentation Title, Date here Nearly one in five AP teachers felt that the Audit alerted them to changes in the AP course or exam that they hadnt yet incorporated into their course The audit alerted me to changes in the AP course or exam that I hadn't yet incorporated into my course Total responses = 25,982 * 21% of AP English teachers felt the Audit alerted them to changes in the AP course or exam that they had not yet incorporated into their course ** 14% of AP math teachers felt the Audit alerted them to changes in the AP course or exam that they had not yet incorporated into their course *** 24% of AP teachers in schools with greater than 50% f/r lunch felt the audit alerted them to changes 18% strongly agree/agree
41Presentation Title, Date here AP Course Audit Impact 67,000 teachers report having improved their course as a result of the audit 18,200 teachers used the audit to acquire more current textbooks 22,100 teachers indicated that they had not been aware of major changes to the AP curriculum until they did the audit 18,000 teachers used the audit to acquire greater lab time or instructional time 45,500 felt that the audit was just a hoop they had to jump through
42Presentation Title, Date here Next Steps: Important dates Jan 31: deadline for submission of NEW courses for 2007-08 Feb 1 – Mar 3: Website closed for upgrades Mar 4: Website reopens
43Presentation Title, Date here Next Steps: Renewing Authorizations Beginning March 4, principals and AP Coordinators can renew authorizations for courses that: will be taught by the same teacher will be taught from the authorized syllabus Renewal process can be completed online at https://apcourseaudit.epiconline.org
44Presentation Title, Date here Next Steps: New courses for 2008-09 On March 4, the Website will begin accepting submissions for 2008-09 Course Audit forms will be submitted electronically – no faxing All syllabi will be assigned an ID number Teachers can share this number among themselves to alert us to submissions of identical syllabi 2007-08 syllabi will also be assigned an ID number.
45Presentation Title, Date here AP Course Audit Contact Information firstname.lastname@example.org 1-877-APHELP-0 Tom Matts >
46Presentation Title, Date here Todays Agenda Introduction: Challenges in secondary school education What Does the Latest Research Indicate About AP? AP and admissions AP and credit/placement The AP communitys values, needs, and wants AP teachers College faculty Students Course Audit renewal process AP Course & Exam Review
47Presentation Title, Date here A National Research Council Report (2002) identified several opportunities to improve math and science education in the US. These recommendations are equally applicable to all AP course subjects. Courses should emphasize deep understanding rather than comprehensive coverage. Programs should reflect current understanding of learning in the discipline. Programs should reflect current research directions within the disciplines. Courses should emphasize inquiry and reasoning AP Course & Exam Review Where can improvements be made? The National Research Council Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools 2002
48Presentation Title, Date here AP Science Course & Exam Review Phase I Bio Recommendations Establish a conceptual framework that will increase depth and reduce breadth Emphasize inquiry-based teaching and learning and integrate reasoning Define prior knowledge Increase Access Assume a leadership role in professional development Develop formative assessments
49Presentation Title, Date here Calls for rethinking what is taught, how it is taught and how learning is assessed
50Presentation Title, Date here How People Learn Students come into the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp new concepts and information that are taught or they may learn them for purposes of a test not revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application A metacognitive approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them
51Presentation Title, Date here Some design principles: 1.Effective STEM curricula are coherent, focus on important ideas within the discipline, and are sequenced to optimize learning 2. Teaching for understanding begins with careful consideration of students thinking 3. Assessment is aligned with instruction and desired learning outcomes
52Presentation Title, Date here Learning and Understanding This study examined AP, IB and alternative approaches (special schools, e.g.) Recommends that programs incorporate the principles emerging from learning research as they move forward
53Presentation Title, Date here Assessment needs to move beyond a focus on component skills and discrete bits of knowledge to encompass the more complex aspects of student achievement
54Presentation Title, Date here The AP Review Project will produce a more inclusive and more engaging program of study for each discipline. To achieve this we identify: The essential concepts that are to be studied in depth The essential reasoning and inquiry skills that are to be supported by instruction and measured on the exams Teaching practices that are most successful at developing understanding The minimum resources required to support these practices Cutting-edge areas of research that can best capture essential concepts within the discipline and reveal the unity of scientific ways of knowing. AP Course & Exam Review Goals
55Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review Process The process of AP Science, History, & World Languages Course & Exam Review has been informed by: College Curriculum Study National & select state standards Established learning science approaches to curriculum and assessment design Learning and Understanding (National Research Council, 2002) Understanding by Design (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005) Evidence-centered Design (Steinberg, Mislevy, & Almond, 2003)
56Presentation Title, Date here AP Science Course & Exam Review How will we get there? 2006200720082009201020112012* PROCESS DESIGN ESTABLISH FOUNDATION PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPERATIONS COURSE / EXAM MODEL CURRICULUM DESIGN ASSESSMENT DESIGN INVOLVE AP & PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY
57Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review How will we get there? PROCESS DESIGN: Review process is based on learning methodology, potential risks, and discipline expertise. The AP Science Review is supported in its initial phases by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Principal Investigators on that grant provide expertise in learning science, science education, and assessment design. Discipline-specific expertise is provided by AP Review Commissions whose membership includes secondary and post-secondary educators and practicing scientists and historians. The role of the AP staff is to develop resources to support and facilitate the work of these teams.
58Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review How will we get there? Professional organizations, (e.g. the National Science Foundation, ACTFL, etc.) and College Board members identified by consensus the Commission members Each Commission is comprised of leaders in Higher and Secondary Education with subject-specific expertise The Commission provides input and guidance on: Essential course content and skills Instructional practices Commissions were assembled to provide subject matter expertise and direction for the review PROCESS DESIGN: Review process is based on learning methodology, potential risks, and discipline expertise.
59Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review Establish Foundation ESTABLISH FOUNDATION: Disciplinary experts identify the essential reasoning and concepts. Each Commission was charged to focus the AP course review on the following goals: Draw upon current research on learning, instruction, and assessment Reduce the breadth of content coverage Increase depth of understanding of essential concepts Develop capacity to use inquiry and critical thinking skills Organize curriculum, instruction, and assessment using unifying themes Create learning programs accessible to students from a broad range of backgrounds Prepare students for success in subsequent college-level courses
60Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review Establish Foundation Unifying Concepts Inquiry and Reasoning Essential Content Integrated Learning The AP courses and exams will produce Integrated Learning by embedding the Essential Content within: Unifying Concepts that deepen learning by increasing coherence Inquiry and Reasoning skills that deepen learning by involving students in knowledge construction ESTABLISH FOUNDATION: Disciplinary experts identify the essential reasoning and concepts.
61Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review Course / Exam Model COURSE / EXAM MODEL Compile the framework for the course/ exam in the form of claims and evidence. CURRICULUM DESIGN ASSESSMENT DESIGN Assessment Design The assessment model will support deep learning by emphasizing reasoning and inquiry Each of the scores within the 5-4-3-2-1 scoring model will be tied to clear and specific standards for student achievement The new AP courses and exams will be based on well-defined learning objectives and descriptions of student work that achieves these objectives. Curriculum Design Course descriptions will clearly define the scope of the learning objectives. Embedded formative assessments will support progress toward success on the AP Exam. Curricular resources will be provided to support AP students and teachers.
62Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review Involve AP & Professional Communities Guiding principles of the Review process are to: Rely upon the expertise of the leading educators and scholars from both higher and secondary education. Solicit feedback and input from those most involved with the courses and exams. After the 2008 release of the draft Course / Exam model: Review and comment by professional communities Solicit input from a representative sample of AP teachers Involve and consult with higher education communities Present the model at professional conferences Provide AP Course & Exam Review updates on AP Central INVOLVE PROFESSIONAL AND AP COMUNITY: Review approach with and solicit feedback from Instructors (secondary and post-secondary).
63Presentation Title, Date here AP Course & Exam Review What does this mean for AP teachers? There are still many details to be finalized for the AP Course and Exam Review. At this point, the following impacts are known: The amount of change differs by exam. Subject-specific details will be provided as available. Through the AP Course Audit network and AP Central, the College Board will continue to provide purposeful, direct and regular updates on any significant course changes The criteria used in the Course Audit will reflect the new Curriculum Framework. The AP Course & Exam review effort provides a renewed opportunity to involve higher education faculty with the goal of ensuring ever-increasing credit policies across institutions
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