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Electron Filling (orbitals) in Periodic Table The Periodic Table Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17.

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Presentation on theme: "Electron Filling (orbitals) in Periodic Table The Periodic Table Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Electron Filling (orbitals) in Periodic Table

3 The Periodic Table Li 3 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac Lanthanides Actinides Noble gases Halogens Transition metals Alkaline earth metals Alkali metals Uun 110 Uuu 111 Uub 112 Uuq 113 Uuh 116 Uuo 118

4 Orbitals Being Filled 1s1s 2s2s 3s3s 4s4s 5s5s 6s6s 7s7s 3d3d 4d4d 5d5d 6d6d 2p2p 3p3p 4p4p 5p5p 6p6p 1s1s La Ac f4f 5f5f Lanthanide series Actinide series Groups 8 Periods Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry 2002, page 345

5 Electron Filling in Periodic Table s d p s f

6 Electron Filling in Periodic Table metallic character increases nonmetallic character increases metallic character increases nonmetallic character increases

7 s d p s f Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac Periodic Table

8 Li He C 4100 N O F Ne Na 98 B 2027 Be 1283 H Al 660 Si 1423 P 44.2 S 119 Cl -101 Ar K 63.2 Ca 850 Sc 1423 Ti 1677 V 1917 Cr 1900 Mn 1244 Fe 1539 Co 1495 Ni 1455 Cu 1083 Zn 420 Ga Ge 960 As 817 Se Br -7.2 Kr Rb 38.8 Sr 770 Y 1500 Zr 1852 Nb 2487 Mo 2610 Tc 2127 Ru 2427 Rh 1966 Pd 1550 Ag 961 Cd 321 In Sn Sb Te 450 I Xe Cs 28.6 Ba 710 Hf 2222 Ta 2997 W 3380 Re 3180 Os 2727 Ir 2454 Pt 1769 Au 1063 Hg Tl Pb Bi Po 254 At Rn -71 Mg 650 Mg Melting Points Symbol Melting point o C > 3000 o C o C La 920 He Ralph A. Burns, Fundamentals of Chemistry, 1999, page 1999

9 Elements with Highest Densities Year Density Element Discovered (g/cm 3 ) Osmium Iridium Platinum Rhenium Neptunium Plutonium Goldprehistoric Tungsten Uranium Tantalum

10 Li 0.53 He C 2.26 N 0.81 O 1.14 F 1.11 Ne Na 0.97 B 2.5 Be 1.8 H Al 2.70 Si 2.4 P 1.82w S 2.07 Cl Ar K 0.86 Ca 1.55 Sc (2.5) Ti 4.5 V 5.96 Cr 7.1 Mn 7.4 Fe 7.86 Co 8.9 Ni 8.90 Cu 8.92 Zn 7.14 Ga 5.91 Ge 5.36 As 5,7 Se 4.7 Br Kr 2.6 Rb 1.53 Sr 2.6 Y 5.51 Zr 6.4 Nb 8.4 Mo 10.2 Tc 11.5 Ru 12.5 Rh 12.5 Pd 12.0 Ag 10.5 Cd 8.6 In 7.3 Sn 7.3 Sb 6.7 Te 6.1 I 4.93 Xe 3.06 Cs 1.90 Ba 3.5 Hf 13.1 Ta 16.6 W 19.3 Re 21.4 Os Ir 22.4 Pt Au 19.3 Hg Tl Pb Bi 9.8 Po 9.4 At --- Rn 4.4 Mg Densities of Elements Mg 1.74 Symbol Density in g/cm 3 C, for gases, in g/L 8.0 – 11.9 g/cm – 17.9 g/cm 3 > 18.0 g/cm 3 La 6.7

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12 4f4f 4d4d 4p4p 4s4s n = 4 3d3d 3p3p 3s3s n = 3 2p2p 2s2s n = 2 1s1s n = 1 Energy Sublevels

13 Li 3 H1H1 He 2 C6C6 N7N7 O8O8 F9F9 Ne 10 Na 11 B5B5 Be 4 H1H1 Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36 Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54 Cs 55 Ba 56 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Fr 87 Ra 88 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Mg 12 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 La 57 Ac

14 s d p s f Electron Filling in Periodic Table Li 2s 1 H 1s 1 He 1s 2 C 2p 2 N 2p 3 O 2p 4 F 2p 5 Ne 2p 6 Na 3s 1 B 2p 1 Be 2s 2 H 1s 1 Al 3p 1 Si 3p 2 P 3p 3 S 3p 4 Cl 3p 5 Ar 3p 6 K 4s 1 Ca 4s 2 Sc 3d 1 Ti 3d 2 V 3d 3 Cr 3d 5 Mn 3d 5 Fe 3d 6 Co 3d 7 Ni 3d 8 Cu 3d 10 Zn 3d 10 Ga 4p 1 Ge 4p 2 As 4p 3 Se 4p 4 Br 4p 5 Kr 4p 6 Rb 5s 1 Sr 5s 2 Y 4d 1 Zr 4d 2 Nb 4d 4 Mo 4d 5 Tc 4d 6 Ru 4d 7 Rh 4d 8 Pd 4d 10 Ag 4d 10 Cd 4p 1 In 5p 1 Sn 5p 2 Sb 5p 3 Te 5p 4 I 5p 5 Xe 5p 6 Cs 6s 1 Ba 6s 2 Hf 5d 2 Ta 5d 3 W 5d 4 Re 5d 5 Os 5d 6 Ir 5d 7 Pt 5d 9 Au 5d 10 Hg 5d 10 Tl 6p 1 Pb 6p 2 Bi 6p 3 Po 6p 4 At 6p 5 Rn 6p 6 Fr 7s 1 Ra 7s 2 Rf 6d 2 Db 6d 3 Sg 6d 4 Bh 6d 5 Hs 6d 6 Mt 6d 7 Mg 3s 2 Ce 4f 2 Pr 4f 3 Nd 4f 4 Pm 4f 5 Sm 4f 6 Eu 4f 7 Gd 4f 7 Tb 4f 9 Dy 4f 10 Ho 4f 11 Er 4f 12 Tm 4f 13 Yb 4f 14 Lu 4f 114 Th 6d 2 Pa 5f 2 U 5f 3 Np 5f 4 Pu 5f 6 Am 5f 7 Cm 5f 7 Bk 5f 8 Cf 5f 10 Es 5f 11 Fm 5f 14 Md 5f 13 No 5f 14 Lr 5f 14 La 5d 1 Ac 6d s d p s f

15 Names and Symbols of Selected Elements Name*SymbolName*Symbol AluminumAlLead (plumbum)Pb ArgonArLithiumLi BariumBaMagnesiumMg BoronBMercury (hydrargyrum)Hg BromineBrNeonNe CadmiumCdNickelNi CalciumCaNitrogenN CarbonCOxygenO ChlorineClPhosphorusP CobaltCoPotassium (kalium)K Copper (cuprum)CuSiliconSi FluorineFSilver (argentum)Ag Gold (aurum)AuSodium (natrum)Na HeliumHeStrontiumSr HydrogenHSulfurS IodineITin (stannum)Sn Iron (ferrum)FeZincZn *Names given in parentheses are ancient Latin or Greek words from which the symbols are derived.

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

17 Electronegativity The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself. Linus Pauling

18 Electronegativities 7 Be 1.5 Al 1.5 Si 1.8 Ti 1.5 V 1.6 Cr 1.6 Mn 1.5 Fe 1.8 Co 1.8 Ni 1.8 Cu 1.9 Zn 1.7 Ga 1.6 Ge 1.8 Nb 1.6 Mo 1.8 Tc 1.9 Ag 1.9 Cd 1.7 In 1.7 Sn 1.8 Sb 1.9 Ta 1.5 W 1.7 Re 1.9 Hg 1.9 Tl 1.8 Pb 1.8 Bi N 3.0 O 3.5 F 4.0 Cl C 2.5 S 2.5 Br 2.8 I Na 0.9 K 0.8 Rb 0.8 Cs 0.7 Ba 0.9 Fr 0.7 Ra 0.9 Below 1.0 H 2.1 B 2.0 P 2.1 As 2.0 Se 2.4 Ru 2.2 Rh 2.2 Pd 2.2 Te 2.1 Os 2.2 Ir 2.2 Pt 2.2 Au 2.4 Po 2.0 At Period Actinides: Li 1.0 Ca 1.0 Sc 1.3 Sr 1.0 Y 1.2 Zr 1.4 Hf 1.3 Mg 1.2 La 1.1 Ac Lanthanides: A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2 nd Edition, page 373 8B

19 Polar-Covalent bonds Nonpolar-Covalent bonds Covalent Bonds Electrons are unequally shared Electronegativity difference between 0.3 and 1.7 Electrons are equally shared Electronegativity difference of 0 to 0.3 Example: H 2 O (water) O = 3.5 H = 2.1 difference is 1.4


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