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Y11 Geography 1 Managing change in shanty towns Case study: Kibera in Kenya.

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Presentation on theme: "Y11 Geography 1 Managing change in shanty towns Case study: Kibera in Kenya."— Presentation transcript:

1 Y11 Geography 1 Managing change in shanty towns Case study: Kibera in Kenya

2 2 If you want to see what it is like… Look at the PP: Y11GeUB6.4 Kibera PPwk4.pptY11GeUB6.4 Kibera PPwk4.ppt On n+environments n+environments And also geography.wikispaces.com/6.6+All+about+Sh anty+townshttp://ih-igcse- geography.wikispaces.com/6.6+All+about+Sh anty+towns Especially the video under this heading: Watch this - it is pretty upsetting - so be warned:

3 3 But also knowing about what its like … You need to know how people, organisations, governments are trying change things – managing* to raise the development** of the whole area. to act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. *To manage = to act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. **raise the development = improve the standard of living (money) and the quality of life from these places

4 4 So what are the problems that arise from rapid urbanisation ( the problems of LIC shanties in particular)

5 5 Often projects impact on more than one area For example, if you improve training and educations, then people are able to get jobs and so are not reliant on criminal activity If you tackle sanitation, then the clear water issues are reduced and health issue too are better – if you tackle any one of these 3, then often the others are helped too. If you improve housing, then this often brings work and training. This can mean improved roads/transport too

6 6 Well most of you had a go – how did you do? Some of you spoke about what should be done. Some of you said what was being done but used phrases like some churches Neither of these contained incorrect ideas, but when we are collecting ammunition for a case study, these ones are not going to get you 9/9 on the last part question. Lots of you did find real examples of managers that were improving lives and living standards of people in Kibera. But some of those gave themselves too high a mountain to climb. But I am really sorry I could not include more examples. Some I missed out as there was more than one person who covered an idea – some of your presentations did not show up well once the classroom program had chewed them up – Zoe in particular – hers has been turned into a PP for view on the wiki, where you can see it easily. At most you will have 3 lines to write on for each method, so make sure you know the basic facts and stick to them. 1. Which group or organisation are doing it? 2. What problem are they trying to overcome? 3. How are they doing it?

7 7 The ONLY stated example they give in the syllabus is …. What is known as self-help housing (by Edexcel) but is also called site-and-services schemes This has been tried in a number of places and was very popular about 20 years ago, but has not really been tried in Kibera. But they did in Mathare, another Niarobi shanty. The idea was generally not taken up as too few plots were provided compared with the people on the list, and it was all too slow. Rebecca Williams found out about this:

8 8 There is also a Sites and Services Scheme. People living in shanty towns have to put their names down to get into the scheme. If they got through, they had to attend evening construction classes. If they did this they were given a plot of land to rent and materials to build a family home. The land was also connected to running water, electricity and a sewerage. Many people now live in much better housing. This scheme also helps with their skills training. Mathare, Niarobi By Rebecca Williams

9 9 But there is one big housing scheme in Kibera, growing as we speak The contribution below was Callum Reeces and Craig Cumming but was also mentioned by: Lucia Baker Loy Heaton and Zoe Beer

10 10 Housing by Callum Reece In the first year of the 15-year project, 770 families will move into new blocks of flats which will not only have running water, indoor shower and toilet facilities but also electricity. The new buildings are expected to bring to an end the existence of Kibera slums – the largest in East and Central Africa, with a population of close to half-a-million people. Kibera was chosen as the pilot project because of its huge size and large population. The slum covers 235 hectares. Under the proposed project, residents will be able to access water, sanitation, education, health and security services besides securing employment and engaging in income generating activities. Supplementary funding will be provided to build eight extra blocks of flats estimated to cost Sh400 million, the President said. He appealed to well-wishers for more money to help the country meet its Millennium Development Goals of improving the livelihood of those living in slums. He said Kenya faced a housing shortage of 150,000 units annually, up from 60,000 in the 1980s. Lands and Housing minister Amos Kimunya said the Government planned to built 150,000 housing units in urban areas and 300,000 in rural areas annually. Forty five thousands of these units will be in slums.

11 11 Old housing conditions

12 12 New housing conditions By Craig Cumming

13 13 Kenya slum upgrade project (KENSUP) The main objective of the programme is to improve the livelihoods of people living and working in slums and informal settlements in urban areas in Kenya. The Master Plan to be agreed on by all residents and other stakeholders – for ownership.

14 14 Kenya slum upgrade project (KENSUP) The new democratic Kenyan government in partnership with the UN Human Settlements Programme have 15 year housing project which aims to re- house many of the one million plus residents of Kibera in the Kenyan capital of Nairobi. So far they have built 600 two bedroom flats with electricity and running water, homes for 1,500 families. In preparation for the residents to afford this change many of them had set up co-operatives to aid savings which has been successful. This is a much needed development for the cramped residents of Kibera, who have an estimated 37 square feet per person. This will overcome many of the current problems of the slum dweller such as overcrowding, safety and disease due to unacceptable living conditions. Once the residents move into their new accommodation, then the old slums will be pulled down and new flats built in their place. They intend to do this in phases until the all of the old accommodation is replaced. This is being met with some resistance from the current landlords, who complain they will lose out on income. There may be problems though as the new flats are $10 a month in rent in comparison to the $1 dollar a day the slum dwellers are used to living on, so it may prove too expensive for some but overall it is a welcomed development for the slum dwellers.

15 15 There was one other example of raising standards in housing By William Mars Several charities such as Practical Action, a British charity has developed low cost roofing tiles made from sand and clay. They also ass lime and natural fibres to soil to create blocks for building houses which are cheaper then concrete. These building materials allow a lot of people to build safe and stable homes without having to spend a lot

16 16 Roads: by Loy There are no real roads in the slums of Kibera. By real, we mean there are no paved roads. And as you can see, there are plenty of spaces for the government to begin building roads! (Sarcasm =_=) Along with the movement scheme that is focused on the housing problems of Kibera, the government is clearing and knocking down the houses in the slums, thus providing space to possibly build roads for the new apartment buildings. However, the ground that the shanty houses once stood on is un even and very dirty. As the wet mud is full of rubbish and all sorts of trash.

17 17 The next big group Water, health and sanitation: On the health side, several of you mentioned February 14 th 2011 as being an important day: Alesha wrote: Kenya introduced a new vaccine to prevent children getting the most deadly sort of pneumonia. And Kibera is full of people working under difficult circumstances to improve peoples lives. The Kenyan government have been getting the word out that theres a new vaccine which protects against pneumonia. Added to the existing immunization schedule, the new vaccine has not made a huge difference to the clinics workload, so in doing this there is not a huge amount of new jobs being formed. But for children who live in Kibera, that is a different story.

18 18 Water Contributions were made by Callum Preece, Craig Cumming, Rebecca Williams, Lucia Baker, William Mars, Alesha Stevens,

19 19 Improving water In Kibera by Ellis Ware The state of water in Kibera has been, and still is, terrible. Water, up until recently, has never been supplied legally to the community. To obtain water, certain groups or individuals from the slums often take a pipe of some form and link it to the countries water supply. This is illegal, but a lifeline for many. The water that flows through the makeshift pipe is then sold to those in the area. However, the water is very unsafe. The hoses and pipes used to do this are often damaged and lay over the filthy open sewers and waste in the streets. The faulty pipes allow the filth to creep into the water and actually contribute to the water-caused illnesses. To try and improve the dire situation in the slum, the Kenya Water for Health Organisation (KWAHO) project has been installed. KWAHO aims To provide clean, safe water within reasonable distance and to improve the communitys living standards by providing proper sanitation with a view to reducing waterborne diseases.

20 20 Progress of the KWAHO project by Ellis Direct quotes from the KWAHO website: The project is in its 2nd year and so far 3 water tanks of 10,000 liters have been installed, one of them being at Makina Baptist School. The remaining two are located in Kisumu Ndogo village and are managed by Darajani Women Group and Kisumu Ndogo Usafi na Maendeleo Group (partner CBOs) respectively. In addition to the water points the project has helped the community to construct 2 VIP latrines of 4 doors managed commercially by the two CBOs. First water tank: The water point (tank) was officially inaugurated as a water vending point in March 2004 by WaterCan Executive Director from Canada. The 6,000- litre tank is situated on the eastern side of Kisumu Ndogo village and it serves more than 2,000 people in the neighborhood. The initial survey and connection of water to the tank was done by the Nairobi City Council. (on right)

21 21 Progress of the KWAHO project by Ellis First VIP Latrine: The four doors VIP Latrine has been in use by the public since July It has a 250L storage tank on top of the roof and the water is used for hand washing and cleaning the latrine. Latrine users association charges a fee of Ksh 2 per visit to the facility. The group also has a provision for monthly clients who pay according to the number of members of their family. The day to day management/supervision of the running of the latrine is under an attendant who presents reports to the latrine users committee on daily basis. An attendant receives cash, issues receipts to the clients and encourages/explains to them the importance of washing hands regularly. She records and reconciles the revenues collected every morning and evening.

22 22 SODIS: Solar Water Disinfection, to enhance the communitys access to safe drinking water. You need a plastic bottle and some water, you then place the water filled bottle in the sun and this treats the contaminated water. Until recently Kibera had no water and it had to be collected from the Nairobi Dam. The dam water is not clean and causes typhoid and cholera. Now there are two mains water pipes into Kibera, one from the municipal council and one from the World Bank. The residence would collect the water. These are normal plastic bottles that they put on the roofs of their houses to allow to sun to get to the bottles. Not just getting the water but having clean water – cheap system that uses appropriate technology By Lucia Baker SODIS is sponsored by KHAHO too

23 23 This great idea was put together by Martina Nee who is Swedish, she also works with some other Swedish people. The concept of this is... Gather your waste into the peepoople bag above follow the instructions. Then, you can use it as a fertilizer to grow better crops! Go to this website to learn more. By Lucia Baker

24 24 Sanitation by Jack Since 1998, AMREF has been working to improve health standards in two regions of Kibera - Laini Saba and Mashimoni. AMREF have funded the construction of a clinic in Laini Saba and are working to reduce levels of disease by improving sanitation and providing education and medical treatment. Until recently Kibera had no water and it had to be collected from the Nairobi dam. The dam water is not clean and causes typhoid and cholera. Now there are two mains water pipes into Kibera, one from the municipal council and one from the World Bank. Residents collect water at Ksh 3 (their currency) per 20 litres.

25 25 The Tabitha Clinic sprouted from the dreams of Tabitha Festo. A resident of Kibera and a widowed mother of three, Tabitha was given$26 to start a vegetable selling business. The money she earned would go to found a clinic in her own home. Because Kibera lacks basic services, like sanitation and sewage, the slums 700,000 residents suffer from many infectious diseases and of the population have HIV/AIDS. However there is a severe shortage of health services. Meanwhile Tabitha Medical Centre provides healthcare to 20,000 Kibera residents. By Rosalie

26 26 After 6 months, with over $130 in savings, Tabitha started a medical clinic, which had been her lifelong dream. Under Tabithas guidance and management, services and staff expanded to include a laboratory and a home-based care program for people living with HIV/AIDS. Specialising in maternal health, the clinic became one of the few to offer in-patient and out-patient care services to residents twenty-four hours, seven days a week. After Tabithas untimely death in 2004, the clinic was named after her.

27 27 In 2009, after 2 years of fund raising, Carolina for Kibera (CFK, an American funded NGO) celebrated the official opening of Tabitha Health Clinic. The new clinic has solar-heated water tanks, an open air space, a waiting room and education area combined, intake and triage rooms, a childrens play area, 8 examination rooms, a better lab, a pharmacy and staff conference area.

28 28 Sanitation, Health Care and Water! By Rebekah Sanitation, Health Care and Water! By Rebekah Kibera, on the southern edge of Nairobi, is Africas largest slum with a population of 170,070 people. Residents of the slum do not have access to running water, sanitation, lighting, refuse collection or health facilities. The conditions of the slum i.e. over population and poverty make the residents vulnerable to diseases such as HIV and TB. Since 1998, AMREF has been working to improve health standards in two regions of Kibera - Laini Saba and Mashimoni. They have funded the construction of a clinic in Laini Saba and are working to reduce levels of disease by improving sanitation and providing education and medical treatment. AMREFs Key Objectives! =) -Improve access to essential health services, clean water, and sanitation for 97,000 residents -Reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kibera and use anti-retroviral medication to treat HIV-positive residents in their homes Kibera, on the southern edge of Nairobi, is Africas largest slum with a population of 170,070 people. Residents of the slum do not have access to running water, sanitation, lighting, refuse collection or health facilities. The conditions of the slum i.e. over population and poverty make the residents vulnerable to diseases such as HIV and TB. Since 1998, AMREF has been working to improve health standards in two regions of Kibera - Laini Saba and Mashimoni. They have funded the construction of a clinic in Laini Saba and are working to reduce levels of disease by improving sanitation and providing education and medical treatment. AMREFs Key Objectives! =) -Improve access to essential health services, clean water, and sanitation for 97,000 residents -Reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kibera and use anti-retroviral medication to treat HIV-positive residents in their homes

29 29 Sanitation, Health Care and Water! By Rebekah Sanitation, Health Care and Water! By Rebekah Key Achievements! -57 local labourers have been employed to build 323 latrines and 45 water points - helping to discourage the unhygienic custom of the flying toilet in which human waste is dumped on the ground in plastic bags. -The project has raised awareness about health, sanitation, and hygiene at thirty local schools. -Recruited community health workers and youth groups to hold regular clean-ups in residential areas. -Water and sanitation conditions have been improved, reducing diarrheal infections from 24% to 12% in a two-year period. Specialized medication has been supplied for 40 children living with HIV/AIDS. Key Achievements! -57 local labourers have been employed to build 323 latrines and 45 water points - helping to discourage the unhygienic custom of the flying toilet in which human waste is dumped on the ground in plastic bags. -The project has raised awareness about health, sanitation, and hygiene at thirty local schools. -Recruited community health workers and youth groups to hold regular clean-ups in residential areas. -Water and sanitation conditions have been improved, reducing diarrheal infections from 24% to 12% in a two-year period. Specialized medication has been supplied for 40 children living with HIV/AIDS.

30 30 The last group Education, training, jobs and financial help

31 31 Schools in Kibera Schools in Kibera have been virtually non-existent until recently. Many informal schools and many run by churches. Information directly quoted from wikipedia. Most education centres in Kibera are classified as informal. Some start as baby care centres, which later develop into schools. Most are not regulated by the government. Some of the notable schools are Olympic Primary School, one of the leading government schools in the country, Kibera Primary School (also called Old Kibera), as well as several church-owned and privately owned schools. Notable Secondary schools include PCEA Silanga High School, owned by the Presbyterian Church of East Africa, Raila Educational centre, and Olympic secondary School among others. There is also a vocational training centre, PCEA Emmanuel Technical Training Centre, offering self- employment skills to the residents.

32 32 They have now come up with Solar Power which is affordable. All you need is a Solar Panel which is a small carry-able panel, a re- chargeable battery and a lamp. This was brought by the charity Sunny Money. These solar power panels can cost around 1,800 – 7,500 shillings depending on how much energy you need. This is the solar panel that you can use to power a light bulb in your house.

33 33 The majority of people living in Kibera have no access to formal banking facilities. One solution is microfinance. Microfinance banking is a type of banking that is used by low-income people to provide the opportunity to become self-sufficient in providing themselves with loans and money. Financial Solutions by Zoe Beer Many people believe that entrepreneurship is the only solution to poverty in Kibera and microfinance groups help support this idea as they can offer the basis for ventures. However, often microfinance groups are used solely for the buying of food, paying school fees and buying other necessities that without the micro-finance group, they would be unable to purchase. Did you know 500 million people around the world have been benefited from micro financial activity?

34 34 Some microfinance groups are established by the individuals on their own whilst others have the support of international organizations. One microfinance group which is backed by international organization CARE is the Msingi Bora (Good Foundation).. They have; Weekly meeting where 23 members contribute 50 Kenyan shillings (32 British pence). The money contributed is put together so that members can take loans from it. Each member also contributes 20 Kenyan shillings (13 British Pence). This money is put together and the decision of how much money is given to who is based upon a lottery on names is picked out at random. They called it a merry-go-round

35 35 positive impact on the levels of education in Kibera since more children are able to receive an education and therefore are able to get better jobs and have a better future for themselves. Msingi Bora along with other microfinance groups also support other schemes and projects such as helping vulnerable children and other projects that help improve the standard of living in Kibera. Impacts of Microfinance in Kibera There is a common belief that bringing in banks is not the answer to poverty and financial problems in Kibera but supporting local informal microfinance groups is.

36 36 Some things you did not think about Carolina for Kibera (the NGO that funds the Tabitha Clinic) also is helping to create jobs. Trash is Cash (Swahili: Taka ni Pato) is one such. They collect the rubbish and sort it, and then produce new materials: they produce fuel bricks from card, paper and sawdust. From plastic, they make bags and other fashion items. Employed 55 youths and the women who make the plastic items. Food production: sack gardens – not enough space? Han The Kibera Youth Reform Group (kids who have been in trouble with the law) transformed this garbage site into an organic garden, which now supplies fresh food to local people.


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