Presentation on theme: "Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition Time to pull out those maps...."— Presentation transcript:
Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition Time to pull out those maps....
Ming and Qing Empires FIRST - On your map mark the Ming dynasty SECOND - mark all the extended boundaries that make the Qing dynasty Here is your reference point - BEIJING MING Qing
MING Ming Dynasty of China Early experienced sailors - used boats called junks Spent $ on northern defense rather than explorations fortified Great Wall in N. China. gave land in area to soldiers for defense. Restored Confucian ways. Scholar gentry most important merit system in securing govt offices farmers artisans merchants (lowest b/c they produce nothing) Nothing foreign allowed - no trade - no foreign people - they considered themselves self sufficient DECLINE 1644 Northern tribes united under Manchurian ruler take over. Ming dynasty dies out.
Qing Dynasty of China Qing Kept Chinese culture and society - including Confucianism Made native traditional Han Chinese wear queue (tail) to signify submission Traditional Manchu homeland only for Manchurian - no intermarry - keep own language Economy - grows, specialization in areas canals silk road merchants become more important Society literature flourished. Philology - study of history of languages Decline corruption, disasters, foreigners pressure to be allowed to trade White Lotus Rebellions - peasants rebel then off/on til 1850 weakened Qing
China and the Europeans Chinese culture views outsiders as inferior barbarians The Portuguese o Early 1500 Portuguese sailors work around coast to China. Some trade o 1557 – Trading station allowed at Macao o Jesuit missionaries o Astronomy open imperial court (they who had to predict such things) o Powerful positions allowed. o Catholic converts w/in high officials o Influence imperial policy Mark Macao on your map
China and the Europeans The British o 1600 Tea – all the rage in Br. - British East India Tea Company monopolized trade o Restrictions: must deal w/ only few Ch merchants. Special foreign settlements o Two changes o Free trade ideas Reaction to mercantilism. Advocated by other tea merchants not in the loop of Br East India Co Asked Ch to open more ports – rejected o Opium Trade Trade w Ch meant lots of silver flowing out of Ch economy Trade was for cotton from India but not enough Ch buy Intro new product: Opium Devasted Ch society Huge trade imbalance. Br refuse to stop
China and the Europeans The British o o Opium War o British defeat the Chinese o 1842 Treaty of Nanjing o Hong Kong to Br. Special living places, enclaves, special rules, extraterritoriality - until 1999 when it reverted back to China o More o Unequal treaties o More concessions Kwoloon land more ports o Now other foreign powers – Russia France, etc. but not the U.S. Mark Hong Kong on your map Mark Taiwan on your map
China and the Europeans Rebellions o mid 1800s Hong Xiuguan Christian convert. Wants new dynasty. Lots of destruction lots of damange in Yangtze River Valley and in southern china o Taiping Rebellion (this after the White Lotus Rebellion of earlier times ( ) o Seriously weakened Qing dynasty o Foreign powers take advantage and estb more footholds
Japanese Shogunate Mark Japan on your map o Late 1500s 3 daimyo emerge as leaders Built a centralized feudal system in Japan
Japanese Shogunate Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi o Either weakened diamyo by reducing territory and with sword hunt among peasants. o Peasants may not become warriors o Invaded Korea 2x but Chinese helped Korea defeat Toyotomi Tokugawa Ieyasu o Defeated his enemies. Capitol at Edo (now known as Tokyo). o Clearly took or expanded territories of vassals (diamyo) as needed o Tokugawa shogunate 200 yrs o Feudalism + central monarchy. o Peasants paid taxes to daimyo who were supported by samurai o Tokugawa owned ¼ but didnt rule directly. o Didnt personally tax whole population. o *Japan remained politically and economically decentralized o kept diamyo from making allies by requiring that they live in Edo every other year – families in Edo as hostages – that was expensive for diamyo. o This process transformed many diamyo from warrior to courtier o *Tokugawa helped b/c strong central govt meant stability 200 yrs o *kept trade restrictions and limited foreigners.
Japanese Shogunate Foreign Control o mid 1500s Portuguese in Japan. Brought o Christianity - Jesuits o Muskets – anti Samurai lifestyle o Tokugawa shoguns conclude Christianity was threat – weaken their authority o Evicted Portuguese o *island nation meant better able to achieve isolation than China
Japanese Shogunate Change in Japan o Like China – internal economic changes – production grew and specialized o *US Pres Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Tokyo bay in 1853 – amazing technology o negotiated 1854 – Treaty of Kanagawa. 2 ports to US for food, shelter o signed similar treaties with GB, Fr etc o foreigners estb. consulates – diplomatic offices o 1858 – allow ministers, diplomats, extraterritoriality o *1860 civil war in Japan…anti Tokuguawa forces calling for change. o New emperor – Meiji Rule
Ottoman Empire Add to your map
Ottoman Empire st Sultanate Elite Army o Janissaries – young captured men, Christian slaves. Trained as Sultans personal guard. Elite. Became powerful in political arena. Elite slave troops Timur challenges the Ottomans o Turkko-Mongol leader Timur interrupted Ottoman expansion invaded 1402 o Born Uzbekistan, claim descent from Genghis Khan o Timur dies o Civil war among Ottomans as to who next Sultan o Murad II took over and began to expand o Mehmed II Took Constantinople 1453 – renamed Istanbul o Suleyman greatest Sultan The Magnificent. Lawgiver. o Lawgiver o Conquered Hungary 1526 o Nearly took Vienna o Vienna limit but rule most of eastern Europe, western Asia, and Northern Africa
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Govt and Society o Sultans – o Grand viziers. second in command to the sultan o Two groups o Sultans o Peasants known as reaya (protected flock) o Liquid status rank o Meritocracy
Ottoman Empire Decline o Suleyman the Magnficent died o Navy and army strong but defeats at hands of Europeans o Phillip II 1571 navy against Ottomans o Loss control of profitable silk and spice trade o Europeans open water trade routes o Corruption – internal bureaucratic struggles o French invaded Egypt 1798 (Napoleon) an Ottoman possession o End 1923 when Turkey estb itself as a republic
The Safavid Empire Add the Ottoman and the Safavid Empire to your map
Safavid Empire is in what today is Iran
Add the Mughal Empire to your map The Mughal Empire
1300 – 1500 India controlled by Turkish Muslims. Challenge by Rajputs – Indian warrior princes This internal struggle drew attention of neighbors. Attack by Babur the Tiger – descendent of Mongol leader Timur o He focused on India 1526 attacked Sultanate of Delhi. Becomes core of Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire Ruler Akbar Married Rajput princess Gave other Rajputs govt positions Used force. Control most of N India Intro improved tax syst – done on 10 yr average of crop production- more equitable Religious Policy o Tolerant o Repealed non muslim tax o New creed blend elements of Hindu, Islam, Jainism, Christianity
The Mughal Empire Height of Empire o Shah Jahan o Taj Mahal at Agra and Hall of Private Audience. – expensive
The Mughal Empire o Mystic Nanak united – Sikh faith Devotion to one God Lack of idols Less rigid social sys Conflicted with Hindu beliefs 1600s Sikhs become militant *enemies of Mughal Empire and Muslims