“It is normal, to be different” The pEs (Problematic educational Situation) – Problem
“Dimensions of Disability and Health.” WHO: ICIDH2 1. Impairment (function and structure) means organically dysfunction and functional handicaps. 2. Activity (activity limitation) is the measure of personnel realization. 3. Participation (participation restriction) is the measure of personnel participation in the society. We literally produce the world in which we live, by living.
Praenatal: deformations in central nervous system, gene-modification chromosomal aberration/abnormity (Down-Syndrome), false formations (in nervous system, Macro- Microcephalic, exogenous reasons (infect, …) Perinatal: birth-trauma, illness of new born children (neonatal Meningitis, …) Postnatal: inflammation of central nervous system (Meningitis, Encephalitis, …), brain-trauma (accident, …)
Damaging of central nervous system Infantile cerebral-pareses: Spastic, Athetosis, Athaxie and Hypotonie, in different forms: Tetraplegia, Diplegia, Paraplegia, Hemiplegia Paralysation Spina bifida, Hypozephalus paralysation of different body functions retardation of motor, sensibility, …. Polio-myelitis Epilepsia Damaging of muscles and skeleton-system Chronically illness, wrong function of organs.
Normally blind/vision impaired people need – compared with “normal sighted” – a lot of energy to percept the informations, which helps to accomplish the requirements of the daily life. But in contrast to the believe that vision impaired persons have got difficulties in social-emotional adoption, Mersi did not find any confirmation (using a meta-analyses). If it is possible to have all the personal and financial resources (Computer with brail-line, brail-printer, …) it is not a problem to teach blind/vision impaired children in regular classes in Primary and Secondary.
Concerning deaf/hearing impaired we have nowadays a corntroversal medical discussion. Some scientists claim: “There is no deaf anymore” because of new technology (Cochlea-Implantation). Some of them criticise the new medical-technical- rehabilitation-concept and reflect, the learning of “gesture language” is a necessary ability of communication. Fact is: Children with CI can attend regular classes and learn together with hearing children without support teacher.. http://www.valerie.at/
This is a combination of more than one handicap. In some definitions, you can find the six month border, it means that the prognostic determines, this child will not be able to reach the normal achievement of a six year old child. For those children, a special training is necessary. Sometimes it is possible to have short co- operation phases with special trained regular classes in Primary Schools.
We have: a selective and separating school system a lot of types of Secondary (=special schools) as “schools without that in each case different human being”from Gymnasium to Special school for multiple handicapped. this selective structure disables children because of the special subject orientation in didactics. a school with a common pedagogic thinking in which all children together in co-operation on their individual subjective level consideration of their momentary competence in perception, thinking and learning ability in orientation to the next “zone of development” “drawer-spreading themes or projects” learn, work and play together
o Relationship to practical problems: Education reflects the individual life of children, their experience in the meeting with the world, their perception and learning ability. Speech of pupil: Educational problems, facts and solutions are expressed first in the speech of pupils, after that in the special-expert speech and than discussed again. Sequential of educational targets based up subjective development of pupils. We need a subject orientated, individual adapted curricula and syllabuses. This means that each child needs a different time to reach the aims of the curriculum. This means too that all children are at a different level at the border from Primary to secondary – there is no common level starting Secondary Education! Curricular principals:
Methodical principals: O Active learning by doing. Education has active and cognitive on order to concern concrete problems con work on. This teaches them to find solutions by target-oriented doing. Get into it – step by step (Spranger): Pupil learn by real doing to find solution of problems, to formulate the solution and than get abstract-symbolical ideas. Social-co-operative work out: Pupil learn to find subjective solutions of problems by doing common experiments, having discussions… with partners and in group work.
The critical transition points under “social settings”: Secondary is a new area of live with special rules, which were not in use in Primary. So children have to learn this new rules. They should have a phase of training, of making experience to learn the new situation before the transfer! The Secondary must be attended obligatorily – there is no possibility to avoid this demand. Success or measure-follow decides the future of the pupils. School – special Secondary Education – is a system which gives authorizations. Finishing Secondary is not a guarantee for a pleasant quality of live, but failing to finish Secondary means to have less chance and to live in poverty.
Skills to be used by a teacher in a integration team 1. High sensibility for individual differences of pupils. An interior diffraction teacher has to knew the individual level of each child and has to give individual attention. High sensibility of teaching brings more motivation of perception and increase the self-concept of pupils. 2. Tolerance and suitable expectation. Positive expectations are very necessary in case of “self-fulfilling-prophecies” 3. Consistence in teacher behaviour. Pupils need rules, security and predictable behaviour of teachers (and headpersons). This prevents problems in learning and with behaviour of pupils. 4. Constructive reinforcement-contingence. The chance for children, to get positive feed back is only 10%. It’s wrong to think correct behaviour in school is naturally! 5. Mediation of learning-relevant contents in the subjects. 6. Using desired model-behaviour. Children model over behaviour of teachers If teachers wants to get a positive climate of accepting each other, they have to show it to the children by living it.
The school for all children is possible. We have to realize it by using a positive transmission for all children, specially for children with special needs because they have the right to live in a world without the stigma of separation. End