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PÉTERDI, Bálint; BENDŐ, Zsolt; SZAKMÁNY, György; KASZTOVSZKY, Zsolt: Possible sources of nephrite artefacts found on Hungarian archaeological sites (preliminary.

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Presentation on theme: "PÉTERDI, Bálint; BENDŐ, Zsolt; SZAKMÁNY, György; KASZTOVSZKY, Zsolt: Possible sources of nephrite artefacts found on Hungarian archaeological sites (preliminary."— Presentation transcript:

1 PÉTERDI, Bálint; BENDŐ, Zsolt; SZAKMÁNY, György; KASZTOVSZKY, Zsolt: Possible sources of nephrite artefacts found on Hungarian archaeological sites (preliminary results)

2 Nephrite artefacts from Hungarian sites Cca. 25 pcs. 10 pcs.

3 Nephrite artefacts from Hungarian sites Cca. 25 pcs. 10 pcs.

4 Nephrite artefacts from Hungarian sites Cca. 25 pcs. 10 pcs.

5 Nephrite artefacts from Hungarian sites Cca. 25 pcs. 10 pcs.

6 Nephrite artefacts from Hungarian sites Cca. 25 pcs. 10 pcs.

7 Nephrite artefacts from Hungarian sites Cca. 25 pcs. 10 pcs.

8 Classification according to nephrite formational types (based on bulk rock chemistry, measured with PGAA)

9 Microscopic features (fabric, enclosed minerals, measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” ) Type 1: „pure” tremolite-nephrite with minor magnetite, limonite, ± ilmenite, ± pseudomorphs after pyroxenes

10 Microscopic features (fabric, enclosed minerals, measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” ) Type 1: „pure” tremolite-nephrite with minor magnetite, limonite, ± ilmenite, ± pseudomorphs after pyroxenes

11 Microscopic features (fabric, enclosed minerals, measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” ) Type 2: „pure” actinolite-nephrite with minor magnetite, limonite, ± ilmenite Type 3: „pure” nephrite (act + trem) with minor chlorite, ± pseudomorphs after pyroxenes

12 Microscopic features (fabric, enclosed minerals, measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” ) Type 4: actinolite-nephrite with chlorite, relict clinopyroxenes (diopside), pseudomorphs after pyroxenes, spinel (chromite), garnet (grossular), (magnetite, limonite, ± apatite, ± titanite)

13 Microscopic features (fabric, enclosed minerals, measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” ) Type 4: actinolite-nephrite with chlorite, relict clinopyroxenes (diopside), pseudomorphs after pyroxenes, spinel (chromite), garnet (grossular), (magnetite, limonite, ± apatite, ± titanite)

14 Microscopic features (fabric, enclosed minerals, measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” ) Type 5: nephrite (tremolite ± aktinolite) with chlorite, relict clinopyroxenes, spinel (chromite), but without garnet

15 Microscopic features (main amphibol type, measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” )

16 Nephrite sources in Europe

17 Nephrite sources with detailed descriptions and/or chemical data (Switzerland, boundaries of the Bohemian Massif

18 Nephrite sources with detailed descriptions and/or chemical data (Switzerland, boundaries of the Bohemian Massif 8Cuolms Colour:dark green Fabric (microscopic fabric): compact fabric Geochemical data:+ Formation type:S Main amphibol type:A Associated and enclosed minerals: magnetite (isolated) References:Dietrich and de Quervain 1968

19 Nephrite sources with detailed descriptions and/or chemical data (Switzerland, boundaries of the Bohemian Massif 14Mühlen (Mulegns) Colour:1: dark green 2: light green, white 3: spring-onion green to pistachio green Fabric (microscopic fabric): 1: foliated (parallely fibrous) 2: parallely fibrous (parallely fibrous) 3: extremely foliated with lamellar jointing Geochemical data:+ Formation type:S Main amphibol type:A Associated and enclosed minerals: chlorite, magnetite, picotite, green garnet (epidote, calcite) References:Welter 1911; Dietrich and de Quervain 1968; Giess 2003

20 Nephrite sources with detailed descriptions and/or chemical data (Switzerland, boundaries of the Bohemian Massif 16Salux (Salouf) Colour:dark green Fabric (microscopic fabric): compact fabric / foliated (parallely fibrous, very tough) Geochemical data:+ Formation type:S Main amphibol type: Associated and enclosed minerals: yellowish-green garnet, picotite, chlorite, magnetite (isolated pathes) References:Welter 1911

21 Nephrite sources with detailed descriptions and/or chemical data (Switzerland, boundaries of the Bohemian Massif 25Schwarzenbach an der Saale Colour:green Fabric (microscopic fabric): fibrous Geochemical data:+ Formation type:S Main amphibol type:A Associated and enclosed minerals: „hornblende”, chlorite, magnetite, leucoxene References:Welter 1911

22 Nephrite sources with detailed descriptions and/or chemical data (Switzerland, boundaries of the Bohemian Massif 26Jordanów (Jordansmühl in Schlesien) Colour:white, greenish-creamy, bright green (light green) to dark green, greyish-blue, blue, pink Fabric (microscopic fabric): compact fabric or foliated or schistose (typical non-directional, fibrous, parallely fibrous) Geochemical data:+ Formation type:S Main amphibol type:T Associated and enclosed minerals: 1: pure nephrite 2: pseudomorphs after pyroxene 3: diopside, chlorite (common) 4: grossular, hydrogrossular, prehnite, antigorite, Cr-spinel, titanite, apatite, monacite, zircon References:Traube 1885a, 1885b; Sachs 1902; Gunia 2000; Mazur et al. 2006; Gil 2013

23 Nephrite sources with detailed descriptions and/or chemical data (Switzerland, boundaries of the Bohemian Massif 27Złoty Stok (Reichenstein in Schlesien) Colour:bright green (light green) to dark green, greyish-green Fabric (microscopic fabric): compact fabric or fibrous or layered (typical non-directional, fibrous, parallely fibrous) Geochemical data:+ Formation type:S Main amphibol type:A (T) Associated and enclosed minerals: diopside, löllingite, magnetite, carbonate, quartz, apatite, scheelite, unspecified serpentine, arsenopyrite, gold References:Traube 1887; Gunia 2000; Gil 2013

24 Nephrite sources in Europe ?

25 Classification according to nephrite formational types, comparing artefacts with possible sources (based on bulk rock chemistry, from reference data and new PGAA data)

26 Microscopic features (main amphibol type, comparing artefacts with possible sources measured with non-destructive SEM-EDX, the „original surface method” and also EPMA for the geological sources)

27 Most probable sources (preliminary results) TypeProbable source Type 1: „pure” tremolite-nephrite with minor magnetite, limonite, ± ilmenite, ± pseudomorphs after pyroxenes Jordanów (Jordansmühl in Schlesien) (Lower Silesia, Poland) Type 2: „pure” actinolite-nephrite with minor magnetite, limonite, ± ilmenite Cuolms ? (Oberhalbstein (Alpi di Platta), Switzerland) Type 3: „pure” nephrite (act + trem) with minor chlorite, ± pseudomorphs after pyroxenes ??? (Jordanów?) Type 4: actinolite-nephrite with chlorite, relict clinopyroxenes (diopside), pseudomorphs after pyroxenes, spinel (chromite), garnet (grossular), (magnetite, limonite, ± apatite, ± titanite) Val da Faller (Faller valley): Mühlen (Mulegns), Forschella-peak, Sblocs (Oberhalbstein (Alpi di Platta), Switzerland) Salux? (Oberhalbstein (Alpi di Platta), Switzerland) Type 5: nephrite (tremolite ± aktinolite) with chlorite, relict clinopyroxenes, spinel (chromite), but without garnet ??? (Crap Farreras?) (Oberhalbstein (Alpi di Platta), Switzerland)

28 Most probable sources (preliminary results) Jordanów Oberhalbstein Mur-river?

29 Acknowledgements We are indebted to the archaeologists for affording us the opportunity to study the artefacts ( especially for Katalin T. Biró, Tünde Horváth, Erzsébet Nagy, Szilvia Honti, Péter Németh, Judit P. Barna, Csilla Száraz, László Hotváth, Judit Regenye, Marcella Nagy, Ádám Kőszegi, Gábor Ilon, Gyula Kerékgyártó, Ernő Wolf ). We want to thank the colleagues and others for helping us in our work in many ways ( especially for Veronika Szilágyi, Katalin Gméling, Boglárka Maróti, Ágnes Veres, Emma P. Szabó, Zoltán Lantos, Péter Papp ). We are grateful to all the scientists, whose works were used as reference ( Belgya T., Bendő Zs., Bradák B., Cheng H.S., Cholewa P., D’Amico C., De Quervain F., Dietrich V., Dobosi G., Foltyn E. M., Foltyn E., Friedel O., Füri J., Gan F.X., Gasparotto G., Ghedini M., Giess H., Gunia P., Heierli J., Horváth T., Jochemczyk L., Józsa S., Judik K., Kalkowsky E., Kasztovszky Zs., Kis Z., Kostov, R.I., Kovář J.J., Kuča M., Majerowicz A., Meyer A.B., Molnár M., Péterdi B., Preiswerk H., Přichystal A., Révay Zs., Sachs A., Schmidt C., Schneider A., Skoczylas J., Starnini E., S. Svingor É., Staub R., Szakmány Gy., Szentmiklósi L., Szilágyi V., Szolgay Zs., T. Biró K., Traube H., Welter O.A., Wojciechowski W., Wojcik A., Zentai L., Zhang Z.W. ) Special thanks go to the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund OTKA Grant No. K and K for their financial support.

30 Thank you for your attention!


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