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The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Trends In Display Technologies The Wild Ride Continues… Peter H. Putman, CTS President,

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Presentation on theme: "The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Trends In Display Technologies The Wild Ride Continues… Peter H. Putman, CTS President,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Trends In Display Technologies The Wild Ride Continues… Peter H. Putman, CTS President, ROAM Consulting Inc. Founder, HDTVexpert.com

2 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Next Big Thing Is… 2004 was the year of intelligent displays 2005 is the year of HD (1080p) displays 1920x1080 front and rear projection 1920x1080 flat panel monitors 1400x1050, 1600x1200, 2048x1536 displays 16:9 aspect ratios more and more popular 1920x1080 is a shared TV / PC resolution

3 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Next Big Thing Is… Most significant display products shown at CES, CeBIT, and NAB were HD 1080p displays Sharp 65-inch LCD TV = 1920x1080 Samsung 82-inch LCD TV = 1920x1080 Samsung 102-inch plasma TV = 1920x1080 JVC 48-inch LCoS RP monitor = 1920x1080 Sony 70-inch LCoS RPTV = 1920x1080 Get the picture?

4 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Higher Resolution Displays: Boon or Pandoras Box? Be Careful What You Ask For

5 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Gimme Those Pixels! Everyone wants HDTV imaging resolution But there are trade-offs, as usual Decoding and deinterlacing SD/HD video Image scaling vs. native pixel resolution Bandwidth and image detail Accurate grayscales and color shading None of these are easy to do!

6 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Analog Video Is Still Around Converting SD video: Decode composite to component Convert interlaced to progressive Correct for intraframe motion artifacts Eliminate scan line artifacts Preserve image detail without ringing Detect and correct for different frame/field cadences (3:2, 2:3:3:2, 2:2:2:4, etc)

7 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Ideal Decoded Signal

8 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Sad Reality

9 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Deinterlacing SD Video With 480p CRT displays, its not as much of an issue (resolution limits of spot size) With 720p/768p FP displays, scan line and motion artifacts are more visible With 1080p FP displays, problem is severe as all SD artifacts are revealed Is 1080p native resolution a good thing, or is it Pandoras Box?

10 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Deinterlacing Video 480i source deinterlacing not as intense for processors as 1080i Most 1080i processors do not convert both fields, only one Result: 540p scaled to 720p (fudging) This trick doesnt work when using a native 1080p display

11 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Deinterlacing Video Quality deinterlacing and motion correction applied here Inferior deinterlacing and motion correction applied here Both frames enlarged 4X

12 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Image Scaling for HD Displays Two ways to do it: UP in resolution (interpolation of addl. pixels) DOWN in resolution (decimation of pixels) The greater the difference in total pixels, the more difficult either process becomes 480p to 600p: +25%, not too bad… 1080i to 600p: -56%, a pretty good leap! Composite video to 1080p HD: +88% (Uh-oh…)

13 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Going Up In Resolution 480p source image 600p scaled image Not difficult to pull off while maintaining good image quality

14 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Going Down In Resolution 1920x1080p source image 1024x600p scaled image Picture detail is thrown away, but overall image quality is tolerable

15 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Flat-Out Asking For Trouble 480i source image 1920x1080 scaled image You dont realize how bad SD video looks until you try this trick!

16 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Image Scaling Headaches Garbage in, garbage out Noise reduction (analog, digital MPEG mosquitoes) Field vs. frame conversion (1080i to 540p) Color space errors (601 or 709 to RGB) Higher resolution fixed-pixel projection systems clearly show scaling defects Poor SD video performance is #1 cause of consumer returns on fixed-pixel TVs

17 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Bandwidth and Detail Problems A little known secret: Many expensive fixed- pixel displays are short on HD bandwidth Desire to save $$ on components Inclusion of video sharpness circuits Obsession with edge enhancement Designing display for 480p sources Mostly seen on YPbPr (analog) inputs

18 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Ideal Bandwidth Response Full bandwidth signal processing (>18 MHz)

19 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Sad Reality Clipped bandwidth signal processing (<12 MHz)

20 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® I Want My Money Back Luminance detail more important than chrominance detail In MPEG, luminance samples at twice chrominance or more (4:2:2, 4:2:0, etc) Clipped BW not an issue with SD displays, but a big issue with HD displays With many HD displays, you are not getting the performance you paid for!

21 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® I Want My Money Back In a typical HD display: Inferior scaling of low-rez video Poor de-interlacing and motion correction Poor noise reduction (digital and analog) Clipped bandwidth above 12 MHz Too much edge enhancement with SD + HD Result: An expensive HD display no better than a cheaper SD display

22 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Grayscale – Color Purity Perhaps the two hardest things for any HD display to handle well Digital systems have it tougher (PWM) Shadow detail always difficult to render Expansive grayscales are problematic Industry obsessed with contrast ratio White detail crush very common

23 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Grayscale Problems False contouring and white crush are seen

24 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Color Purity Problems Color purity across HD image is a must Color shifts can be caused by: Poorly designed mirrors, integrators Refraction in imaging devices Inconsistency in color filter materials Low-cost optics and lenses Uneven spectral output of illuminants

25 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Projector Color Shifts Projector was set to Middle or Normal WB in each case

26 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Projector Color Shifts Not as noticeable with business graphics (saturated colors go pastel) More noticeable with mid/high gray tones Definitely noticeable with flesh tones! A difficult problem with short-arc lamps Fix with filtering, but lose light Move to xenon imaging? Cost issues?

27 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Contenders and Pretenders Everyones Got a Better Mousetrap

28 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® E M I S S I V E transmissive Reflective ? ??? ? ??????? ? ????

29 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Contenders for the Throne Emissive - You view the light source directly CRT, plasma, SED, FED, LED, O-LED Transmissive - You view shuttered light TFT LCD monitors, HTPS LCD projectors Reflective - You view reflected light DLP, LCoS and variations (D-ILA, SXRD, etc)

30 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® E M I S S I V E

31 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Emissive Contenders CRT (cathode-ray tube) technology the oldest and best-known variation Limitations in brightness and physical size Resolution always tied to brightness High voltages required Power consumption issues

32 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Emissive Contenders Plasma display panels (PDPs) are a step forward Resolution and brightness link is broken Higher native resolutions, high brightness and contrast Saturated phosphors, wide viewing angles Light weight, thin profile Power still an issue

33 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Emissive Contenders Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a step further Lower operating voltages for luminous energy Thinner profile, high brightness and contrast Resolution still coarse High current consumption Modular and durable display

34 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Emissive Contenders Organic light-emitting diodes (O-LEDs) push the envelope farther out Super-thin, low-voltage technology High contrast, brightness Bright colors and wide viewing angles Current consumption and uniformity are problems

35 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Emissive Contenders Surface-conducting Electron-emitting Displays (SEDs) have promise, but… Super-thin technology with CRT-like image quality High contrast, brightness Bright colors and wide viewing angles Can Canon and Toshiba actually deliver it?

36 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® transmissive

37 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Transmissive Threats Liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) are mature Link between brightness and resolution broken Low voltage technology, scalable over various sizes Viewing angles and black levels are issues Color filter imaging not as intense as phosphors

38 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Transmissive Threats High-temperature polysilicon (HTPS) Enabled the portable projector market Low-cost imaging technology at high resolution Monochrome, requires outboard color filters Questions as to durability of panels and filters

39 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Reflective

40 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Reflective Challengers Digital light processing (DLP) High resolutions possible Efficient technology, lightweight projectors Monochrome, needs color filters / wheels Black levels good, high brightness / contrast 100% digital system, unaffected by analog stimuli

41 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Reflective Challengers Liquid-crystal on silicon (LCoS) High resolutions possible Efficient technology, lightweight projection systems High resolution to 4K Black level / contrast issues Manufacturing issues - yields

42 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Never A Dull Moment Significant Display News

43 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News So Far This Year: Fujitsu exits plasma and LCD fab businesses The LCD – plasma war continues LCoS fights for respectability, market share HTPS projection engines strike back LEDs are used as -- projection lamps? 1080p is the latest display buzzword ELVs, iMods, P-OLEDs grab attention at SID

44 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News Plasma: FUJITSU CRIES UNCLE! Falling prices, declining profit margins in both PDP and TFT LCD manufacturing to blame Competitive advantage to Korean, Chinese fabs Sells all but 19% of FHP interest to Hitachi Sells all IP and patents outright to Hitachi Sells LCD fabs, IP outright to Sharp Just another OEM now…….

45 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News NO PRISONERS TAKEN IN LCD – PLASMA MARKET SHARE BATTLES Average MSRP of 42 ED plasma TV ranges from $1500 to $ ED going away in favor of HD 50-inch plasma TV now well under $5K SRP LCD dominates to 32, no mans land at 37 size 32 LCD under $1500, 37 at $2500 Average 42 ED plasma sold at $50 loss in 2004

46 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News LCOS JUST WANTS TO BE LOVED: More companies pursuing LCoS as alternative technology to DLP (multiple sources, cheaper) Yields still a big problem for all LCoS types Some companies just hanging on by fingernails Sony, JVC continue battles at high end (2K, 4K) Push in China and Korea to build LCoS TVs 1080p seen as tipping point for LCoS

47 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News HTPS LCD HAS A FEW TRICKS LEFT: Sony, Panasonic, Sanyo all introduce new color correction systems Dynamic iris and gamma correction (Panasonic) Adoption in more 720p RPTVs (Mitsubishi) x1080 panels coming from Epson for front and rear projection Front projection systems (Fujitsu, Sanyo, Barco)

48 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News YOUVE GOT TO BE KIDDING!: LumiLEDs light engines (RGB stripes) now in pocket projectors Models from Mitsubishi, Samsung, BenQ, InFocus Light output 30 – 50 lumens on small screens (12) Single chip DLP (800x600) designs Question: Why not just use a laptop instead?

49 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News THROW OUT YOUR 720P DISPLAYS: Industry becoming obsessed with 1080p imaging Support across all display technologies DMDs – 2K professional, 960x1080 consumer LCoS – 1920x1080 D-ILA, SXRD, others HTPS – 1920x1080 panels TFT LCD – now as small as 37 diagonally Plasma – 71 screens to 102 screens Silicon Optix field / frame deinterlacing issues

50 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Significant News HOW DID THEY EVER COME UP WITH - - Electrowetting light valve (ELV) Uses oil and water Simple monochrome light shutter Polymer organic light-emitting diodes (P-OLEDs) Colors can be fluorescent, phosphorescent Ink-jet printable Interferometric Modulator (IMod) Bends light with refraction, reflection

51 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® OK, Back To Reality The Rough Waters Ahead

52 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn Plasma vs. LCD New plasma fabs coming on-line in Korea, China Plasma has edge in price across competitive sizes 37 is current battleground, also 40 – 42 LCD still limited in sizes above 46 Materials cost lower in plasma screens Color rendering still better than LCD for now Popular choice as consumer TV screen

53 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn Plasma vs. LCD Full court press by plasma manufacturers to correct misconceptions about panel life, burn-in, cost New gas mixtures (xenon and neon) improve phosphor life and brightness Plasma tube technology may allow larger sizes Caveat: Plasma technology may be reaching the limit of improvements!

54 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® PDP Technology Enhancements Plasma Tube Structure Breaks the link between glass size and imaging elements Reduced costs in manufacturing May allow curved screen plasma displays Shown: Fujitsu tube demo

55 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn players / partners in PDPs: Japan – Panasonic, Hitachi, Pioneer Panasonic #1 WW in sales May partner with Hitachi on PDP projects Pioneer owns ex-NEC fabs, OEMs NEC glass Hitachi now in charge of FHP factory No new VC investment in plasma is likely

56 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn players / partners in PDPs: Korea – Samsung, LG Samsung #1 WW in PDP shipments (>200K/month) LG and Samsung have both expanded fabs Both companies make largest PDPs in world China – Chungwha Picture Tube Building 46-inch SD/HD panels (Mitsubishi design)

57 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn LCD vs. PLASMA LCD is aggressively marketed across all channels Many OEM partners selling into US market LCD manufacturers working hard to address: Viewing angles (could be better) Black levels (still 10x that of best plasma) Color accuracy (needs to emulate CRT gamut) Motion smear

58 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® LCD Technology Enhancements Viewing angles New polarizing films being shown Close to 170 degrees in any axis possible Improves off-axis color and black levels Scalable to any sizes Shown: Nitto Denko New Filter Old Filter

59 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® LCD Technology Enhancements Color Gamut Use of LEDs expanding Color-corrected CCFL and HCFL backlights Hybrid LED / CCFLs also shown Power savings with brighter whites Shown: Philips Aptura

60 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® LCD Technology Enhancements Color Gamut Use of LEDs expanding Color-corrected CCFL and HCFL backlights Hybrid LED / CCFLs exist Power savings with brighter whites Shown: Samsung p LCD TV with LED stripe backlights

61 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® LCD Technology Enhancements Cleaner Motion Scanning backlight Black frame insertion Effect is similar to a motion picture shutter Techniques can be combined Shown: LG Philips combo scanning backlight and black frame insertion

62 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn Plasma OR LCD: WHO WINS? LCD making huge jumps in image quality each year LCD offers 1080p imaging in smaller screen sizes Plasma will always be limited by brightness Predictions: Plasma migrates to consumer TV market on lower price, competes with microdisplay RPTV LCD captures 37-inch battleground in 2005, becomes display of choice for DS, pro AV channels to 42 inches

63 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn DLP vs. LCOS: DLP now shipping in two 1080p variations 2048x1080 for digital cinema, large venue 960x1080 for consumer RPTVs, uses wobbulation LCoS panels all ship with full 2K resolution Consumer RPTVs (JVC, Sony, eLCOS, LG) Professional monitors (JVC) Front projectors (Sony, JVC, Canon)

64 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® DLP Advancements More DLP at lower cost: 1080p monitors Uses single-chip engine Expanded multi-segment color wheels with faster sequencing Improved light sources and color correction Shown: Samsung 70-inch 1080p DLP RPTV

65 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® LCoS Advancements Expanded use of LCOS: 1080p monitors Uses three-panel engine Dichroic filters for wide color gamut No sequential color wheels or scanning Xenon light source Shown: JVC 48-inch D- ILA reference monitor

66 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn DLP OR LCOS: WHO WINS? DLP yields are typically better than LCoS More DLP product in production – its mainstream LCoS has potentially lower costs, no IP issues Many Asian manufacturers entering LCoS business Predictions: LCoS needs more time before significant penetration DLP will rule the lower-price roost for several years

67 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn DLP vs. HTPS LCD: DLP has achieved 2K resolution, but only full 2K with professional displays HTPS LCD has achieved full 2K resolution with.9 panels for all types of displays DLP limited to single-chip with color wheel in smaller projection engines HTPS LCD is three-chip with color filters in all projection engines

68 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® HTPS LCD Advancements Visual Quality Issues: Screen door effect is being minimized Lower black levels due to dynamic irising of content Color gamut accuracy is greatly improved Shown: Panasonic PT- AE700U front LCD projector

69 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® The Battle Lines are Drawn DLP OR HTPS LCD: WHO WINS? HTPS LCD improvements for 2005 are dramatic! HTPS LCD still has price advantage Typical 720p LCD projector is $2500 Lowest-cost 720p DLP projector is $4500 Predictions: LCD remains strong, affordable projection technology DLP prices must drop to compete in 720p skew Issues with full 1080p imaging will surface

70 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Oh, and By The Way… Better Living Through Displays?

71 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Oh, and By the Way…. On-board OS Integral piece of a network Faster LANs allow remote file access Maintenance and status updates enabled Diagnose and fix many operator error issues

72 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Oh, and By the Way…. 100% digital video interfaces Smart set-up between monitor and display card or video source Best match to pixel resolution and refresh rate DVI for pro markets HDMI for consumer

73 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Oh, and By the Way…. Improved on-board video processing More functions on one chip set Scaling, de-interlacing, motion correction, cadence correction Enables a true resolution- independent display

74 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Oh, and By the Way… Power Saving Modes Larger displays consume lots of electricity! Need to improve luminous efficiency (lumens/watt or nits/watt) Smart backlights Pulsed backlights Low power modes

75 The International Communications Industries Association, Inc. ® Trends In Display Technologies The Wild Ride Continues… Peter H. Putman, CTS President, ROAM Consulting Inc. Founder, HDTVexpert.com


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