Presentation on theme: "Teachers agency and resistance in Bolivia Maria Luisa Talavera S. Universidad Mayor de San Andrés."— Presentation transcript:
Teachers agency and resistance in Bolivia Maria Luisa Talavera S. Universidad Mayor de San Andrés
1. Introduction The presentation draws from research outcomes on public education and teachers cultures in Bolivia.
2. Results Throughout the 20th century and since 1915 teachers needed to organize themselves for achieving working conditions for their profession.
Their organization was parallel to the first educational reform of the century Teachers needed to organize themselves because the State was weak to meet promises made to them in l908.
Chronology 1915, first teachers from Sucre Normal School organized in La Paz a league called Liga del magisterio 1925, the league was already national 1930, teachers were at the head of the National Council of Education and had autonomy to participate in school administration.
Teachers had participated in education policy making since l914 through the Dirección General de Instrucción in charge of school administration.
Teachers considered themselves as professionals School system was small then When education expanded, there were not enough educated teachers Expansion since 1955 was done by teachers without professional status.
Expansion of education beginning in l955 allowed teachers to gain professional recognition for their work (l955-1964) Military governments cut off teachers rights and changed teachers education at Normal Schools as well as school curricula (1964-1994).
Since l982 teachers fought for getting back their career rights written in the Bolivian Education Code of l955. The military governments had made changes in the Code In l994, the Education Reform Law revoked the Code of Education Teachers career rules were changed and they could no longer participate in policy making and implementation beyond their classrooms.
Structural adjustment measures applied in Bolivia since 1985 affected teachers economy and practice. Teachers fought for better payments and along 20 years they were usually striking.
3. Reflections By fighting for their rights since the beginning of 20th century teachers took part in the shaping of education policies In this context teachers learned how to deal with the State to make its promises become true.
Agency and resistance Teachers have not been passive actors in Bolivia. They fought for autonomy and for the right to participate in education policy Along the century they have resisted State policy when this affected their conquered rights.
4. A look to South America In this presentation I argue that in Latin America there is also a big gap between laws and practice Education laws do not mean they become practice Teachers have fought for laws to be applied.
5. Closing In Bolivia teachers agency was important for education development At fighting for recognition and for stable working conditions teachers contributed to the development of public school.
Paradoxically when teachers achieved their rights, those that gave stability and continuity to their work, the political context changed Teaching was no longer considered a professional work but something done by technicias… but their cultural tradition is participatory.
Thank you for your patient attention. I am willing to answer questions, now or later on!!!!