2Today you will learn… What is a Running Record How to score a running recordCueing System: Meaning, Structure, Visual cuesHow to analyze miscuesUsing running records to plan instructionPrompts to help students become strategic readersEffective ways to incorporate running records into a balanced literacy program using Trophies and leveled readers
4What is Reading?“Reading is a meaning-based process, with readers bringing what they know and believe to what is presented in the text, and through that interaction creating an understanding.”Pennsylvania Literacy Framework
5NP Language Arts Philosophy NORTH PENN SCHOOL DISTRICTLANGUAGE ARTS PHILOSOPHYResearch in the field of literacy indicates that reading, writing, listening, viewing, and speaking areinterrelated skills used as the foundation for acquiring knowledge and communicating effectively.These skills empower students to explore the value of language and to develop their own uniquevoice. Students who have successfully engaged in learning the language arts will be informed,responsible and productive community members ready to assume a purposeful role in society.The North Penn School District believes…Students develop thinking skills through the language arts - reading, writing, listening, viewing, and speaking.Students use background knowledge, experiences, skills, and strategies to interact with text and construct meaning.Students grow personally, socially, and intellectually while learning the language arts.Student experience with the process of learning to read varies with each child, since this process is developmental.Students need to experience both traditional academic purposes and real world applications while exploring the language arts.Students achieve success in the language arts in a climate which partners school, family, and community.Students develop a lifelong appreciation and enjoyment of learning through the language arts.Source: Reading/Language Arts Curriculum Review Committee May 18, 2005
6Three Cueing System Meaning, Structure, Visual Young children need the following abilities to learn to read:The concept that print carries meaningThe ability to attend visually to the print and the distinctive features of printed textBasic concepts of print (directionality, spacing, letters, words, etc.)Special features of sound
7Readers Integrate Meaning, Structure, and Visual Cues Reading is an interactive process in which the reader uses information in the text (visual), and applies his/her knowledge of the world (meaning), and knowledge of the language (structure), to help determine author’s intended message.
8Relationship of the Three Cueing Systems of Reading STRUCTURESyntactic CuesWhat sounds right grammatically?MEANINGSemantic CuesWhat makes sense in context?VISUALGrapho-phonic CuesWhat looks right visually and sounds right phonetically?
9Cross-Checking Cues To Confirm a Response MeaningDoes this make sense?VisualDoes this look right?StructureCan we say it that way?Letter/ Sounds ExpectedWhat would you expect to see?
11Cross Checking Example TEXT: Yesterday, I walked the dog.Child: Yesterday, I was the dog.( Meaning: Does that make sense?)(Letter/sounds expected: What would you expect to see?)Child: Yesterday, I saw the dog.(Visual – Does that look right?)Child: Yesterday, I walk the dog.( Structure: Does it sound right?)
13The Three Cues and Decoding Any one area cannot exist in isolation from the others if meaning is to be emphasized.The interaction of the three cueing systems may occur so quickly as to appear simultaneous.Effective readers use the three cues interdependently.Ineffective readers tend to rely too heavily upon grapho-phonic cues.The objective of the teacher should be to encourage all children to integrate the three cueing systems.R. Routmann, Transitions
14Purposes of Running Records A Running Record Provides: Diagnostic information about how the reader is processing printAn indication of what a reader knows and can doAn accurate and objective description of what actually occurs during the course of readingA record of change over time through qualitative and quantitative informationInsights to help guide future instructionInformation to make informed decisions concerning instructional needs, grouping, reading levels, and appropriate level of materialsInformation for other teachers, administrators, parents, etc.
15Running Record Procedure 1. Choose a book or text. Do not have the child read the text prior to the running record ( “cold read”).2. Book IntroductionRead the title and talk about the coverProvide a general idea of the content of the textHave child do a “picture walk” through the book to set the stage for reading. Watch how the child uses this strategy independently to help her/himself read.3. Child reads unknown textWhy unknown text? Using an unknown text reveals the child’s ability to make meaning of new text and use that meaning to help integrate strategies independently when encountering difficult text.4. Teacher records all miscues5. After reading, the teacher analyzes the running record making inferences as to the child’s use of cues.
16Conventions Accurate Reading √ √ √ Substitution* went (child) want (text)Repetition R or √ √ RSelf-Correction (SC) went SCwant√
17Conventions Omission* very Insertion* little Told ( T)* thought T Appeal sometimes ATry That Again ( TTA) ( TTA)
18Running Record Scoring Guidelines Substitution Count as 1 errorMultiple attempts at a word Count as 1 errorOmission Count as 1 errorInsertion Count as 1 errorTolds Count as 1 errorRepeated error on a name Count as 1 errorRepetitions Not counted as errorSelf-corrections Not counted as error
19To Determine Accuracy Rate Subtract the number of errors from number of running words( all words in text except title)Divide the remainder by the number of running words. Round to nearest whole number.Example:71(Running words) – 5(errors)= 66 ;divide 66 by 71(Running words)Multiply by 100 = 93%Independent = 95% or aboveInstructional = 90=94 %Difficult = 89% or below
20Analyzing the Running Record MEANING CUE - SubstitutionsponiesText: I like to see horses at the farm.Analysis:There were pictures of horses and colts on the page. The intended message is almost the same. The substitution is not visually similar, but it is an acceptable language structure (noun). There is often an overlap of meaning and structural cues.Teacher prompt: Does that look right?
21Analyzing the Running Record VISUAL CUE – SubstitutionThe visual cues in text are simply what the letters and words look like. Does this substitution look like the word in the text?√ √ √ √ heres √ √ √Text: I like to see horses at the farm.Analysis: The substitution looks similar. It is not an acceptable English sentence. It does not make sense. There is no concern for meaning.Teacher prompt: Does that sound right?
22Analyzing the Running Record STRUCTURE CUEThe structure of the text (up to and including the substitution) should be acceptable English language construction. Does it sound right to say it this way?√ √ √ fly √ √ √ √Text: I like to see horses at the farm.Analysis: “ I like to fly…” is acceptable English language construction. It is not visually similar. It does not fit the meaning of the total text.Teacher prompt: Does that make sense?
23Analyzing the Running Record SELF-CORRECTIONIn analyzing a running record it is also important to determine what cues were being used when a self-correction was made.√ √ √ √ √ √ √ fair SCText: I like to see horses at the farm.Analysis: What cues do you think this child used to self-correct?
24Let’s Watch a Child Read Use the handout to identify the errors noted when viewing the first child read a sample from Angry Old Woman.Move clock to 30:00- 33:35 – example of Kindergarten
25Now It’s Your Turn…While viewing this video, use the text to mark the miscues of the child reading Houses.After viewing TURN and TALK to your neighbor. What did you learn about the child?Report out to the group.D:\VIDEO_TSTurn clock to 25:49- 29:45 or 33:35 – 37;17 ( louder)
26Resources For You To Use Teacher PromptsQuestions to Help Guide the Analysis of Running RecordsConventionsScoring GuidelinesRetelling formsReading Errors practice sheetTeaching for Strategies
27Points to RememberAuthentic assessment should result in improved, more effective teachingReaders must use meaning, structure, and visual cues and must learn to self-check.Independent readers integrate all three strategies.Analyzing a student’s errors helps a teacher give the student the support needed.Comprehension can be checked by retellings and reader response.Students with similar needs can work in a flex group.Using running records to help place your students in guided reading groups and to inform your instruction
28BibliographyGuided Reading: Good First Teaching for all Children, Gay Su Pinnell and Irene FountasObservation Survey, Marie ClayBecoming Literate, Marie ClayReading Recovery: A Guidebook for Teachers in Training, Marie ClayClassrooms That Work: They Can All Read and Write, PM Cunningham and R. AllingtonEarly Childhood Assessment Framework, Pennsylvania Department of Education