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URBAN RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN: CASE STUDY OF THE CDEMA PARTICIPATING STATES 5 TH Caribbean Conference on Comprehensive Disaster Management CDM: Strengthening.

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Presentation on theme: "URBAN RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN: CASE STUDY OF THE CDEMA PARTICIPATING STATES 5 TH Caribbean Conference on Comprehensive Disaster Management CDM: Strengthening."— Presentation transcript:

1 URBAN RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN: CASE STUDY OF THE CDEMA PARTICIPATING STATES 5 TH Caribbean Conference on Comprehensive Disaster Management CDM: Strengthening Partnerships for Resilience Presented by: Dr. Virginia I. Clerveaux Senior Programme Officer Caribbean Disaster & Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA) December

2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE Overview of Urban Risk Overview of Urban Risk 1. Urbanization Trends 2. Increase focus of Urban Risk i. Centralization of DRM Capabilities in Cities ii. Economics & Infrastructural Concentration Risk Profile of CDEMA-PS Risk Profile of CDEMA-PS Multi-hazards vulnerability Location Size Historical Factors Climate Change Socio-economic Technological DRR in Urban Development DRR in Urban Development Way Forward Way Forward 1/16/2014 2

3 OVERVIEW OF URBAN RISK Population growth is predicted mainly to take place in cities and their urban landscapes. In in 4 persons will live in a city of 500,000 people; Urban growth will be more pronounce in the developing countries; Urban population in the Caribbean exceeds world average (Table 1). 1. Urbanization Trends Urbanization in Caribbean cities sometimes surpass develop countries e.g Japan. >20% of the population in the Caribbean resides in the capital city (Table 2)

4 URBANIZATION TRENDS Region or Areas Years (PERCENTAGES) World Total Less Developed Regions Africa Latin America Caribbean East Asia South Asia Oceania Table 1: Percentage Urban in World Regions & Areas

5 Table 2: Percentage Population Residing in CDEMA-PS Capital Cities CDEMA Participating States Total PopulationCapital CityTotal Population living in Capital Cities % of Population living in Capital city Jamaica2,702,000Kingston 666, Barbados 281,000 Bridgetown 80, Trinidad & Tobago1,333,000Port-of-Spain49, St. Vincent & the Grenadines 110,000Kingstown17,60016 Haiti9,876,402Port-au-Prince1,234, Dominica 72,000 Roseau 16, Montserrat5,097Plymouth Turks & Caicos Is.23,528Grand Turk3, Grenada106,000St. Georges7, Saint. Lucia 172,000 Castries 61, Guyana773,000Georgetown235, Suriname502,000Paramaribo223, Bahamas341,000Nassau227, Belize329,000Belmopan13, Antigua & Barbuda88,000St. Johns24, Anguilla14,436The Valley1, British Virgin Is.24,491Road Town St. Kitts & Nevis50,000Basseterre

6 W HY THE INCREASE FOCUS ON URBAN RISK ? Economic & Infrastructural Concentration Utilities companies Financial companies Public sector decision-making Communications Ports/airports Fuel storage Increase level of: vulnerability poverty Pollution Disease Unplanned settlements Centralization of DRM Capabilities in Cities NDO/NEOC National and regional DRM capabilities National and regional emergency wharehouses National emergency task forces headquarted in capitals Health services Security services Other critical response facilities

7 RISK PROFILE OF CDEMA-PS Vulnerability Factors: 1. Location I. Hurricane Belt (Figure 1) II. Seismically active Region (Figure 2) 2. Multi-hazard Exposure 3. Size 4. Climate Change 5. Socio-economic 6. Historical 7. Technological Risk

8 L OCATION WITHIN THE HURRICANE BELT F IGURE 1: T ROPICAL S TORMS AND H URRICANES A FFECTING C ARIBBEAN –

9 L OCATION WITHIN EARTHQUAKE & VOLCANIC REGION EarthquakeVolcano F IGURE 2: E ARTHQUAKE & V OLCANIC SOURCE IN THE C ARIBBEAN

10 M ULTI - HAZARD EXPOSURE CDEMA Participating States are Vulnerable to Multiple Hazards including: Hurricanes (All CDEMA participating States) Floods (All CDEMA participating States) Landslides (Most CDEMA participating States such as: Jamaica, Grenada, St. Vincent etc) Volcanoes (Montserrat, St. Vincent, Grenada etc) Tsunamis (All CDEMA participating States) Climate Change (All CDEMA participating States) Earthquake (Jamaica, St. Vincent, Trinidad etc) Drought (All CDEMA participating States) Storm Surge (All CDEMA participating States)

11 Table 2: Disaster Impact in Selected CDEMA Participating States: Disaster Impact Profile of CDEMA-PS

12 DISASTER STATISTICS FOR PARTICIPATING STATES

13 T REND IN HAZARD IMPACT IN URBAN CITIES IN CDEMA - PS YearCapital CityHazardImpact 2010Port-au-PrinceEarthquake222,570 deaths, 300, 572 injured, 2.3M displaced 2008Grand TurkHurricane80% houses damaged, $500m damages 2005GeorgetownFloods192,000 affected, 19 deaths, >$250m damages 2004St. GeorgesHurricane41 deaths, $800M damages 2007RoseauHurricane Significant damage to buildings 1999CastriesLandslide15 deaths, 500 displaced 1996Grand TurkHurricane10% housing stock, 15% utility poles destroyed 1995PlymouthVolcano2/3 displaced 1988Kingston Hurricane45 deaths 1979RoseauHurricane Significant damage to buildings 1961Belize CityHurricane 307 deaths, $60m damages, 40% buildings destroyed 1960CaribbeanTsunami

14 T REND IN HAZARD IMPACT IN URBAN CITIES IN CDEMA - PS CONTD. YearCapital CityHazardImpact 1948CastriesFire4/5 city destroyed, Significant damage to buildings, 2293 homeless 1927CastriesFire17 blocks destroyed, Significant damage to buildings 1907KingstonEarthquake/ Fire over 800 deaths, >$3m in damages 1842Port-au-Prince/ Santo Domingo Earthquake 1813CastriesFireDamage on the entire island, destruction in Port-de-Paix, Morel Saint Nicolas and Santiago, killed tsunamis. 1796CastriesFireSignificant damage to buildings 1770Port-au-Prince & Santo Domingo EarthquakeSignificant damage to buildings 1751Port-au-PrinceEarthquake

15 Grenada - Hurricane Lenny, 1999 Dominica Earthquake, 2004 D ISASTER E XPERIENCES IN CDEMA P ARTICIPATING S TATES 15 Palmiste, Grenada – Hurricane Lenny, 1999 Volcanic Eruption, Montserrat

16 I MPACT OF HAZARDS ON C APITAL C ITIES IN CDEMA-PS Hurricane Ike TCI-2008 Haiti Earthquake-2010 Fire/Earthquake Jamaica-1907 Hurricane –Tomas Saint Lucia-2010

17 I MPACT OF HAZARDS ON C APITAL C ITIES IN CDEMA-PS Hurricane Tomas, SVG-2010Hurricane Richard, Belize-2010 Flooding Guyana-2010 Hurricane Omar, Nevis-2008

18 T HE W AY F ORWARD Need for development of urban-centered multi- hazard plans Hazard-specific plans – note Earthquake contingency plan in vogue Education/awareness promotion dimension Comprehensive planning Mitigation-urban planning decision-building codes, code enforcement What are we designing for (hurricane, all hazards)? Technological hazard dimension of urban centres Sheltering in cities Evacuation in cities

19 B UILDING R ESILIENCE IN CDEMA P ARTICIPATING S TATES Tsunami Protocol Developed Enhancing National Level Multi-Hazard Plan Adaptation of Comprehensive Disaster Management (CDM) Strategy. Model Earthquake Contingency Plan Earthquake Readiness Capacity Building project GIS-based Flood Early Warning System The idea of resilience suggests a proactive stance towards risk.

20 THANK YOU MERCI BEAUCOUP MUCHAS GRACIAS D ANK U WEL


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