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Presentation on theme: "VISUAL MIMICRY."— Presentation transcript:


2 Various kinds of mimicry
Batesian mimicry: resemblance of harmless species to some non-edible species that signals their unsuitability to possible predators Müllerian mimicry: resemblance of aposematic signals of different non-edible species Peckhamian mimicry: resemblance of predators’ messages to messages of some species, or to some objects, that are harmless to their prey Wasmannian mimicry: occurs when the mimic resembles it's host in order to live within the same nest or structure

3 Harmless hoverflies resemble non-edible wasps
Batesian mimicry Harmless hoverflies resemble non-edible wasps

4 Batesian mimicry

5 The toxic sea slug Phillidiella pustulosa (left)
More Batesian mimicry The toxic sea slug Phillidiella pustulosa (left) is mimicked by a harmless flatworm Pseudoceros imitatus

6 More Batesian mimicry The harmless Allobates zaparo (top)
mimics the poiseness Epipedobates biliguis (middle) and the even more toxic species E. parvalus whenever these species share their habitats

7 More Batesian mimicry The venomous coral snake Micrurus fulvius and its non-venomous mimic the king snake Lampropeltis triangulum

8 More Batesian mimicry The viceroy butterfly Limenitis archippus (left) has evolved to mimic and look like the foul-tasting and poisonous monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus

9 More Batesian mimicry The filefish Canthigaster valentini (left) mimics the unpalatable puffer Paraluterus prionurus

10 More Batesian mimicry The Harlequin Snake eel (Myrichthys colubrinus) mimics the Banded sea snake (Laticauda colubrina) an extremely toxic species with conspicuous black and white warning colouration

11 More Batesian mimicry The mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) has the ability to mimic other aquatic creatures in order to avoid predation

12 Müllerian mimicry Many stinging wasps, like (from left to right) Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica and Vespula rufa share the same or similar black and yellow aposematic colour pattern.

13 Müllerian mimicry Subspecies of Heliconius erato
(left-hand column) and of H. melpomene on the right. Both species are toxic and form a local mimicry ring from a different area of Ecuador or northern Peru

14 Müllerian mimicry The unpalatable soldier beetles (Cantharidae) mimic the distateful lycid beetles (Lycidae) and, when flying, the wasp

15 More Müllerian mimicry
Unpalatable caterpillors of St. Jacobbutterfly mimic stinging wasps and venomous coral snakes

16 The use of black and yellow as a warning sign (RESEMBLING POISENESS SPECIES)

17 Peckhamian mimicry This anglar fish (Antenarius sp.) displays a lure resembling a small fish

18 In its mouth, the Alligator snapping turtle (Macroclemys temminckii)
Peckhamian mimicry In its mouth, the Alligator snapping turtle (Macroclemys temminckii) possesses a wormlike projection that is moved to attract prey into the turtle’s mouth

19 More Peckhamian mimicry
The orchard spiders (Celaenia sp.) mimic bird droppings to look unappatising and attract moths by scent

20 More Peckhamian mimicry
The bolas spider Mastophora hutchinsoni emits chemical attractants that mimic the sex pheromones of its moth prey

21 More Peckhamian mimicry
Some spiders like the Synemosyninae and the genus Myrmarachne mimic ants that they hunt

22 More Peckhamian mimicry
Lightning bugs (Lampiridae) have specific flash sequences to find eachother. Females of the genus Photurus can imitate the flash sequence of Photunis females in order to attract male wich they will devour .

23 Peckhamian mimicry in carnivorous plants
The fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) and the Venus Flytrap, (Dionaea muscipula) attract insects that they digest

24 Aposematic colouration: (maybe) I’m poiseness
Sea slugs of the genus The distasteful grasshopper Chromodoris Acripeza reticulata

25 More aposematic colours: (maybe) I’m poiseness
Warning colours in amphibians and insects

26 Signs of warning: (maybe) I’m dangerous
Beetles like the Staphylinidae (right) and Phosphaenus hemipterus (left) mimic scorpions that may scare predators.

27 Signs of warning: (maybe) I’m dangerous
Some planthoppers (Homoptera) mimic jumping spiders probably to avoid some predators, such as ants and even the jumping spiders

28 More signs of warning: (maybe) I’m dangerous
Madoryx oiclus Polyphemus Moths Pleurodema thaul Papilio troilus Chaetodon captistratus The false eye-spots in some species may frighten off or throw into disorder their predators

29 Reichenbachia spatulifer
Wasmannian mimicry Reichenbachia spatulifer Araeoschizus sp. Some beetles mimic ants in order to be provided with food, shelter and protection

30 The moth Datana sp. (Notodontidae) mimics the rain forest floor
Camouflage The moth Datana sp. (Notodontidae) mimics the rain forest floor

31 Camouflage The frog Paradoxophyla palmata mimics the mud and tree trunks in its environment.

32 The insect Phyllium giganteum mimics a leaf to disguise itself
Camouflage The insect Phyllium giganteum mimics a leaf to disguise itself

33 Camouflage The praying mantis Hymenopus coronatus uses its elegantly-lobed hind legs and pink and white coloration to camouflage itself amongst the native orchid flowers

34 Camouflage The pygmy seahorse Hippocampus bargibanti mimics gorgonian corals of the genus Muricella

35 Camouflage The starry flounder Platichthys stellatus makes use of melanophores and chromophores to adapt to the sea floor

36 Camouflage The great bittern Botaurus stellaris is pretty well camouflaged in its natural habitat

37 Camouflage The zebra Equus burchelli and the leopard Panthera Pardus may look conspicuous to us but are quite difficult to spot at dusk, especially when beïng “colour-blind”

38 Egg-spots Among cichlids the males of maternal mouthbrooders wear “egg-dummies” on their anal fin that are crucial to mating

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