2 Various kinds of mimicry Batesian mimicry: resemblance of harmless species to some non-edible species that signals their unsuitability to possible predatorsMüllerian mimicry: resemblance of aposematic signals of different non-edible speciesPeckhamian mimicry: resemblance of predators’ messages to messages of some species, or to some objects, that are harmless to their preyWasmannian mimicry: occurs when the mimic resembles it's host in order to live within the same nest or structure
5 The toxic sea slug Phillidiella pustulosa (left) More Batesian mimicryThe toxic sea slug Phillidiella pustulosa (left)is mimicked by a harmless flatworm Pseudoceros imitatus
6 More Batesian mimicry The harmless Allobates zaparo (top) mimics the poisenessEpipedobates biliguis (middle)and the even more toxic speciesE. parvalus whenever these speciesshare their habitats
7 More Batesian mimicryThe venomous coral snake Micrurus fulvius and its non-venomous mimic the king snake Lampropeltis triangulum
8 More Batesian mimicryThe viceroy butterfly Limenitis archippus (left) has evolved to mimic and look like the foul-tasting and poisonous monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus
9 More Batesian mimicryThe filefish Canthigaster valentini (left) mimics the unpalatable puffer Paraluterus prionurus
10 More Batesian mimicryThe Harlequin Snake eel (Myrichthys colubrinus) mimics the Banded sea snake (Laticauda colubrina) an extremely toxic species with conspicuous black and white warning colouration
11 More Batesian mimicryThe mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) has the ability to mimic other aquatic creatures in order to avoid predation
12 Müllerian mimicryMany stinging wasps, like (from left to right) Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica and Vespula rufa share the same or similar black and yellow aposematic colour pattern.
13 Müllerian mimicry Subspecies of Heliconius erato (left-hand column) and ofH. melpomene on the right.Both species are toxic and forma local mimicry ring from a differentarea of Ecuador or northern Peru
14 Müllerian mimicryThe unpalatable soldier beetles (Cantharidae) mimic the distateful lycid beetles (Lycidae) and, when flying, the wasp
15 More Müllerian mimicry Unpalatable caterpillors of St. Jacobbutterfly mimic stinging wasps and venomous coral snakes
16 The use of black and yellow as a warning sign (RESEMBLING POISENESS SPECIES)
17 Peckhamian mimicryThis anglar fish (Antenarius sp.) displays a lure resembling a small fish
18 In its mouth, the Alligator snapping turtle (Macroclemys temminckii) Peckhamian mimicryIn its mouth, the Alligator snapping turtle (Macroclemys temminckii)possesses a wormlike projection that is moved to attract prey into the turtle’s mouth
19 More Peckhamian mimicry The orchard spiders (Celaenia sp.) mimic bird droppings to look unappatising and attract moths by scent
20 More Peckhamian mimicry The bolas spider Mastophora hutchinsoni emits chemical attractants that mimic the sex pheromones of its moth prey
21 More Peckhamian mimicry Some spiders like the Synemosyninae and the genus Myrmarachne mimic ants that they hunt
22 More Peckhamian mimicry Lightning bugs (Lampiridae) have specific flash sequences to find eachother. Females of the genus Photurus can imitate the flash sequence of Photunis females in order to attract male wich they will devour .
23 Peckhamian mimicry in carnivorous plants The fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) and the Venus Flytrap, (Dionaea muscipula) attract insects that they digest
24 Aposematic colouration: (maybe) I’m poiseness Sea slugs of the genus The distasteful grasshopperChromodoris Acripeza reticulata
25 More aposematic colours: (maybe) I’m poiseness Warning colours in amphibians and insects
26 Signs of warning: (maybe) I’m dangerous Beetles like the Staphylinidae (right) and Phosphaenus hemipterus (left) mimic scorpions that may scare predators.
27 Signs of warning: (maybe) I’m dangerous Some planthoppers (Homoptera) mimic jumping spiders probably to avoid some predators, such as ants and even the jumping spiders
28 More signs of warning: (maybe) I’m dangerous Madoryx oiclusPolyphemus MothsPleurodema thaulPapilio troilusChaetodon captistratusThe false eye-spots in some species may frighten off or throw into disorder their predators
29 Reichenbachia spatulifer Wasmannian mimicryReichenbachia spatuliferAraeoschizus sp.Some beetles mimic ants in order to be provided with food, shelter and protection
30 The moth Datana sp. (Notodontidae) mimics the rain forest floor CamouflageThe moth Datana sp. (Notodontidae) mimics the rain forest floor
31 CamouflageThe frog Paradoxophyla palmata mimics the mud and tree trunks in its environment.
32 The insect Phyllium giganteum mimics a leaf to disguise itself CamouflageThe insect Phyllium giganteum mimics a leaf to disguise itself
33 CamouflageThe praying mantis Hymenopus coronatus uses its elegantly-lobed hind legs and pink and white coloration to camouflage itself amongst the native orchid flowers
34 CamouflageThe pygmy seahorse Hippocampus bargibanti mimics gorgonian corals of the genus Muricella
35 CamouflageThe starry flounder Platichthys stellatus makes use of melanophores and chromophores to adapt to the sea floor
36 CamouflageThe great bittern Botaurus stellaris is pretty well camouflaged in its natural habitat
37 CamouflageThe zebra Equus burchelli and the leopard Panthera Pardus may look conspicuous to us but are quite difficult to spot at dusk, especially when beïng “colour-blind”
38 Egg-spotsAmong cichlids the males of maternal mouthbrooders wear “egg-dummies” on their anal fin that are crucial to mating
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