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Water in the Atmosphere. H 2 O exists in atmosphere in all three states of matter…

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Presentation on theme: "Water in the Atmosphere. H 2 O exists in atmosphere in all three states of matter…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water in the Atmosphere

2 H 2 O exists in atmosphere in all three states of matter…

3 Solid: snow hail ice

4 Liquid: rain and cloud droplets

5 Gas: invisible H2OH2O vapor

6 H 2 O may change from one state to another:

7 Melting: from solid ice to liquid H 2 O

8 Freezing: liquid H 2 O to solid ice

9 Evaporation: from liquid H 2 O to H 2 O vapor

10 Condensation: from H 2 O vapor to liquid H 2 O

11 Sublimation: change from solid to H 2 O vapor Example: Dry ice

12 Water vapor enters the atmosphere from the evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, marshes and glaciers

13 Dew point: the temperature at which water vapor condenses Dew, clouds, and fog forms If dew point is below freezing, frost will form

14 Warmer the air, the more H 2 O vapor it can hold Humidity: water vapor in the air Relative humidity: the % of moisture the air can hold relative to the amount it can hold at a certain temperature

15 Relative humidity=specific humidity X 100 capacity (saturated)

16 Psychrometer: instruments used to measure relative humidity Works on principle that evaporation causes cooling 2 thermometers…wet- bulb and dry-bulb Readings show how dry the air is

17 Clouds: simply high fogs, mist, or haze Form when air above surface cools below dew point Shape depends on air movement that forms it

18 -horizontal air movement = layers -vertical air movement = piles

19 Temperature above freezing – clouds drop water Temperature below freezing – clouds drop snow crystals

20 Precipitation: Water that falls from the atmosphere to the earth Occurs when cloud droplets grow into drops heavy enough to fall to Earth

21 Acid precipitation: acid drops that fall to the ground - contain nitrate and sulfate particles that come from burning fuels, volcanoes and cars

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23 Cloud seeding: method to cause an increase in precipitation

24 Condensation nuclei: suspended particles that provide the necessary surfaces for cloud forming condensation.


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