Presentation on theme: "Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition"— Presentation transcript:
1Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition Time to pull out those maps....
2Here is your reference point - BEIJING Ming and Qing EmpiresHere is your reference point - BEIJINGQingMINGFIRST - On your map mark the Ming dynastySECOND - mark all the extended boundaries that make the Qing dynasty
3Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600 MING Early experienced sailors - used boats called junksSpent $ on northern defense rather than explorationsfortified Great Wall in N. China.gave land in area to soldiers for defense.Restored Confucian ways.Scholar gentry most importantmerit system in securing gov’t officesfarmersartisansmerchants (lowest b/c they produce nothing)Nothing foreign allowed - no trade - no foreign people - they considered themselves self sufficientDECLINE 1644 Northern tribes united under Manchurian ruler take over. Ming dynasty dies out.
4Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1850 Qing Kept Chinese culture and society -including ConfucianismMade native traditional Han Chinese wearqueue (tail) to signify submissionTraditional Manchu homeland only forManchurian - no intermarry - keep own languageEconomy - grows, specialization in areascanalssilk roadmerchants become more importantSocietyliterature flourished. Philology - study of history of languagesDeclinecorruption, disasters, foreigners pressure to be allowed to tradeWhite Lotus Rebellions - peasants rebel.then off/on ‘til 1850weakened QingQing
5China and the Europeans Chinese culture views outsiders as inferior barbariansThe Portugueseo Early 1500 Portuguese sailors work around coast to China. Some tradeo 1557 – Trading station allowed at Macaoo Jesuit missionarieso Astronomy open imperial court (they who had to predict such things)o Powerful positions allowed.o Catholic converts w/in high officialso Influence imperial policyMark Macao on your map
6China and the Europeans The Britisho 1600 Tea – all the rage in Br. -British East India Tea Company monopolized tradeo Restrictions: must deal w/ only few Ch merchants. Special foreign settlementso Two changeso Free trade ideas♣ Reaction to mercantilism.♣ Advocated by other tea merchants not in the loop of Br East India Co♣ Asked Ch to open more ports – rejectedo Opium Trade♣ Trade w Ch meant lots of silver flowing out of Ch economy♣ Trade was for cotton from India but not enough Ch buy♣ Intro new product: Opium♣ Devasted Ch society♣ Huge trade imbalance.♣ Br refuse to stop
7China and the Europeans The Britisho o Opium Waro British defeat the Chineseo 1842 Treaty of Nanjingo Hong Kong to Br. Special living places, enclaves, special rules, extraterritoriality - until 1999 when it reverted back to Chinao Moreo Unequal treatieso More concessions Kwoloon land more portso Now other foreign powers – RussiaFrance, etc. but not the U.S.Mark Taiwanon your mapMark Hong Kong on your map
8China and the Europeans Rebellionso mid 1800s Hong Xiuguan Christian convert. Wants new dynasty. Lots of destruction lots of damange in Yangtze River Valley and in southern chinao Taiping Rebellion (this after the White Lotus Rebellion of earlier times ( )o Seriously weakened Qing dynastyo Foreign powers take advantage and estb more footholds
9Japanese Shogunate Mark Japan on your map 1500-1860 o Late 1500s 3 daimyo emerge as leadersBuilt a centralized feudal system in Japan
10Japanese Shogunate Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu o Either weakened diamyo by reducing territory and with sword hunt among peasants.o Peasants may not become warriorso Invaded Korea 2x but Chinese helped Korea defeat ToyotomiTokugawa Ieyasuo Defeated his enemies. Capitol at Edo (now known as Tokyo).o Clearly took or expanded territories of vassals (diamyo) as neededo Tokugawa shogunate 200 yrso Feudalism + central monarchy.o Peasants paid taxes to daimyo who were supported by samuraio Tokugawa owned ¼ but didn’t rule directly.o Didn’t personally tax whole population.o *Japan remained politically and economically decentralizedo kept diamyo from making allies by requiring that they live in Edo every other year – families in Edo as hostages – that was expensive for diamyo.o This process transformed many diamyo from warrior to courtiero *Tokugawa helped b/c strong central gov’t meant stability 200 yrso *kept trade restrictions and limited foreigners.
11Japanese Shogunate o Christianity - Jesuits Foreign Controlo mid 1500s Portuguese in Japan. Broughto Christianity - Jesuitso Muskets – anti Samurai lifestyleo Tokugawa shoguns conclude Christianity was threat – weaken their authorityo Evicted Portugueseo *island nation meant better able to achieve isolation than China
12Japanese Shogunate Change in Japan o Like China – internal economic changes – production grew and specializedo *US Pres Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Tokyo bay in 1853 – amazing technologyo negotiated 1854 – Treaty of Kanagawa. 2 ports to US for food, sheltero signed similar treaties with GB, Fr etco foreigners estb. consulates – diplomatic officeso 1858 – allow ministers, diplomats, extraterritorialityo *1860 civil war in Japan…anti Tokuguawa forces calling for change.o New emperor – Meiji Rule
14Ottoman Empire 1396 1st Sultanate Elite Army o Janissaries – young captured men, Christian slaves. Trained as Sultans personal guard. Elite. Became powerful in political arena. Elite slave troopsTimur challenges the Ottomanso Turkko-Mongol leader Timur interrupted Ottoman expansion invaded 1402o Born Uzbekistan, claim descent from Genghis Khano Timur dieso Civil war among Ottomans as to who next Sultano Murad II took over and began to expando Mehmed II Took Constantinople 1453 – renamed Istanbulo Suleyman greatest Sultan The Magnificent. Lawgiver.o Lawgivero Conquered Hungary 1526o Nearly took Viennao Vienna limit but rule most of eastern Europe, western Asia, and Northern Africa
15Ottoman Empire Ottoman Gov’t and Society o Sultans – o Grand viziers. second in command to the sultano Two groupso Sultanso Peasants known as reaya (protected flock)o Liquid status ranko Meritocracy
16Ottoman Empire Decline o Suleyman the Magnficent died 1566. o Navy and army strong but defeats at hands of Europeanso Phillip II 1571 navy against Ottomanso Loss control of profitable silk and spice tradeo Europeans open water trade routeso Corruption – internal bureaucratic struggleso French invaded Egypt 1798 (Napoleon) an Ottoman possessiono End 1923 when Turkey estb itself as a republic
17The Safavid EmpireAdd the Ottoman andthe Safavid Empire to your map
20The Mughal Empire Challenge by Rajputs – Indian warrior princes ♣ 1300 – 1500 India controlled by Turkish Muslims.Challenge by Rajputs – Indian warrior princes♣This internal struggle drew attention of neighbors.♣Attack by Babur the Tiger – descendent of Mongol leader Timuro He focused on India♣1526 attacked Sultanate of Delhi.♣Becomes core of Mughal Empire
21The Mughal Empire Ruler Akbar ♣1556-1603. ♣Married Rajput princess ♣Gave other Rajputs gov’t positions♣Used force.♣Control most of N India♣Intro improved tax syst – done on 10 yr average of crop production- more equitable♣ Religious Policyo Toleranto Repealed non muslim taxo New creed blend elements of Hindu, Islam, Jainism, Christianity
22oTaj Mahal at Agra and Hall of Private Audience. – expensive The Mughal Empire♣ Height of EmpireoShah JahanoTaj Mahal at Agra and Hall of Private Audience. – expensive
23The Mughal Empire ♣Devotion to one God ♣Lack of idols o Mystic Nanak united – Sikh faith♣Devotion to one God♣Lack of idols♣Less rigid social sys♣Conflicted with Hindu beliefs♣1600s Sikhs become militant *enemies of Mughal Empire and Muslims