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VISUAL MIMICRY. Various kinds of mimicry Batesian mimicry: resemblance of harmless species to some non-edible species that signals their unsuitability.

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Presentation on theme: "VISUAL MIMICRY. Various kinds of mimicry Batesian mimicry: resemblance of harmless species to some non-edible species that signals their unsuitability."— Presentation transcript:


2 Various kinds of mimicry Batesian mimicry: resemblance of harmless species to some non-edible species that signals their unsuitability to possible predators Müllerian mimicry: resemblance of aposematic signals of different non-edible species Peckhamian mimicry: resemblance of predators messages to messages of some species, or to some objects, that are harmless to their prey Wasmannian mimicry: occurs when the mimic resembles it's host in order to live within the same nest or structure

3 Batesian mimicry

4 Batesian mimicry

5 More Batesian mimicry The toxic sea slug Phillidiella pustulosa (left) is mimicked by a harmless flatworm Pseudoceros imitatus

6 More Batesian mimicry The harmless Allobates zaparo (top) mimics the poiseness Epipedobates biliguis (middle) and the even more toxic species E. parvalus whenever these species share their habitats

7 More Batesian mimicry The venomous coral snake Micrurus fulvius and its non- venomous mimic the king snake Lampropeltis triangulum

8 More Batesian mimicry The viceroy butterfly Limenitis archippus (left) has evolved to mimic and look like the foul-tasting and poisonous monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus

9 More Batesian mimicry The filefish Canthigaster valentini (left) mimics the unpalatable puffer Paraluterus prionurus

10 The Harlequin Snake eel (Myrichthys colubrinus) mimics the Banded sea snake (Laticauda colubrina) an extremely toxic species with conspicuous black and white warning colouration More Batesian mimicry

11 The mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) has the ability to mimic other aquatic creatures in order to avoid predation More Batesian mimicry

12 Müllerian mimicry Many stinging wasps, like (from left to right) Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica and Vespula rufa share the same or similar black and yellow aposematic colour pattern.

13 Müllerian mimicry Subspecies of Heliconius erato (left-hand column) and of H. melpomene on the right. Both species are toxic and form a local mimicry ring from a different area of Ecuador or northern Peru

14 Müllerian mimicry The unpalatable soldier beetles (Cantharidae) mimic the distateful lycid beetles (Lycidae) and, when flying, the wasp

15 More Müllerian mimicry Unpalatable caterpillors of St. Jacobbutterfly mimic stinging wasps and venomous coral snakes

16 The use of black and yellow as a warning sign (RESEMBLING POISENESS SPECIES)

17 This anglar fish (Antenarius sp.) displays a lure resembling a small fish Peckhamian mimicry

18 In its mouth, the Alligator snapping turtle (Macroclemys temminckii) possesses a wormlike projection that is moved to attract prey into the turtles mouth Peckhamian mimicry

19 The orchard spiders (Celaenia sp.) mimic bird droppings to look unappatising and attract moths by scent More Peckhamian mimicry

20 The bolas spider Mastophora hutchinsoni emits chemical attractants that mimic the sex pheromones of its moth prey More Peckhamian mimicry

21 Some spiders like the Synemosyninae and the genus Myrmarachne mimic ants that they hunt More Peckhamian mimicry

22 Lightning bugs (Lampiridae) have specific flash sequences to find eachother. Females of the genus Photurus can imitate the flash sequence of Photunis females in order to attract male wich they will devour. More Peckhamian mimicry

23 The fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) and the Venus Flytrap, (Dionaea muscipula) attract insects that they digest Peckhamian mimicry in carnivorous plants

24 Aposematic colouration: (maybe) Im poiseness Sea slugs of the genus The distasteful grasshopper Chromodoris Acripeza reticulata

25 More aposematic colours: (maybe) Im poiseness Warning colours in amphibians and insects

26 Beetles like the Staphylinidae (right) and Phosphaenus hemipterus (left) mimic scorpions that may scare predators. Signs of warning: (maybe) Im dangerous

27 Some planthoppers (Homoptera) mimic jumping spiders probably to avoid some predators, such as ants and even the jumping spiders Signs of warning: (maybe) Im dangerous

28 More signs of warning: (maybe) Im dangerous The false eye-spots in some species may frighten off or throw into disorder their predators Madoryx oiclus Polyphemus Moths Pleurodema thaul Papilio troilus Chaetodon captistratus

29 Some beetles mimic ants in order to be provided with food, shelter and protection Wasmannian mimicry Araeoschizus sp. Reichenbachia spatulifer

30 Camouflage The moth Datana sp. (Notodontidae) mimics the rain forest floor

31 The frog Paradoxophyla palmata mimics the mud and tree trunks in its environment. Camouflage

32 The insect Phyllium giganteum mimics a leaf to disguise itself Camouflage

33 The praying mantis Hymenopus coronatus uses its elegantly-lobed hind legs and pink and white coloration to camouflage itself amongst the native orchid flowers Camouflage

34 The pygmy seahorse Hippocampus bargibanti mimics gorgonian corals of the genus Muricella Camouflage

35 The starry flounder Platichthys stellatus makes use of melanophores and chromophores to adapt to the sea floor Camouflage

36 The great bittern Botaurus stellaris is pretty well camouflaged in its natural habitat Camouflage

37 The zebra Equus burchelli and the leopard Panthera Pardus may look conspicuous to us but are quite difficult to spot at dusk, especially when beïng colour-blind Camouflage

38 Egg-spots Among cichlids the males of maternal mouthbrooders wear egg-dummies on their anal fin that are crucial to mating

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