Presentation on theme: "Beyond My Wildest TROPES and SCHEMES!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Beyond My Wildest TROPES and SCHEMES! Rhetorical Tropes & Schemes in Writing and Speech
2 Rhetorical TropesTrope: ______________________________ __________________________________________________________________________Essentially, artful ___________Many literary devices are actually tropesTropes are poetic, but they can also change the tone of the writing—more playful, more solemn, more formal—it all depends on the contextFirst, a few familiar faces…
3 Rhetorical Tropes Hyperbole Oxymoron Simile Metaphor Personification Exaggeration for effectOxymoronSelf-contradictory phrase – “cold fire”SimileMetaphorPersonificationAllusionSensory Imagery
4 Paradox para- = “contrary to,” dox- = “opinion” _______________________________________ ____________________Darth Vader is the epitome of a heroic villain: true, he exterminates the Jedi and murders countless innocents, but by throwing the Emperor to his death, he also saves the galaxy.Note the difference from an oxymoron: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5 Litotes“LIE-toe-tees”____________________________________________________________________________He was not uncharitable toward his foes.Usually functions as a form of understatement; he clearly wasn’t hugely generous, but he was somewhat charitable.“But their response, it didn’t thrill us / They locked the doors and tried to kill us.” --Weird Al Yankovic, “The Saga Begins…”Here understatement is sarcastic. Not only did it fail to thrill us; it really upset us.
6 Euphemism eu- = “good/true,” phem- = “speak” _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________They’re not civilian casualties! They’re collateral damage!I’m not a criminal! I’m a troubled youth!It’s not abortion! It’s reproductive health services!I’m not a garbage man! I’m a waste disposal engineer!
7 Rhetorical SchemesScheme: _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________Essentially, artful ____________Tend to have Greek names describing their functionSchemes serve to call attention to certain elements in the sentence, change its tone, show relationships among ideas, or simplify eliminate awkwardness or create euphony.
8 Parallelism__________________________________________________________________parallelism of words: She tried to make her pastry fluffy, sweet, and delicate._______________________parallelism of phrases: Singing songs, writing poems, and constructing cathedrals all glorify God.parallelism of clauses: “The elephant is larger, the horse is swifter and stronger, the butterfly is far more beautiful, the mosquito is more prolific, even the simple sponge is more durable.” —Inherit the Wind
9 ParallelismBe the companion of his thought, the friend of his friendship, the lover of his virtue—but no kinsman of his sin —Ralph Waldo Emerson____________________________How monotonously alike all the great tyrants and conquerors have been: how gloriously different are the saints —C.S. Lewis
10 Rhetorical Climax“…you’re also likely to be tense, shaken—anything but reassured.” —Peter Suderman“Political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging, and sheer cloudy vagueness.” —George Orwell______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________End with longest or most significantMust have _______________________________ _________________________________________
11 EllipsisAnd so the losers grow more aggrieved in defeat and the winners less generous in victory. —James PoniewozikHappy the natural college thus self-instituted around every natural teacher; the young men of Athens around Socrates; of Alexander around Plotinus; of Paris around Abelard… —Ralph Waldo Emerson_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
12 Anaphora Literally: “carrying back” Where is the wise one? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of the age? Corinthians 1:20We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender Winston Churchill, 1941Literally: “carrying back”____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
13 Anastrophe (Inversion) Try not. Do, or do not. There is no try —Master YodaPunished we were, disproportionate to the crime! —Hector BarbossaGathered along the ramp were firefighters in their black helmets and black coats.—Suzanne Berne________________________________________________________________How monotonously alike all the great tyrants and conquerors have been: how gloriously different are the saints.And on the boy who lived in their letters, the splendid phantom who lived in all my hopes, it seemed to me I saw at last, my own face.
14 AntithesisAmericans in need are not strangers; they are citizens; not problems, but priorities. —George W. Bush, 2001 Inaugural…Your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy.—Barack Obama, 2009 InauguralI’d rather laugh with the sinners than cry with the saints… —Billy Joel (never elected)When he dives, the movie soars. —Peter Suderman__________________________________________________________________________
15 AntimetaboleAsk not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country —John F. KennedyThe reformer is always right about what is wrong. He is generally wrong about what is right —G.K. Chesterton____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
16 Antimetabole!Be who you are and say what you feel, because those who mind don’t matter, and those who matter don’t mind —attr. to Dr. SeussThere are some who use change to promote their careers. And then there are those, like John McCain, who use their careers to promote change. —Sarah PalinPeople the world over have always been more impressed by the power of our example than by the example of our power. —Bill Clinton
17 Zeugma Literally: “yoke” (not “yolk”) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I bought the salesman’s story, and his product.He carried a strobe light and the responsibility for the lives of his men. —Tim O’Brien, The Things They CarriedYou held your breath and the door for me —Alanis MorrissetteI’m gonna lose my temper and some sleep —Brad PaisleyYou can leave in a taxi. If you can't get a taxi, you can leave in a huff. If that's too soon, you can leave in a minute and a huff —Groucho Marx, Duck Soup