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Latest Advances in 802.11 and Wi-Fi Wednesday, June 20, 2007 Penn Club, New York Craig Mathias, Principal, Farpoint Group.

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Presentation on theme: "Latest Advances in 802.11 and Wi-Fi Wednesday, June 20, 2007 Penn Club, New York Craig Mathias, Principal, Farpoint Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Latest Advances in 802.11 and Wi-Fi Wednesday, June 20, 2007 Penn Club, New York Craig Mathias, Principal, Farpoint Group

2 © 2007 Gerson Lehrman Group Inc., All Rights Reserved Council Member Biography Craig Mathias is the Principal of Farpoint Group, a Massachusetts-based advisory company specializing in wireless networking and mobile computing. Farpoint Group works with both manufacturers and end-users in technology assessment, strategy development, product specification and design, product marketing, program management, education and training, and the integration of new technologies into new and existing business operations, across a broad range of markets and applications. Previously, Mr. Mathias was the Director of Corporate Development, at Stardent Computer (formerly Stellar Computer, and now Advanced Visual Systems), where he was responsible for new product specification and corporate strategy. He was Director, Marketing, at Stellar Computer, developer of the first graphics supercomputer. Craig was also a member of the founding management team at GRiD Systems Corp., developer of the first laptop computer, where he was responsible for the development and marketing of all communications, networking, and server products. Mr. Mathias is an experienced industry and technology analyst, and serves on the Advisory Boards of industry conferences. Mr. Mathias has authored articles on mobile and wireless topics, and is a columnist for Computerworld,, and

3 © 2007 Gerson Lehrman Group Inc., All Rights Reserved Table of Contents How WLANs fits in the wireless landscape Review of the 802.11 standard and Wi-Fi specification Technology and market adoption trends of 802.11n The debate over WLAN architecture

4 © 2007 Gerson Lehrman Group Inc., All Rights Reserved About GLG Institute GLG Institute (GLGi SM ) is a professional organization focused on educating business and investment professionals through in-person meetings. It is designed to revolutionize the professional education market by putting the power of programming into the hands of the GLG community. GLGi hosts hundreds of Seminars worldwide each year. GLGi clients receive two seats to all Seminars in all Practice Areas. GLGis website enables clients to: Propose Seminar topics, agenda items and locations View and RSVP to scheduled and proposed Seminars Receive a daily briefing with new posts on your favorite tickers, subject areas and from trusted Council Members Share Seminar details with colleagues or friends

5 © 2007 Gerson Lehrman Group Inc., All Rights Reserved Gerson Lehrman Group Contacts John Aronsohn Vice President Gerson Lehrman Group 850 Third Avenue, 9th Floor New York, NY 10022 212-750-1878 Christine Ruane Senior Product Manager Gerson Lehrman Group 850 Third Avenue, 9th Floor New York, NY 10022 212-984-8505

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7 Why Wireless? Mobile people with mobile computers need mobile networks Mobility = operational portability, not simply nomadic relocateability And only wireless can provide mobility Enabled by fundamental advances in technology Radio, power, manufacturing, software, … Continuing high level of innovation across the board Primary goal: Reduce, if not eliminate, the behavioral and performance differences between wireline and wireless Mobile broadband – triple play And based on IP

8 Where Wireless Wins: Three Primary Scenarios Where wire cant be installed (indoor and outdoor) Where wireless is cheaper (consider life-cycle costs) Where mobility is a factor – clients and infrastructure If at least one of these conditions is not satisfied, then use wire!

9 Wireless Replaces Wire? Increasingly, yes! Broadband implies not just more throughput, but also support for time-bounded traffic Throughput is a function of bandwidth (directly related to spectrum) Time-boundedness is a function of capacity Making wireless behave like wire Replacement? Wireless LANs – absolutely Wireless MANs and WANs – were getting there Improvements in mobile devices (subscriber units) and operating models Mobile enterprises have competitive and productivity advantages But radio can be, um, difficult…

10 Convergence… Source: Farpoint Group

11 WPANsWLANs WMANs WWANs UWB 802.15.3c Metro- Scale Wi-Fi Mobile WiMAX 802.20 IrDA Bluetooth 802.11/ Wi-Fi Proprietary WiMAX CDMA2000 GSM/UMTS Sensor Networks RFID Synchronization Serial/USB Headsets Location/Tracking Bridging Access Distribution Bypass Backhaul Voice Data Location/Tracking Telemetry Voice Data Messaging Media 802.15.4,4a Zigbee Sensing Telemetry Monitoring Control Near-Field Communi- cations <10M 1-4 Mbps <100M 20-100+ Mbps KM <75 Mbps KM 100 Kbps- 14.4 Mbps <10M <500 Mbps <100M <54 Mbps KM <75 Mbps The Big Picture…

12 The Most Important Wireless Technology of All: MIMO Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output Whats being inputted and outputted is the radio channel itself More than a multiple-antenna technology – significant signal processing More than simple antenna diversity and maximal-ratio combining Spatial multiplexing and beamforming Depends upon multipath! Initial application in WLANs – 802.11n Drop-in replacement (PC Card, Mini-PCI, ExpressCard, MiniCard) Eventual application in cellular and metro (e.g. WiMAX Wave 2, UMB, LTE) MISO and SIMO also possible Broadly influential – WiMAX and cellular Not related to ultra-wideband (UWB)

13 TransmitterReceiver MIMO Signal Processing (DSP+RF) MIMO Signal Processing (RF+DSP) Multipath Reflecting Object Source: Farpoint Group MIMO Example – 2T, 3R (2x3)

14 Introduction to Wireless LANs (WLANs) Identical in function to a wired LAN Began (1985-1991) as a low-throughput data radio for telemetry and data collection applications Good tolerance for latency Good range Broad horizontal market has materialized with the 802.11 standard Augmented (to say the least!) by Wi-Fi Growing towards ubiquity – no end in sight The default LAN access vehicle Clients are free; infrastructure is cheap

15 WLANs – Constituencies and Core Applications The Residence The Enterprise Public Spaces SOHO/Small Business Source: Farpoint Group

16 Benefits of Standards Warm, fuzzy feeling – complex technology becomes accessible to the technically unsophisticated Lower costs – thanks to VLSI, manufacturing economies of scale, and competition Interoperability – sometimes Required vs. optional specs Differing interpretations Standards Plus Trade associations (e.g., Wi-Fi Alliance, WiMAX Forum, WiMedia Alliance, 3GPP, 3GPP2) make up the difference

17 The IEEE 802.11 Standard Work began in 1991, initial 1-2 Mbps standard in 1997.11b/.11a in 1999.11g in 2003 Specifies single MAC/multiple PHYs Compatible with 802.2 logical link control (LLC) and 802.1 upper-layer standards Extensibility MAC includes power management, security, time- bounded performance, fragmentation – but airlink (Layer 2) only Unified WLAN technology and obsoleted other efforts (WLIF, HomeRF, HIPERLAN) Many required and optional features; complex Does not specify interoperability testing or compatibility

18 802.11 and the Protocol Stack Source: Farpoint Group

19 IEEE 802.11 – Current Activities Task Group TypeDescriptionStatus OriginalBothOriginal standard (97) – 1 and 2 Mbps, 2.4 GHz., FH, DS, and IR (IR never implemented) Complete aPHYUp to 54 Mbps in the 5+ GHz. bandComplete bPHYUp to 11 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz. bandComplete cMACMAC-layer BridgingComplete dPHYAdditional regulatory domains for.11bComplete eMACQuality-of-Service (QoS) improvementsComplete FMACInter-Access-Point Protocol (IAPP) (Recommended Practice) Complete gPHYUp to 54 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz. bandComplete hMACDynamic Frequency Selection/Transmit Power Control (DFS/TPC) for.11a Complete iMACSecurity enhancementsComplete jPHY4.9-5 GHz. regulatory issues for JapanComplete kMACRadio Resource MeasurementWorking Source: IEEE

20 IEEE 802.11 – Current Activities (contd) Task Group TypeDescriptionStatus mBothMaintenance and technical corrections to the original standard Working nBothPerformance >= 100 MbpsWorking pBothVehicular speeds (to 200 KPH, to 1000M, 5.85- 5.925 GHz.). AKA Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)/Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE) Working rMACFast Roaming – reducing latency during handoffs Working sMACMeshes (infrastructure and Client)Working TMACPerformance Prediction - BenchmarkingWorking uMACInterworking with External Networks (handoff)Working vMACNetwork ManagementWorking wMACManagement Frame (and other control functions) Security Working yPHYOperation in the 3650-3700 MHz. band (contention-based protocols) Working Source: IEEE

21 802.11 Study Groups and Standing Committees GroupTypeDescriptionStatus DLS?Direct Link Setup (station-to-station; extend DLS in.11e to work with non-DLS APs) Working QSE?Quality of Service EnhancementsWorking VHT?Very High Throughput (1 Gbps)Working VTS?Video Transport StreamsWorking WNG?Wireless LAN Next Generation Standing Committee (ETSI BRAN, MMAC) Working PublicityN/APublicity Standing CommitteeWorking Source: IEEE

22 The Wi-Fi Alliance A trade association, not a standards body But theres often a fine line… Originally the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) Primary objective is to certify interoperability (but not 802.11 compliance) for members And provide warm, fuzzy feeling for consumers New initiatives: Wi-Fi Zone (hot spots) WPA2 (802.11i) – includes AES WMM (Wi-Fi MultiMedia) – 802.11e; optional Joint project with CTIA on hard handoff Simple Config 802.11n certification VoFi testing

23 WLANs – Key Trends and Opportunities MIMO Dense Deployments Unified Architectures RFSM/SA Management and Assurance Scalability VoFi/ Convergence Location/ Tracking IEEE 802.11n To 300+ Mbps Structured Distribution Systems, Capacity, Wireline Unification Wired and Wireless Configuration Policies Monitoring Control Signal Strength Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) RF Spectrum Management/ Spectrum Assurance Growth Change Voice over IP over Wi-Fi (and video) Evolving and Future WLANs Security Source: Farpoint Group

24 802.11n The next-generation WLAN PHY (and MAC) Draft 2.0 standard approved, Final in 1Q09 Over 12,000 comments received on draft 1! Over 3,000 comments on Draft 2! (Draft 3 underway) Some pre-n/Draft n products available now Some will likely be software/firmware upgradeable Excellent performance – throughput and range – better g than g Interim Wi-Fi Alliance spec – 2Q07 Real products in 2H2007 We buy Wi-Fi, not 802.11 Gradual phase-out of 2.4 GHz. (b/g) products in enterprises Use triple-mode (a/b/g) clients in the interim.11n will work best in the 5 GHz. bands

25 Key Features of 802.11n More than 500 pages of additions and changes to the 802.11 standard itself (Draft 2.0) 6.5 - 600 Mbps raw throughput Based on MIMO/OFDM 1x1 to 4x4, with 2x3 most common initially Backwards compatible to.11a/g 20/40 MHz. channels More spectrum = more throughput Channel bonding used in some.11g/a products Possible interference in 2.5 GHz. band Only one 40-MHz. channel at 2.4 GHz. 400 and 800 ns. Guard Intervals PHY-layer rate adaptation – 77 modulation and coding schemes (MCSes) indicies To 600 Mbps using 40 MHz. channel, 4x4 MIMO, 5/6 coding rate, 108 data subcarriers, 2160 data bits per symbol Backwards compatibility and protection But there is no magic here… Keep in mind – theres a big difference between the standard and specific implementations…

26 802.11n Usage Models Greenfield vs. mixed mode (legacy 802.11 a/g and 802.11n) Channel assignments will be critical 802.11n at 5 GHz. The effects on the wired corporate LAN Two words: Gigabit Ethernet The promise of wireless triple-play networks Throughput, capacity, coverage, reliability Integration with future WWAN technologies - WiMAX and cellular Convergence is essential to the future of WWANs WWAN for coverage, WLAN for capacity

27 Will Wireless Replace Wire? Convenience Cost-effectiveness Guest access Location and tracking Mobility – all applications Limited spectrum Possible interference Bandwidth multiplication Interconnect Backhaul Servers Highest possible performance (Gig-E) Stationary equipment (printers, scanners, storage, etc.) Commonality in higher-level services

28 802.11n Market and User Expectations All major WLAN chip vendors are producing.11n chipsets Residential products very soon, enterprise products appearing now.11n clients as standard issue in notebooks.11n clients in handsets by 2009 Replacement of.11b/g/a by 2009 Phenomenal growth and acceptance No remaining barriers for the market or users The WLAN of choice for some time to come

29 Architectural Evolution The traditional AP does not make sense in the enterprise Too much state; too much management A totally thin AP may not be optimal, either… All traffic must go through the switch/controller The ideal solution may be to locate management and control planes in a server or appliance, and implement the data plane in the AP Some layer-2 security in the AP as well Distinct wireless switches will disappear as a category Unified architectures are coming

30 Unified (W)LANs - Background Enhancer/ Completer (Gateway) Management Appliance (optional) RF Probes Wireless LAN Switch (Layer 3) Thin Access Points IP Centralized (Switched) CiscoWorks (WLSE Express) Security Mobility Management Airespace (Cisco) Aruba Meru Siemens Trapeze Source: Farpoint Group

31 The Rise of the Unified Network Access Points WLAN Controllers Location Appliances WLAN Management Switches Routers LAN Management WiredWireless Source: Farpoint Group

32 Convergence Really two opportunities FMC – integrating wireline and wireless PBX integration at a minimum Likely to reduce landlines to just backhaul/interconnect MMC (Mobile/Mobile) – Integrating cellular and Wi-Fi (and possibly others, like UWB, Bluetooth, WiMAX, …) Multiple PHYs – no single radio can do it all Hard handoff Possible scenarios: Wireline carriers take the lead – MVNOs Wireless carriers see their destiny – core-network technology IMS, UMA The enterprise does it a la IP telephony (client and gateway, management software) Critical to the future of wireless operators Locking in the enterprise Displacing incumbent wireline providers

33 Enterprise-Centric Convergence A make vs. buy decision Capital equipment – thats more cost-effective than ever Keeps the enterprise in control Carrier-independent Security Management, monitoring, and control Application deployment strategy Enables simultaneous voice and data Available now – will be the most important option this year Issues Client devices Client software The business case

34 The Desktop of the Future… Looks like the desktop of the 1920s! An AC outlet, and nothing else! Lots of charging stands/batteries required… Automatic handoff between wide-area voice (CDMA/GSM) and VoFi And data services as well Fixed/Mobile and Mobile/Mobile convergence An opportunity for cellular operators to: Enhance their capacity in high-traffic areas without more expensive spectrum Displace wireline carriers in the enterprise

35 VoFi – Everywhere, All the Time Public Space Enterprise WWAN WLAN Source: Farpoint Group Two-way handoff of both voice and data connections… Gateway/ IP Centrex

36 The Future of WLANs Established technology, products, and markets – here to stay The LAN itself isnt going anywhere… No real challenge from WPANs, WMANs, or WWANs Much higher throughput – to perhaps 500+ Mbps And eventually 1 Gbps Major role for voice Position/location tracking as standard feature Great integration into both wired infrastructure and enterprise management Becomes, for many if not most, the default network connection – essentially everywhere!

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