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Investigation of the Impurities in Dronabinol Samples by LC/MSAuthors: Huahua Jian, Isil Dilek, Uma Sreenivasan, Kenan Yaser Chromatograms Mass Spectra of Selected Impurities HPLC Chromatogram: RRT 0.30 – Hydroxydihydrocannabinol RRT Cannabinol Introduction Tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC) is a psychoactive substance found in cannabis plants (“Medical Marijuana”). Synthetic 9-THC, also called Dronabinol, was approved by US FDA as a drug to treat pain, anorexia and nausea related to chemotherapy and other disorders. Dronabinol is a light yellow to amber glassy material. It is sensitive to light, heat, and oxygen (air). The impurities in commercial Dronabinol drugs may come from either the synthetic process or through product degradation. Identification of these impurities is required by FDA and ICH guidelines for pharmaceuticals. A comparison of impurities in Dronabinol from a variety of sources was performed by HPLC and LCMS. RRT Cis 9-THC RRT 1.06 – Dihydrocannabinol TIC Chromatogram: Dronabinol Structures of Dronabinol Impurities Identification of the specified impurities were confirmed by comparison to authentic references: RRT 0.78 – Cannabinol; RRT Cis 9-THC; RRT 8-THC. The proposed structures of other impurities were based on LCMS results. Extracted Ion Chromatogram (EIC) confirmed the relative retention time of these impurities. MRM studies did not provide additional information as the impurities are similar in structure. Materials and Methods Comparison of Impurity Profiles of Dronabinol Materials Austin Pharma API, Dronabinol, USP Capsules manufactured from Austin Pharma API Marinol ® (RLD) Generic Dronabinol manufactured by Par Pharmaceuticals Methods HPLC method conditions are based on USP 29 monograph for Dronabinol. LCMS run conditions were adapted from the HPLC method using ammonium formate as the mobile phase additive for MS detection. Capsules were extracted based on USP Dronabinol capsule monograph. RRT m/z M.W. Generic Brand Capsule Made from AustinPharma API Marinol® Par Generic Austin Pharma API Sample Stressed API Sample Enriched with Impurities Identification 0.23 329 328 + +, a Hydroxydihydrocannabinol 0.25 361 360 Trihydroxydihydrocannabinol 0.26 345 344 Dihydroxydihydrocannabinol 0.28 0.30 0.36 0.38 0.45 315 314 Cannabidiol 0.47 327 326 Hydroxycannabinol 0.63 313 312 Dihydrocannabinol 0.68 0.71 0.78 311 310 b Cannabinol 0.82 +, b 0.91 Cis 9-THC 1.00 NA Dronabinol, API 1.06 1.10 1.15 8-THC Instrument Agilent G6410 Series Triple Quad (QQQ) LC/MS/MS Column Phenomenex Luna 3u C18(2) 150x4.6 mm Column Temperature 20ºC Mobile Phase 71:24:5 v./v. MeOH/H2O/THF, with 5 mM ammonium formate Gradient Isocratic Flow Rate 1 mL/min Injection Volume 5-20 µL UV wavelength 228 nm Polarity, scan type Positive scan Ionization Source Electrospray Ionizaion (ESI) Mass scan range Da Conclusions Impurities in Dronabinol Samples were identified. Specified impurities were Cannabinol, cis- 9-THC and 8-THC. Unspecified impurities were typically oxidative in nature. Structures were proposed for the observed unspecified impurities based on LCMS results. Similar impurity profiles were observed in all three capsules and stressed API, with an increase in number and amount of impurities. +: Present in sample. : Not detected in sample or peak is too small to be extracted. a: Mass spectrum is compromised because the impurity is low in the sample. b: The mass spectra of RRT 0.82 for fresh API sample is For the other four samples, it is a mixture of two components, with molecular weights 312 and The ratio of the two peaks varies, but m/z 313 (M+H+) and m/z 329 (M+16+H+) are all evident. The m/z 329 peaks is oxygen adduct of m/z 313 peak. The structure of this impurity is proposed to be an isomer of Dihydrocannabinol and its oxygen adduct. ©2010 Cerilliant Corporation | 811 Paloma Drive | Round Rock, TX 78665
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