Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

系統分類與演化 2009 演化部份 Lecturer: Keryea Soong 宋克義 Tel: 5109, 海 A3029, Class: Tuesday 0900:1200, Office hour: 4:00- 5:00 weekdays- or.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "系統分類與演化 2009 演化部份 Lecturer: Keryea Soong 宋克義 Tel: 5109, 海 A3029, Class: Tuesday 0900:1200, Office hour: 4:00- 5:00 weekdays- or."— Presentation transcript:

1 系統分類與演化 2009 演化部份 Lecturer: Keryea Soong 宋克義 Tel: 5109, 海 A3029, Class: Tuesday 0900:1200, Office hour: 4:00- 5:00 weekdays- or by appointment Textbook: Evolution, 4th Edition, Strickerberg’s, The Integration of genes, organisms and populations, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 國內 代理 : 藝軒 Grade: frequent tests (~once a week, 70%), plus 2 writing projects (30%)

2 Tentative schedule 9 月 15 日 Introduction, What is Science? 9 月 22 日 Chap 2 9 月 29 日 Chap 3 Due: your research-scientific perspective (1 page) 10 月 6 日 Chap 4, 5, 6 10 月 13 日 Chap 4, 5, 6 10 月 20 日 Chap 7, 8 10 月 27 日 Chap 9 11 月 3 日 Chap 月 10 日 Chap 月 17 日 Chap 月 24 日 Chap 月 1 日 Chap 21 Due: your research- evolutionary perspective (>600 words) 12 月 8 日 Chap 月 15 日 Chap 月 22 日 Chap 月 29 日 Chap 15, 16 1月5日1月5日 Chap 25 1 月 12 日 Final, Final version of term paper due

3 9 月 29 日 Due: your research-scientific perspective (1 page) 10 月 27 日 Due: final version of above 12 月 1 日 Due: your research- evolutionary perspective (>600 words) 1 月 12 日 Due:Final version of term paper (evolutionary perspective) due

4 What is a more serious mistake in the field of science? Described something incorrectly (observation is wrong) Asked a tough question that cannot be answered (question is wrong) Used a wrong tool thus did not find a phenomenon that really exists (tool is wrong) Made a hypothesis or explanation that turns out to be wrong (theory is wrong)

5 What is science, or scientific methods 1. Observation 2. Ask a question 3. Formulate Hypotheses 4. Test of hypotheses 5. Theory, or go back to 1, 2,3,

6 Observation Principle: be objective; Practical: reproducible, replication, numerate How to improve objectivity of this observation? e.g., pretty girls, handsome man (Beauty is in the eyes of the beholders)( 詳見 : 科學發展月刊 2006 年 2 月號 ) Reproducible (Scientists are not interested in irreproducible phenomena which might well be true phenomena). UFO, for example, is difficult to study scientifically. E.g. Huang’s stem cell study (irreproducible, false replication, down-right cheating)

7

8

9

10

11

12

13 What is your observation?

14 Observation-2 Quantify is a way to achieve objectivity. There are more pretty girls in Taipei. There are more girls with short skirt in Taipei. There are more girls with skirt 10 cm above knees. There are 55% more girls with skirt 10 cm above knees. How to study beauty scientifically? Q:The sea is blue (how to quantify?)

15

16

17

18 Questions questions in biology: Ultimate factors and proximate factors. 1.Seasonal emergence of centipedes 2.How come there were no BD in Green Island? 3. How come BD is not species specific? 4.How come its color is “black”? 5.How to control the disease? 6.What kinds of reefs is more likely to be affected?

19 What is a more important question?

20 Hypothesis Principle: falsifiable; Practical: how to formulate one? alternative hypothesis. {e.g., Why (How) is the sea blue? What is an unfalsifiable hypothesis? e.g., God created every thing. Tough guys never cry. If two species occupy the same niche, they won't be able to coexist. List as many reasonable, falsifiable hypothesis as possible (The truth is more likely to be included.)

21 Testing Principle: distinguish various hypotheses. Practical: test the assumptions, or test the predictions (Darwin was among the first to use this approach, e.g. prediction of "gravity"; assumption of "biorhythm vs. cycle"). Would you choose to prove or to disprove? Significant results or no-significant results, which is a better evidence? Statistics: What is an independent observation? E.g.:A bucket of the sea.

22 Theory What is a scientific theory; probability of truth. Is Gravity an observation, a hypothesis, a theory or a truth? What has science PROVEN?


Download ppt "系統分類與演化 2009 演化部份 Lecturer: Keryea Soong 宋克義 Tel: 5109, 海 A3029, Class: Tuesday 0900:1200, Office hour: 4:00- 5:00 weekdays- or."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google