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Themes in the Study of LIFE

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1 Themes in the Study of LIFE
Biology = bios (life)+ logos (study of) Nino A. Espinas Biology Unit PSHS-Main Campus

2 1. The living world is a hierarchy, with each level of biological structure building on the level below it. Life is highly organized Levels of biological organization: atoms- molecules- organelles- cells- tissues- organs- organ systems- organism- population- community- ecosystem- biosphere What level/s of bioorganization is/are featured in each item? 1. Gregorio T. Velasquez National Scientist Pioneer Scientist in Blue Green Algae 2. Google Earth

3 2. Each level of biological structure has emergent properties.
Novel properties emerge that were not present at the simpler levels “An organism is a living whole greater than the sum of its parts” Are Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) cooperative or selfish?

4 3. Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function.
Cell is the lowest level of structure capable of performing ALL life’s activities All living things consist of cells Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types Mitosis- cell division White blood cells- human macrophage ingesting Candida albicans Sperms- Sperm race

5 4. The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid Substance of genes Units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring Nucleotides: A, T, G, C, & U

6 5. Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization
Form fits function Biological structure gives us clues about what it does & how it works Function of a structure provides insight about its construction

7 6. Organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments
An organism is an open system- an entity that exchanges materials and energy with its surroundings. Nutrient Cycling & flow of E from sunlight to photosynthetic life forms

8 7. Regulatory mechanisms ensure a dynamic balance in living systems.
Biological processes are self regulating, operating by a mechanism called feedback- in which an output or product of a process regulates that process

9 8. Diversity and Unity are the dual faces of life on earth.
There is Unity in Diversity in ALL living entities of the Earth Paramecium cilia Throat and intestine villi

10 9. Evolution is the core theme of biology.
Life evolves Evolution, the process that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to its vast diversity today, is the one biological theme that ties together all others Natural Selection = Differential Reproductive Success

11 10. Scientific Inquiry Observation-based discovery and the testing of explanations through hypothesis based inquiry

12 11.Science, Technology, and Society
Technologies are goal oriented applications of science Science and technology must promote and improve NOT just human lives, but ALL organisms on earth as well. An Inconvenient Truth

13 Main References Campbell NA, Reece, JB, and Mitchell LG Biology. Addison Wesley Longman pp. Campbell and Reece Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings pp.

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