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;dfhdf d08nLsf] e"ldsf ;dfhdf d08nLsf] e"ldsf VNN.

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Presentation on theme: ";dfhdf d08nLsf] e"ldsf ;dfhdf d08nLsf] e"ldsf VNN."— Presentation transcript:

1 ;dfhdf d08nLsf] e"ldsf ;dfhdf d08nLsf] e"ldsf VNN

2 2 wf/0ff wf/0ff ;+;f/ cfzfxLg eP/ 6'lqmPsf] 5 6'lqmPsf] 5

3 3 wf/0ff wf/0ff xfd|f >]i7 a'l4n] xfdLnfO{ lgsf] kfg{ ;Qm}g. xfd|f >]i7 a'l4n] xfdLnfO{ lgsf] kfg{ ;Qm}g.

4 4 wf/0ff rª\ufO ljZjf; / cf1fsfl/tfåf/f Oltxf; &M!$ rª\ufO ljZjf; / cf1fsfl/tfåf/f Oltxf; &M!$

5 5 wf/0ff xfd|f] rª\ufOsf] lglDt afOan k/d]Zj/sf] k|sfz xf] - kl/jt{g Nofpg] syf afOandf 5 _. xfd|f] rª\ufOsf] lglDt afOan k/d]Zj/sf] k|sfz xf] - kl/jt{g Nofpg] syf afOandf 5 _. oxf xfdL Pp6} p2]Zosf lglDt 5f}. oxf xfdL Pp6} p2]Zosf lglDt 5f}.

6 6 wf/0ff wf/0ff ;+;f/ cfzfljxLg eP/ 6'lqmPsf] 5. ;+;f/ cfzfljxLg eP/ 6'lqmPsf] 5. xfd|f >]i7 a'l4n] xfdLnfO{ lgsf] kfg{ ;Qm}g. xfd|f >]i7 a'l4n] xfdLnfO{ lgsf] kfg{ ;Qm}g. rª\ufO ljZjf; / cf1fsfl/tfåf/f cfp5. rª\ufO ljZjf; / cf1fsfl/tfåf/f cfp5. xfd|f] rª\ufOsf] lglDt afOan k/d]Zj/sf] k|sfz xf]. xfd|f] rª\ufOsf] lglDt afOan k/d]Zj/sf] k|sfz xf]. oxf xfdL Ps p2]Zosf lglDt 5f}. oxf xfdL Ps p2]Zosf lglDt 5f}.

7 7 k/d]Zj/ cfgf] ;[li6nfO{ jf:tf ug{'x'G5.. pxfn] agfpg'eof]. pTklt !M! pxfn] agfpg'eof]. pTklt !M! pxfn] cfk"mn] agfpg' ePsf] c;n ;[li6sf] d"Nof+sg ug{'eof]. pxfn] cfk"mn] agfpg' ePsf] c;n ;[li6sf] d"Nof+sg ug{'eof]. k/d]Zj/sf] c;n d"Nof+sgaf6 æ;fx|} /fd|f] Æ eGg'eof]. pTklt !M#! k/d]Zj/sf] c;n d"Nof+sgaf6 æ;fx|} /fd|f] Æ eGg'eof]. pTklt !M#!

8 8 ;a} k|f0fL;u k/d]Zj/sf] s/f/ ;a} k|f0fL;u k/d]Zj/sf] s/f/ pTklt (M (–!& g"x, pgsf 5f]/fx? M ltdL zAb % k6s k|of]u ul/Psf 5g\

9 9 k':tf}+k':tf;Dd k/d]Zj/sf] jf:tf pTklt ^M !* g"x ltdL ltd|f 5f]/fx? ltd|f >Ldlt ltd|f a'xf/Lx?

10 10 k':tf}+k':tf;Dd k/d]Zj/sf] jf:tf pTklt ca|fxfd ca|fxfd ltdL ltdL ltd|f ;Gtfgx? ltd|f ;Gtfgx? ltdLaf6 cfpg] hfltx? ltdLaf6 cfpg] hfltx?

11 11 ;f/f hfltsf nflu k/d]Zj/sf] jf:tf æhfltx? eGbf a9L pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 pTklt !* ;a} hfltx? pTklt !* ;a} hfltx? Joj:yf $M %–* hfltx? Joj:yf $M %–* hfltx? of]gf #M hfltx? of]gf #M hfltx? / #^ hfltx? / #^ hfltx?

12 12 ;f/f hfltsf nflu k/d]Zj/sf] jf:tf $& ;';dfrf/ ;a} hfltsf nflu $& ;';dfrf/ ;a} hfltsf nflu !( ;a} hfltnfO{ r]nf agfpg] !( ;a} hfltnfO{ r]nf agfpg] k|]l/t !) #$–#% ;a} hfltaf6 k|]l/t !) #$–#% ;a} hfltaf6 k|sfz hfltx? k|sfz hfltx?

13 13 k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/fsf] p2]Zo sn:;L !M sn:;L !M !% – o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] k|lt?k x'g'x'G5. !% – o]z" k/d]Zj/sf] k|lt?k x'g'x'G5. !(–k/d]Zj/sf] ;f/f k"0f{tf o]z"df jf; u/]sf] 5. !(–k/d]Zj/sf] ;f/f k"0f{tf o]z"df jf; u/]sf] 5. !^ –;a} s'/f pxfaf6 g} algPsf !^ –;a} s'/f pxfaf6 g} algPsf !& –pxfdf g} ;a} s'/fsf] clwsf/ /x]sf] 5 !& –pxfdf g} ;a} s'/fsf] clwsf/ /x]sf] 5

14 14 o]z"n] cfgf] /ut lsg aufpg'eof] < ;a} s'/fnfO{ ldnfkdf Nofpgsf lglDt

15 15 k/d]Zj/sf] dxfg\ of]hgf bf]xf]¥ofP/ x]/f}+

16 16 pxfn] ;a} ;[li6 ug'{eof]. pTklt !M! k/d]Zj/sf] dxfg\ of]hgf

17 17 k/d]Zj/n] ;a}nfO{ ;[li6 ug{'eof]. pTklt !M! k/d]Zj/n] ;a}nfO{ ;[li6 ug{'eof]. pTklt !M! pxfn] ;a} k|f0fL;u s/f/ afWg'eof]. pTklt (M! pxfn] ;a} k|f0fL;u s/f/ afWg'eof]. pTklt (M! pxf cfgf] hfltsf] eljiok|lt jf:tf /fVg'x'G5. pxf cfgf] hfltsf] eljiok|lt jf:tf /fVg'x'G5. pTklt k6s pNn]v ul/Psf] 5. k/d]Zj/sf] dxfg\ of]hgf

18 18 pxf cfgf] hfltsf] eljiok|lt jf:tf /fVg'x'G5. pxf cfgf] hfltsf] eljiok|lt jf:tf /fVg'x'G5. pTklt k6s pNn]v ul/Psf] 5. k/d]Zj/sf] dxfg\ of]hgf

19 19 v|Li6n] ;a} s'/fnfO{ ldnfkdf NofpgnfO{ cfgf] /ut aufpgeof]. Sn:;L v|Li6n] ;a} s'/fnfO{ ldnfkdf NofpgnfO{ cfgf] /ut aufpgeof]. Sn:;L k/d]Zj/sf] dxfg\ of]hgf

20 20 k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] p2]Zo Plkm;L !M

21 21 b'O{ larf/x? b'O{ larf/x? !M d08nL o]z"sf] k"0f{tfdf s;/L x'g ;S5 lsg k/d]Zj/n] ;a} s'/f o]z"df d08nLsf] lglDt /fVg'eof] <

22 22 d08nL / k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] of]hgf d08nL = v|Li6sf] z/L/ = o]z"sf] ;Dk"0f{tf Plkm;L !M

23 23 d08nL / k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] of]hgf o]z"sf] ;Dk"0f{tf / o]z" k|]d x'g'x'G5. o]z"sf] ;Dk"0f{tf / o]z" k|]d x'g'x'G5. Plkm;L !M !&!( Plkm;L !M !&!(

24 24 d08nL / k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] of]hgf d08nL = v|Li6sf] z/L/ = o]z"sf] ;Dk"0f{tf d08nL = v|Li6sf] z/L/ = o]z"sf] ;Dk"0f{tf Plkm;L !M Plkm;L !M o]z"sf] ;Dk"0f{tf / o]z" k|]d x'g'x'G5. o]z"sf] ;Dk"0f{tf / o]z" k|]d x'g'x'G5. Plkm;L !M !&!( Plkm;L !M !&!( ;]jfsf] sfo{ + Pstf + kl/kSjtf = k"0f{tf ;]jfsf] sfo{ + Pstf + kl/kSjtf = k"0f{tf Plkm;L $M !!!# Plkm;L $M !!!#

25 25 d08nL / k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] of]hgf gfKg g;lsg] w]/}, ;a}yf]s, xfd|f hfltx? gfKg g;lsg] w]/}, ;a}yf]s, xfd|f hfltx? Plkm;L Plkm;L

26 26 d08nL / k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] of]hgf Plkm;L #M (!) k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] of]hgfdf d08nLsf] cflwsfl/stf cg]sf}+ a[l4

27 27 d08nL / k/d]Zj/sf] 5'6sf/f lbg] of]hgf Plkm;L #M (!) d08nLåf/f

28 28 /fi6« / hfltx? s;/L r]nf aG5g\ < JolQm kl/jf/ ;dfh /fi6«

29 29 JolQm JolQm kl/jf/ kl/jf/ ;dfh b]z ;dfh b]z /fi6« / hfltx? s;/L r]nf aG5g\ < d08nL

30 30 ;dfhdf ePsf d08nLx?sf ;fd'lxs k|of;åf/f ?kfGt/0f

31 31 w]/} d08nL lsg yf]/} kl/jt{g <

32 32 uDeL/ ljZjf; k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5.

33 33 uDeL/ ljZjf; k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/. bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/. Hfflt tyf ju{sf] ;F:s[lt x6fOPsf] Hfflt tyf ju{sf] ;F:s[lt x6fOPsf]

34 34 uDeL/ ljZjf; k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/ bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/

35 35 uDeL/ ljZjf; bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/ bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/ k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. Hfflt tyf ju{sf] ;:s[lt x6fOPsf] Hfflt tyf ju{sf] ;:s[lt x6fOPsf] k'?ifx?n] cfkm\gf kTgLx?nfO{ cfk"mnfO{ h:t} k|]d ug'{k5{. k'?ifx?n] cfkm\gf kTgLx?nfO{ cfk"mnfO{ h:t} k|]d ug'{k5{.

36 36 uDeL/ ljZjf; k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfFn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/ bof rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/ Hfflt tyf ju{sf] ;F:s[lt x6fOPsf] Hfflt tyf ju{sf] ;F:s[lt x6fOPsf] k'?ifx?n] cfˆgf kTgLx?nfO{ cfk"mnfO{ h:t} k|]d ug'{k5{. k'?ifx?n] cfˆgf kTgLx?nfO{ cfk"mnfO{ h:t} k|]d ug'{k5{. ue{ktg / e|"0fxTof c:jLsf/ ue{ktg / e|"0fxTof c:jLsf/

37 37 uDeL/ ljZjf; k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. k/d]Zj/nfO{ k|]d ug]{x?nfO{ pxfn] k|]d ug{'x'G5. of rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/ of rfxg'x'g] bofn' k/d]Zj/ cfsl:ds s7f]/tf;u a]d]n cfsl:ds s7f]/tf;u a]d]n k'?ifx?n] cfkm\gf kTgLx?nfO{ cfk"mnfO{ h:t} k|]d ug'{k5{. k'?ifx?n] cfkm\gf kTgLx?nfO{ cfk"mnfO{ h:t} k|]d ug'{k5{. ue{ktg / e|"0fxTof c:jLsf/ ue{ktg / e|"0fxTof c:jLsf/ ljZjf;L / pgLx?eGbf aflx/sfx?nfO{ k|]d ug{'–la/fdLsf] x]/rfx. ljZjf;L / pgLx?eGbf aflx/sfx?nfO{ k|]d ug{'–la/fdLsf] x]/rfx.

38 38 k|]dsf kl/0ffdx? O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ Ps O;fO{ $ x'g afFsL Ps O;fO{ $ x'g afFsL

39 39 k|]dsf kl/0ffdx? Ps O;fO{ # x'g afFsL O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ u}/O;fO{ u}/O;fO{

40 40 cfh lsg To:tf] xF'b}g < cfh lsg To:tf] xF'b}g < clxn]sf d08nLdf lsg klxn]sf] ztfAbLdf h:tf] lrGxx? b]lvb}g < clxn]sf d08nLdf lsg klxn]sf] ztfAbLdf h:tf] lrGxx? b]lvb}g <

41 41 cfh lsg To:tf] xF'b}g < cfh lsg To:tf] xF'b}g < ;fdflhs ;';dfrf/ / pbf/jfbk|ltsf] k|ltlqmof ;fdflhs ;';dfrf/ / pbf/jfbk|ltsf] k|ltlqmof ef}lts cfjZjstfsf] ;]jfsfOclGtd nIo ef}lts cfjZjstfsf] ;]jfsfOclGtd nIo

42 42 cfh lsg To:tf] xF'b}g < ;fdflhs ;';dfrf/ / pbf/jfbk|ltsf] k|ltlqmof ;fdflhs ;';dfrf/ / pbf/jfbk|ltsf] k|ltlqmof ef}lts cfjZjstfsf] ;]jfsfOclGtd nIo ef}lts cfjZjstfsf] ;]jfsfOclGtd nIo lg/fzfjfbL o'ufGt lj1fg - eljiosf] b[li6sf]0f_ lg/fzfjfbL o'ufGt lj1fg - eljiosf] b[li6sf]0f_

43 43 cfh lsg To:tf] xF'b}g < 1. k}t[ls;Qfjfb M

44 44 cfh lsg To:tf] xF'b}g < k}t[ls;Qfjfb M k}t[ls;Qfjfb M s_ ;';dfrf/ u|x0f u/]/ r]nf ag]sfx?sf ;fk]lIfs ul/aLsf] b[li6sf]0f v_ e08f/]kgsf] sdhf]/ lzIff v_ ;]jfsfOsf] ;+:yfut gd"gf bLuf] x'b}g.

45 45 I s a i a h 5 8 oz}of %* oz}of %* k/d]Zj/sf hgsf cGhfgk"0f{ kfk k/d]Zj/sf hgsf cGhfgk"0f{ kfk

46 46 k/d]Zj/sf hgsf cGhfgk"0f{ kfk oz}of %* ltdLx? cfhsf] h:tf] pkjf; a;]/ ltdLx?sf] ;f]/ :ju{df ;'lgg] cfzf ug{ ;Sb}gf}. kb $ v ltdLx? cfhsf] h:tf] pkjf; a;]/ ltdLx?sf] ;f]/ :ju{df ;'lgg] cfzf ug{ ;Sb}gf}. kb $ v

47 47 k/d]Zj/sf hgsf cghfgk"0f{ k|]d oz}of %*

48 48 k/d]Zj/sf hgsf cGhfgk"0f{ kfk oz}of %* kb ! % c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb ! % c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb ^ & c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb ^ & c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb * ( s rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb * ( s rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb (v !) s :jLs[t cf/fwgf kb (v !) s :jLs[t cf/fwgf kb !) rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb !) rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f

49 49 k/d]Zj/sf hgsf cGhfgk"0f{ kfk oz}of %* kb ! % c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb ! % c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb ^ & c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb ^ & c:jLs[t cf/fwgf kb * ( s rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb * ( s rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb (v !) s :jLs[t cf/fwgf kb (v !) s :jLs[t cf/fwgf kb rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb !# :jLs[t cf/fwgf kb !# :jLs[t cf/fwgf kb !$ rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f kb !$ rª\ufOsf] k|lt1f

50 50 ckl/jt{gLo cf/fwgf To;n] plrt / 7Ls sfd u¥of], / To;nfO{ c;n} eof]. To;n] u/L / bl/b|x?sf] /Iff u¥of], / To;nfO{ c;n} eof]. dnfO{ lrGg'sf] cy{ s] of] xf]Og / < k/dk|e' eGg'x'G5. old{of !%!^ To;n] plrt / 7Ls sfd u¥of], / To;nfO{ c;n} eof]. To;n] u/L / bl/b|x?sf] /Iff u¥of], / To;nfO{ c;n} eof]. dnfO{ lrGg'sf] cy{ s] of] xf]Og / < k/dk|e' eGg'x'G5. old{of !%!^ P dflg;, h] c;n 5,Tof] pxfn] tnfO{ b]vfpg'ePsf] 5. / k/dk|e'n] taf6 s] rfxg'x'G5 < s]jn olt 7Lsl;t sfd ug{" / s[kfnfO{ k|]d ug{" / t]/f k/d]Zj/l;t ljgd| eP/ lxF8\g". ldsf ^M* P dflg;, h] c;n 5,Tof] pxfn] tnfO{ b]vfpg'ePsf] 5. / k/dk|e'n] taf6 s] rfxg'x'G5 < s]jn olt 7Lsl;t sfd ug{" / s[kfnfO{ k|]d ug{" / t]/f k/d]Zj/l;t ljgd| eP/ lxF8\g". ldsf ^M*

51 51 cGhfgk"0f{ kfk n]jL $ % $ M ;fd'bflos kfk $ M ;fd'bflos kfk $ M g]t[Tjsf] kfk $ M g]t[Tjsf] kfk $ JolQmut kfk $ JolQmut kfk

52 52 kfkk|ltsf] k|To'Q/ n]jL $ %

53 53 kfkk|ltsf] k|To'Q/ n]jL $ %

54 54 kfkk|ltsf] k|To'Q/ n]jL $ % r]tgf r]tgf e]6L / kZrtfk e]6L / kZrtfk k|folZrt / Ifdfbfg k|folZrt / Ifdfbfg

55 55 kfkk|ltsf] k|To'Q/ /f]dL M To;sf/0f kl/jt{g xf]cf] To;sf/0f kl/jt{g xf]cf] kl/jt{g –ab\lnPsf] Jojxf/ kl/jt{g –ab\lnPsf] Jojxf/ k/d]Zj/sf] OR5f k|ltljlDat ug]{ Jojxf/ k/d]Zj/sf] OR5f k|ltljlDat ug]{ Jojxf/

56 56 JolQmut k|of]u JolQmut k|of]u lrGtg–dgg lrGtg–dgg – r]tgf, kZrftfk, Ifdfbfg k/d]Zj/sf] dxfg\ of]hgfsf s] s] kIfx? d]/f] of]hgfsf] cleGg cª\u clxn] aGg ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ <

57 57 JolQmut k|of]u JolQmut k|of]u lrGtg–dgg lrGtg–dgg – r]tgf, kZrftfk, Ifdfbfg sfo{ut–of]hgf sfo{ut–of]hgf – kl/jlt{t Jojxf/ pGd'v sbdsf] lglDt of]hgf agfpg'xf];\.

58 58 JolQmut k|of]u lrGtg–dgg lrGtg–dgg – r]tgf, kZrftfk, Ifdfbfg sfo{ut–of]hgf sfo{ut–of]hgf – kl/jlt{t Jojxf/ pGd'v sbdsf] lglDt of]hgf agfpg'xf];\. k|ltj4tf k|ltj4tf –Jojxf/df ptfg{ ;dlk{t x'g'xf];\.

59 59 JolQmut k|of]u lrGtg–dgg lrGtg–dgg – r]tgf, kZrftfk, Ifdfbfg sfo{ut–of]hgf sfo{ut–of]hgf – kl/jlt{t Jojxf/ pGd'v sbdsf] lglDt of]hgf agfpg'xf];\. k|ltj4tf k|ltj4tf –Jojxf/df ptfg{ ;dlk{t x'g'xf];\. afF8g'xf];\ / k|fy{gf ug{'xf];\. afF8g'xf];\ / k|fy{gf ug{'xf];\. cfˆgf] of]hgf c?nfO{ afF8g'xf];\ / Psfk;sf] lglDt k|fy{gf ug'{xf];\. cfˆgf] of]hgf c?nfO{ afF8g'xf];\ / Psfk;sf] lglDt k|fy{gf ug'{xf];\.

60 60 ;fd'lxs k|of]u lrGtg–dgg lrGtg–dgg – r]tgf, kZrftfk, Ifdfbfg sfo{ut–of]hgf sfo{ut–of]hgf – kl/jlt{t Jojxf/ pGd'v sbdsf] lglDt of]hgf agfpg'xf];\. k|ltj4tf k|ltj4tf –Jojxf/df ptfg{ ;dlk{t x'g'xf];\. afF8g'xf];\ / k|fy{gf ug{'xf];\. afF8g'xf];\ / k|fy{gf ug{'xf];\. cfˆgf] of]hgf c?nfO{ afF8g'xf];\ / Psfk;sf] lglDt k|fy{gf ug'{xf];\. cfˆgf] of]hgf c?nfO{ afF8g'xf];\ / Psfk;sf] lglDt k|fy{gf ug'{xf];\.

61 61 d08nLsf] e"ldsf k'g/fjnf]sg k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgf slt dxfg\ /x]5 < k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgf slt dxfg\ /x]5 < k/d]Zj/sf] of]hgfdf s] rflx ;dfj]z ePsf] /x]g 5


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