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MGW Appalachian State University What is a disability? …and what test results might we need?

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Presentation on theme: "MGW Appalachian State University What is a disability? …and what test results might we need?"— Presentation transcript:

1 MGW Appalachian State University What is a disability? …and what test results might we need?

2 MGW Appalachian State University Number of students identified and served under IDEA: Specific Learning Disability2,884,116 Speech/Language Disorders1,097,389 Intellectual Disability 613,156 Emotional Disturbance 476,369 Other Health Impairments 295,627 Multiple Disabilities 122,842 Autism Spectrum Disorders 80,326 Orthopedic Impairments 73,113 Hearing Impairments 71,000

3 MGW Appalachian State University Developmental Delay 28,917 Visual Impairments 26,074 Traumatic Brain Injury 14,943 Deaf-Blindness 1,328

4 MGW Appalachian State University Specific Learning Disability Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, –that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, –including conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

5 MGW Appalachian State University The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, motor handicaps, mental retardation, emotional disturbance, environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage (U. S. Department of Education, 1999).

6 MGW Appalachian State University A discrepancy between expected and actual achievement ….in one or more areas as noted in the definition: speaking, writing, thinking, spelling, reading, listening, and mathematics. A learning disability is not primarily the result of sensory, motor, intellectual, or emotional handicap, poor teaching, cultural difference, or the lack of opportunity to learn. It is associated with language processes.

7 MGW Appalachian State University What test results do we need?

8 MGW Appalachian State University Intellectual Disability Intellectual disability refers to substantial limitation in present functioning. It is characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptable skills areas: communication, self care, home living, social skills, community use, self direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure, and work. Mental retardation manifests before age 18.

9 MGW Appalachian State University What test results do we need?

10 MGW Appalachian State University ASD Persons labeled with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) demonstrate mild to severe deficits in –1) social interaction, –2) verbal and nonverbal communication, and –3) repetitive behaviors or interests.

11 MGW Appalachian State University ASD They will often have unusual responses to sensory experiences, i.e., certain auditory, visual, or tactile input. They will present in each individual child differently. For instance, a child may have little trouble learning to read but exhibit extremely poor social interaction. Each child will display communication, social, and behavioral patterns that are individual but fit into the overall diagnosis of ASD.

12 MGW Appalachian State University Some conditions in the spectrum are known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders, high functioning autism, Asperger’s syndrome, Rett’s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Fragile X Syndrome, and non-verbal learning disorders.

13 MGW Appalachian State University Possible Indicators of Autism Spectrum Disorders] Does not babble, point, or make meaningful gestures by 1 year of age Does not speak one word by 16 months Does not combine two words by 2 years Does not respond to name Loses language or social skills

14 MGW Appalachian State University Some Other Indicators Poor eye contact Doesn't seem to know how to play with toys Excessively lines up toys or other objects Is attached to one particular toy or object Doesn't smile At times seems to be hearing impaired

15 MGW Appalachian State University What test results do we need?

16 MGW Appalachian State University Emotional/Behavioral Disturbance The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: –An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors.

17 MGW Appalachian State University An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. A tendency to develop physical symptoms of fears associated with personal for school problems.

18 MGW Appalachian State University The term includes children who are schizophrenic. The term does not include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance. (U. S. Department of Education, 1999, p ).

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20 MGW Appalachian State University ADHD inattentive One type of ADHD is predominantly inattentive, with the student displaying characteristics for at least 6 months and to a degree that is maladaptive and does not match maturational expectations for the age when observed. There are nine symptoms listed for inattention, and the student must display at least six of them to be categorized as an inattentive type.

21 MGW Appalachian State University 1. Failing to give close attention to details leading to careless mistakes 2. Having difficulty sustaining attention to tasks. 3. Having difficulty listening to what is being said 4. Having difficulty following through and completing homework assignments, classroom assignments, chores, or occupational duties. 5. Having difficulty in organizing tasks 6. Avoiding tasks that require strenuous mental activity 7. Losing materials that are necessary for the tasks they need to complete 8. Being easily distracted by extraneous activity 9. Forgetting schedules of daily activities.

22 MGW Appalachian State University hyperactive-impulsive Another type of ADHD is predominantly hyperactive-impulsive. Hyperactive is a condition of displaying excessive energy characterized as restless and agitated. Persons displaying impulsivity appear to act before they think. Characteristics must exist for at least 6 months.

23 MGW Appalachian State University 1. Display fidgety behaviors and squirms in seat. 2. Leave desk or seat in the classroom at inappropriate times. 3. Run and climb in situations when it is inappropriate. 4. Avoid engaging in quiet leisure activities 5. Act as if driven and is always “on the go.” 6. Talk excessively. 7. Blurt out answers impulsively, often before the question has been completed. 8. Display difficulty waiting in lines and in taking turns 9. Butt into conversations or other people’s games, interrupting and intruding on others.

24 MGW Appalachian State University must not have these symptoms as a part of another disorders such as pervasive developmental disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. mood disorder, anxiety disorder, or a personality disorder. low self-esteem, moodiness, temper outbursts, manifestations of frustration, aggressiveness.

25 MGW Appalachian State University The third type is a combined type, with the child showing both types of behavior, hyperactive-impulsive, as well as inattention.

26 MGW Appalachian State University What test results do we need?

27 MGW Appalachian State University Speech and language impairments Speech disorder is characterized by an impartment in vocal production (voice), speech sound production (articulation), fluency (stuttering and related disorders), or any combination. A language disorder is abnormal development in understanding or using spoken, written, or other symbolic systems.

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29 MGW Appalachian State University Sensory categories Deaf Blind Deaf-Blind

30 MGW Appalachian State University What test results do we need?

31 MGW Appalachian State University Others TBI Physical and Health Impairments Multiple disabilities

32 MGW Appalachian State University What test results do we need?


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