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Periodic Trends in Period 3 Chlorides and Oxides Bonding and Structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Periodic Trends in Period 3 Chlorides and Oxides Bonding and Structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Periodic Trends in Period 3 Chlorides and Oxides Bonding and Structure

2 Position of elements on the periodic table affects the type of bonding.

3 Period 3: Chlorides NaCl, MgCl 2, AlCl 3, SiCl 4, PCl 5 –increase in the number of electrons available to form bonds. increasing valence e-

4 Chlorides of Metals (NaCl, MgCl 2 ) –ionic –high melting points –soluble in water –do not react with water –electrolytes (conduct electricity) as aqueous solutions or molten (liquid) –NaCl(aq) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq)

5 Electrolyte

6 Chlorides of Non-Metals (PCl 5, PCl 3 ) –molecular/covalent –weak van der Waals forces between molecules = low melting and boiling points –hydrolysis: to split by the action of water PCl 3 (l) + 3H 2 O(l) P(OH) 3 (aq) + 3H + (aq) + 3Cl - (aq) –non-metal/Cl bond replaced by a non- metal/O bond

7 –non-metal chlorides (aq) conduct electricity (but not when molten) –Cl 2 : molecular/covalent, reacts with water in a hydrolysis reaction Cl 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) HOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) –Al: metal, but acts like a non-metal in bonds because of its high charge, small size ion

8 Period 3 Oxides Na 2 O, MgO, Al 2 O 3, SiO 2, P 4 O 10, SO 3, Cl 2 O 7 P 4 O 6 SO 2 Cl 2 O basic acidic reducers oxidizers (donate e-) (accept e-)

9 Metals: Na, Mg –ionic solids –basic –react with water to make alkaline solution Na 2 O(s) + H 2 O(l) 2Na + (aq) + 2OH - (aq)

10 Metalloids: Al –giant covalent lattices –high melting/boiling points –insoluble in water –Al 2 O 3 is amphoteric (dissolves in acid or base) –Al 2 O 3 (s) + 6H + (aq) 2Al 3+ (aq) + 3H 2 O(l) –Al 2 O 3 (s) + 2OH - (aq) 3H 2 O(l) + 2Al(OH) 4 (aq)

11 Non-metals: Si, P, S, Cl –molecular/covalent bonding –gases, liquids, solids with low melting points –non-metal oxides react with water to produce acids P 4 O 10 (s) + 6H 2 O(l) 4H 2 PO 4 -(aq) + 4H + (aq)

12 ElementNaMgAlSiPSCl Bonding Metallic Giant Covalent Lattice Molecular/ Covalent Chloride FormulaNaClMgCl 2 AlCl 3 SiCl 4 PCl 5 /PCl 3 Cl 2 BondingIonic Molecular/covalent Oxide FormulaNa 2 OMgOAl 2 O 3 SiO 2 P 4 O 10 SO 3 Cl 2 O 7 P4O6P4O6 SO 2 Cl 2 O BondingIonicGiant CovalentMolecular/Covalent Acid/BaseSolubleInsolubleAmphoteric Insoluble Soluble acidic Propertiesbasic acidic


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