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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 20071 of 44. © Boardworks Ltd 20072 of 44."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd of 44

2 © Boardworks Ltd of 44

3 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 What is diffusion?

4 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion and concentration Why can the student smell the sock from a distance? The sock can be smelt because sweat and other molecules are moving away from it and spreading out in the air. This is called diffusion. Where is the smell strongest? The smell is strongest at the sock. The smell becomes weaker further away from the sock.

5 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Moving molecules In which states are molecules able to diffuse? Molecules in liquids and gases are constantly moving and bumping into each other. This means that they tend to spread out. gas (e.g. steam) liquid (e.g. water) solid (e.g. ice)

6 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion in action: one gas

7 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion in action: two gases

8 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Changing concentrations The rate of diffusion depends on several factors, such as the distance the particles have to travel and the difference in concentration. Molecules diffuse until they are evenly spaced apart and equilibrium is reached. During diffusion molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. They are said to move down a concentration gradient. Diffusion is a passive process which means that no energy is needed. high concentration low concentration

9 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion: true or false?

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11 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Why is diffusion important to life? Diffusion is the main way in which substances move over short distances in organisms. What substances need to move? Oxygen, food and waste products are some of the substances that move by diffusion. In animals, how do these vital substances get to where they are needed? The substances are transported in the bloodstream, from where they can diffuse in and out of cells.

12 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion and breathing Breathing involves the exchange of gases in the lungs; a process that occurs by diffusion. What happens when you breathe in? Oxygen in inhaled air diffuses through the lungs and into the bloodstream. The oxygen is then transported throughout the body. Carbon dioxide is the waste gas produced by respiration. Carbon dioxide diffuses from body tissues into the bloodstream and is exhaled via the lungs. Where does gas exchange take place in the lungs?

13 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Structures of the respiratory system

14 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Cross-section through an alveolus deoxygenated blood (from body tissues) oxygenated blood (to body tissues) air in/out Alveoli are the tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles, in which gas exchange occurs. alveolus capillary red blood cell

15 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 How are alveoli adapted? Alveoli have several adaptations that help to make gas exchange very efficient: They are very thin – only one cell thick. They are covered by a network of fine capillaries, enabling gases to pass almost directly between the lungs and bloodstream. They are moist, encouraging gas molecules to easily dissolve. They have a large combined surface area, allowing large amounts of gases to be exchanged with each breath.

16 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 What happens in the alveoli?

17 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion and digestion Digestion breaks down large food molecules into smaller molecules such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids that can be easily absorbed. Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are made up of large molecules that cannot be readily absorbed by the body. In which part of the digestive system is most food absorbed? Small food molecules are usually absorbed in the small intestine, diffusing across the intestine wall and into the bloodstream.

18 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 How is the small intestine adapted? The wall of the small intestine is lined with many tiny finger- like projections called villi. These are very thin and increase the surface area of the small intestine, both of which increase the speed of diffusion. blood vessels capillary network villus small intestine

19 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion and the small intestine How does the initial concentration of dissolved food molecules in the small intestine compare with the concentration of the blood in the villi? The concentration of dissolved food molecules is higher in the small intestine than in the blood entering the villus. This means that the dissolved food molecules diffuse from the small intestine into the blood, moving from higher to lower concentration. glucose

20 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion and the placenta The placenta is an organ that develops in the uterus of female mammals during pregnancy. The umbilical cord connects the placenta to the fetus. The placenta enables nutrients and oxygen to pass from the mother to the fetus by diffusion, and waste substances to diffuse from the fetus back to the mother. The placenta can filter out certain molecules and bacteria, but is unable to stop many harmful substances such as alcohol, chemicals and some types of virus from reaching the fetus.

21 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion and the placenta How does the placenta work? umbilical cord blood to mother low in O 2 /nutrients, high in CO 2 /waste umbilical artery umbilical vein placental villi increase surface area for diffusion blood from mother high in O 2 /nutrients, low in CO 2 /waste

22 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Diffusion and nerves impulses nerve impulse neurotransmitter receptor synaptic cleft A synapse is a junction between two neurones across which electrical signals must pass. Neurotransmitter molecules diffuse from vesicles towards the neurotransmitter receptors, moving from an area of high concentration to low concentration. neurotransmitter

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24 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 What is osmosis? water glucose partially- permeable membrane (visking tubing) Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a low concentration solution to high concentration solution, across a partially-permeable membrane. A partially-permeable membrane has holes in it that permit water molecules through but are too small to allow larger molecules through. Osmosis can be demonstrated using visking tubing filled with a solution and placed in a beaker of pure water.

25 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Dilute vs. concentrated Concentrated solutions have a low concentration of water molecules. Dilute solutions have a high concentration of water molecules. During osmosis, water molecules diffuse from pure water or dilute solution to more concentrated solutions. pure water dilute solution concentrated solution

26 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Predicting osmosis

27 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Osmosis in action

28 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Osmosis and cells Plant and animal cells are surrounded by a partially- permeable plasma membrane. This allows water and other small molecules to diffuse across. plant cell red blood cell cell wall Plant cells additionally have a strong cell wall surrounding the membrane which offers support and protection. plasma membrane

29 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Osmosis and plant cells

30 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Osmosis and animal cells Animal cells do not have a cell wall. This means they respond differently to plant cells to the gain and loss of water. In concentrated solutions, water loss causes the cells to shrink. When this happens to red blood cells, it is called crenation. In dilute solutions, osmosis can cause animals cells, such as red blood cells, to swell up and burst. This is called lysis.

31 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Osmosis and animal cells

32 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Osmosis and animal cells In order to remain healthy, animal cells need to maintain an isotonic water balance. This means that the water concentration both inside and outside the cell are equal. The concentration of water and salt in the blood are controlled by the kidneys. The kidneys are controlled by the portion of the brain called the hypothalamus. hypothalamus

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34 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Movement in and out of cells Substances move in and out of cell by passive and active transport. Which methods of transport are illustrated?

35 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 What is active transport? Substances can move passively in and out of cells by diffusion until the concentration on both sides of the cell membrane reaches an equilibrium. Substances can continue to move in and out of a cell using a process called active transport. As the name suggests, active transport requires energy from the cell, which is made available by respiration. During active transport, protein carriers in the cell membrane pick up particles and move them against the concentration gradient.

36 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 What is active transport?

37 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Active transport in plants Plants need to absorb mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the soil for healthy growth. When the concentration of minerals in soil is lower than inside the plant, active transport is used to absorb the minerals against the concentration gradient. What would happen if the plant relied on diffusion to absorb minerals? The cells would become drained of minerals because they would travel down the concentration gradient. minerals

38 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Active transport in humans During digestion, the villi in the small intestine absorb the soluble nutrients. Over time, the concentration of nutrients in the villi reach an equilibrium with the concentration in the gut. Active transport is used to continue the transport of the small amounts of remaining nutrients against the concentration gradient. glucose

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40 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Glossary (1/2) active transport – The movement of molecules against a concentration gradient, and which requires energy. alveoli – The tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles in which gas exchange takes place in mammals. concentration gradient – The difference in concentration across a given area. crenation – The shrinking of animal cells in response to water loss by osmosis. diffusion – The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration. osmosis – The diffusion of water molecules from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution.

41 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Glossary (2/2) partially-permeable membrane – A membrane that allows only certain sized molecules to pass through it. placenta – The organ that transports oxygen, nutrients and waste products to and from the developing fetus. turgid – The state caused by high water uptake in plant cells. villi – Tiny finger-like projections on the inner surface of the small intestine, across which nutrients diffuse.

42 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Anagrams

43 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Which process?

44 © Boardworks Ltd of 44 Multiple-choice quiz

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