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Beyond My Wildest TROPES and SCHEMES! Rhetorical Tropes & Schemes in Writing and Speech.

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Presentation on theme: "Beyond My Wildest TROPES and SCHEMES! Rhetorical Tropes & Schemes in Writing and Speech."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beyond My Wildest TROPES and SCHEMES! Rhetorical Tropes & Schemes in Writing and Speech

2 Rhetorical Tropes Trope: ______________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ –Essentially, artful ___________ Many literary devices are actually tropes Tropes are poetic, but they can also change the tone of the writingmore playful, more solemn, more formalit all depends on the context First, a few familiar faces…

3 Rhetorical Tropes Hyperbole –Exaggeration for effect Oxymoron –Self-contradictory phrase – cold fire Simile Metaphor Personification Allusion Sensory Imagery

4 Paradox para- = contrary to, dox- = opinion _______________________________________ ____________________ –Darth Vader is the epitome of a heroic villain: true, he exterminates the Jedi and murders countless innocents, but by throwing the Emperor to his death, he also saves the galaxy. Note the difference from an oxymoron: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

5 Litotes ______________________________________ –He was not uncharitable toward his foes. Usually functions as a form of understatement; he clearly wasnt hugely generous, but he was somewhat charitable. –But their response, it didnt thrill us / They locked the doors and tried to kill us. --Weird Al Yankovic, The Saga Begins… Here understatement is sarcastic. Not only did it fail to thrill us; it really upset us. LIE-toe-tees

6 Euphemism eu- = good/true, phem- = speak ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ –Theyre not civilian casualties! Theyre collateral damage! –Im not a criminal! Im a troubled youth! –Its not abortion! Its reproductive health services! –Im not a garbage man! Im a waste disposal engineer!

7 Rhetorical Schemes Scheme: _____________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ –Essentially, artful ____________ Tend to have Greek names describing their function Schemes serve to call attention to certain elements in the sentence, change its tone, show relationships among ideas, or simplify eliminate awkwardness or create euphony.

8 Parallelism _________________________________ –parallelism of words: She tried to make her pastry fluffy, sweet, and delicate. _______________________ –parallelism of phrases: Singing songs, writing poems, and constructing cathedrals all glorify God. _______________________ –parallelism of clauses: The elephant is larger, the horse is swifter and stronger, the butterfly is far more beautiful, the mosquito is more prolific, even the simple sponge is more durable.Inherit the Wind _______________________

9 Parallelism Be the companion of his thought, the friend of his friendship, the lover of his virtuebut no kinsman of his sin. Ralph Waldo Emerson ____________________________ How monotonously alike all the great tyrants and conquerors have been: how gloriously different are the saints. C.S. Lewis ____________________________

10 Rhetorical Climax –…youre also likely to be tense, shaken anything but reassured. Peter Suderman –Political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging, and sheer cloudy vagueness. George Orwell _______________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ –End with longest or most significant –Must have _______________________________ _________________________________________

11 Ellipsis –And so the losers grow more aggrieved in defeat and the winners less generous in victory. James Poniewozik –Happy the natural college thus self- instituted around every natural teacher; the young men of Athens around Socrates; of Alexander around Plotinus; of Paris around Abelard… Ralph Waldo Emerson _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________

12 Anaphora –Where is the wise one? Where is the scribe? Where is the debater of the age? --1 Corinthians 1:20 –We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender. --Winston Churchill, 1941 Literally: carrying back ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

13 Anastrophe (Inversion) –Try not. Do, or do not. There is no try. Master Yoda –Punished we were, disproportionate to the crime! Hector Barbossa –Gathered along the ramp were firefighters in their black helmets and black coats. Suzanne Berne ________________________________ –How monotonously alike all the great tyrants and conquerors have been: how gloriously different are the saints. –And on the boy who lived in their letters, the splendid phantom who lived in all my hopes, it seemed to me I saw at last, my own face.

14 Antithesis –Americans in need are not strangers; they are citizens; not problems, but priorities. George W. Bush, 2001 Inaugural –…Your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. Barack Obama, 2009 Inaugural –Id rather laugh with the sinners than cry with the saints… Billy Joel (never elected) –When he dives, the movie soars. Peter Suderman _____________________________________

15 Antimetabole –Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. John F. Kennedy –The reformer is always right about what is wrong. He is generally wrong about what is right. G.K. Chesterton _____________________________________ _____________________________________

16 Antimetabole! –Be who you are and say what you feel, because those who mind dont matter, and those who matter dont mind.attr. to Dr. Seuss –There are some who use change to promote their careers. And then there are those, like John McCain, who use their careers to promote change.Sarah Palin –People the world over have always been more impressed by the power of our example than by the example of our power. Bill Clinton

17 Zeugma Literally: yoke (not yolk) ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ –I bought the salesmans story, and his product. –He carried a strobe light and the responsibility for the lives of his men.Tim OBrien, The Things They Carried –You held your breath and the door for me.Alanis Morrissette –Im gonna lose my temper and some sleep. Brad Paisley –You can leave in a taxi. If you can't get a taxi, you can leave in a huff. If that's too soon, you can leave in a minute and a huff.Groucho Marx, Duck Soup

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