Presentation on theme: "ODS/GHG Reduction: Options in Foams February 2011."— Presentation transcript:
ODS/GHG Reduction: Options in Foams February 2011
Honeywell.com India: February 20112 Forces: commercializing new molecule(s) Environmental regulation or restriction.... EU F-Gas Directive: restricts the use of materials with GWP > 150 in emissive applications –Restricts the use of HFC-134a in specific applications –EU one component foam industry regulation: 04 July 2008 –EU novelty aerosol industry regulation: 04 July 2009 Kyoto Protocol: Developed countries reduce GHG emissions 5% (1990) – EU reduce GHG emissions by 8% (1990 levels) –Japan striving to meet Kyoto commitments Industry concern with further GWP regulation Taxation of raw materials basis GWP values –Economic impact on finished goods Climate Change bills in U.S. Congress Globally: reduction in ODS and climate change Environmental regulation is now driving commercialization
Honeywell.com India: February 20113 Fluorine Products – a History of Innovation Innovation Tied to Environmental Compliance CFCs HCFC Phase-out HFOs 1900s 1990s 2000s2010s CFC Phase-out F-Gas Regulation HCFCs HFCs MONTREAL PROTOCOLEU LEGISLATION Ozone Depleting and Very High Global Warming Potential Non-Ozone Depleting but has High Global Warming Potential Low-Global-Warming Potentials and No Ozone Depletion Effect Markets Served: Mobile and Stationary Air conditioning, Refrigeration, Insulation Foam for Buildings and Electrical Appliances, Cleaning Solvents, Nuclear Power, Aerosols, Heat Pumps, Geothermal and Solar Renewables
Honeywell.com India: February 20114 Montreal Protocol calls for HCFC-141b phase out Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Baseline average of 2009 and 2010 Freeze 2013 Reductions: 10%m : 2015 > 35% :2020 > 67.5% : 2025 > 2.5% per year reduction 2030 to 2040 Complete phase out 2040 HCFC-141b has been phased out in United States, Japan and Europe –HCFC transitioned the industries to environmentally improved materials Global pressure may accelerate the phase out date in other countries –example: India and UAE, as well as others HFCs are utilised where key needs demanded are: –insulation performance, and energy efficiency of finished products (refrigerators) –non-flammability property Hydrocarbons, and other non-HFC materials, while flammable, may be used: –where deficiencies in insulation performance and flammability can be tolerated –spray foam industry is particularly sensitive to flammability (application / equipment) HCFCs successfully phased out in many countries
Honeywell.com India: February 20115 Blowing Agent Attributes Phase out of ozone depleting substances: ODS Global warming potential: climate change impact reduction Ground level smog formation: limited contribution Low order of toxicity – safety in manufacturing use and finished products Non-flammable – safety in manufacturing use Insulation performance / energy efficiency: low lambda or k-factor Processing and equipment implications –Liquids: appliance (refrigerators); commercial refrigeration; spray foam; insulating panels –Gases: extruded polystyrene (thermoplastics); special applications Compatible with formulations and processing equipment materials –Low conversion cost: equipment investment and reformulation Economic valuation in use – translates into finished product economics Commercially available on a global basis Attributes support governments and industrys preferences
Honeywell.com India: February 20116 What is HFC 245fa?
Honeywell.com India: February 20117 HBA-2: Liquid Low GWP Blowing Agent Fluorochemical Liquid blowing agent Molecular weight: less than HFC-245fa Environmental Properties Low global warming potential: GWP 100 = 7 Non-flammable: ASTM E-681 Volatile Organic Compound: very low MIR Toxicity Screening Preliminary stages: Results are very promising Assessments completed: –Cardiac Sensitization –Genetic Testing: Ames Assay & Mouse Micronucleus –Acute Inhalation (Rat) –Inhalation: 2 & 4 week –Unscheduled DNA Synthesis Honeywell HBA-2 Blowing Agent promising low GWP molecule
Honeywell.com India: February 20118 HFC-245fa & HBA-2 Insulation Applications Household refrigerators (appliances) Commercial refrigeration –food preservation Building construction (residential and commercial) –Sprayed foams –Roofing and sheathing (board stock) –Panels (faced panels, sandwich panels)
Honeywell.com India: February 20119 HFO-1234ze(E) Blowing Agent Hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) trans – 1,3,3,3 – tetrafluoropropene CHF = CHCF 3 Molecular Weight: 114 Gas: T BP = -19 °C (- 3 °F) Environmental Properties Zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) Low global warming potential: GWP 100 = 6 Non-flammable: U.S. Department of Transportation –Non-flammable Compressed Gas –No flame limits by ASTM E681 –Non-flammable: EU Test Method A11 Volatile Organic Compound Measure –Maximum Incremental Reactivity MIR HFO-1234zeE < MIR Ethane Non-ODS / Low GWP / Non-Flammable / Low POCP = Environmentally Sustainable Molecule =
Honeywell.com India: February 201110 HFO-1234ze(E) Insulation Applications Extruded thermoplastics foams –Extruded polystyrene One component foams –Sealing around doors and windows –Repairing damage –Adhesives Two component pressurized foams
Honeywell.com India: February 201111 Transition Strategy: Timeframe Dependent HFC-245fa: Commercially available today – a transition solution – Widely utilised in NA. Specific applications: EU / Japan / China – HFC/HCFC-141b blend technology: reduced cost transition option HBA-2: World-scale capacity target is mid-decade – Conversion to HFC-245fa directly applicable to HBA-2 HFC-245fa: Low capital, medium term safe route to ODS management
Honeywell.com India: February 201112 Blowing Agent Energy Efficiency (Lambda) Lambda is the measure of heat transfer through a material in a given time and temperature Lower lambda is better: significant energy efficiency driven by insulation characteristics When compared to HCFC-141b insulation performance: – HFC-245fa is equal to slightly better – HBA-2 has shown improvement over HFC-245fa – HFC-245fa/HCFC-141b blends should exhibit similar insulation performance Transitioning: HCFC-141b HFC-245fa HBA-2 maintains energy efficiency
Honeywell.com India: February 201113 Sprayed Foam Comparison: HFC-245fa & HBA-2 Low water formulation High water formulation
Honeywell.com India: February 201114 Capital Investment: HFC versus non-HFC Why are HFC-245fa and HBA-2 blowing agents low capital investment? They are non-flammable none to limited capital requirement –Low risk – technology, workplace safety, environmental HCFC-141b PUR equipment little to no equipment modifications required Both are liquid blowing agents with moderate vapour pressure –May require storage vessel up-grade low capital investment HFC-245fa conversion from HCFC-141b in US: Cost Minor Why are Non-HFC (hydrocarbon & methyl formate) blowing agents challenging? Generally flammable significant investment in flammability mitigation – Blending operations; foaming equipment; storage vessels – Consequences of miss-operations inherent risk of fire / explosions Factory emissions probable ground level smog formation Non-HFC PUR foams typically exhibit deficiency in insulation performance Non-HFC conversion in US: Cost $500 K USD to $ 5 M+ USD HBA-2 is a LOW capital investment, near drop-in transition from HFC-245fa (small asset) (refrigerator factory)
Honeywell.com India: February 201115 Operational Cost: Implications HFC = lowest total cost path to high performance for regulatory compliance Non-HFC solutions have inherent energy efficiency penalty – Cost to restore energy efficiency: panels – low cost; refrigerators – high cost Non-HFC solutions exhibit deficiencies in density, dimensional stability, LTTR* * LTTR: Long Term Thermal Resistance Non-HFC PUR requires additional costs to achieve equal performance
Honeywell.com India: February 201116 HFC Solutions Summary ODS and GWP reduction is imperative on a global basis HFC solutions: thru HFC-245fa bridge route... –Provides a balanced, technology neutral / low capital investment pathway –Positions the industry for future HBA-2 adoption –HFC-245fa and HBA-2 do not contribute to ground level smog formation –Non-flammable: inherently safer utilisation in applications HFCs allow for orderly industrial transition: – Frees up ODS rights under an ODS Cap – Accommodates industrial and economy growth HCFC-141b / HFC blends possible attractive solution –ODS reduction on an interim basis –Energy efficiency neutral with respect to operational costs –Economic valuation: low capital investment & raw materials cost reduction
Honeywell.com India: February 201117 Blowing Agent Commercialization Status HFC-245fa –Registered for use globally –Commercially available globally –Commercial manufacturing site: 2002 in U.S. 1234ze(E) –U.S.: SNAP listed / PMN pending EPA approval –EU: Registered under REACH (article 24): 1000+ tonnes/year –Japan: Registration complete –Commercial capacity: 2008 in U.S. –Commercialized in EU and Japan HBA-2 –Toxicity assessment underway: completion 1Q 2011 –Global notifications/registrations U.S.: SNAP / PMN applications are in progress EU: REACH inquiry stage Japan: Filed for compliance with Japan Chemical Substances Control Law Environmental solutions have/will meet regulatory needs timing
Honeywell.com India: February 201118 www.honeywell.com DISCLAIMER Although all statements and information contained herein are believed to be accurate and reliable, they are presented without guarantee or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. Information provided herein does not relieve the user from the responsibility of carrying out its own tests and experiments, and the user assumes all risks and liability for use of the information and results obtained. Statements or suggestions concerning the use of materials and processes are made without representation or warranty that any such use is free of patent infringement and are not recommendations to infringe on any patents. The user should not assume that all toxicity data and safety measures are indicated herein or that other measures may not be required.
Honeywell.com India: February 2011 Specific Innovation Requiring Regulatory Approval –Excellent Environmental / Physical / Economic Properties GWP of 7 ODP < 0.0005 Non-flammable Atmospheric Life < 50 days –Tremendous Potential as HFC / HCFC Replacement Low GWP Material Designed for Traditional Applications Foam Blowing Agent: Insulation Performance 3-5% Better vs.HFC-245fa Solvent: Exhibits Very Attractive Solvent Performance Properties Refrigerant for Chillers: Applications Testing by Major OEMs –Hurdle to Overcome: Lack of Environmental / Legal Certainty ODP Lower Than Many Non-regulated Chlorinated Solvents –Methylene Chloride: ODP: 0.0047Atmospheric Life: ~ 180 days –Perchloroethylene: ODP: 0.006Atmospheric Life: ~ 110 days Very Low POCP Compatibility (Plastics and Most Elastomers) Similar Economics to Current HFC No Certainty in Status Quo – Threshold Value Needed
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