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Shaking Earth Presented by Students of Class X. Goal of our Project Analyze why and how earthquakes are caused. Provide guidelines for Earthquake Planning.

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Presentation on theme: "Shaking Earth Presented by Students of Class X. Goal of our Project Analyze why and how earthquakes are caused. Provide guidelines for Earthquake Planning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shaking Earth Presented by Students of Class X

2 Goal of our Project Analyze why and how earthquakes are caused. Provide guidelines for Earthquake Planning and Recovery Provide recommendations that can mitigate the losses due to earthquake Create awareness in the school and nearby community

3 Natural Disasters How vulnerable is India? Our country is very vulnerable to natural disasters. Our country is very vulnerable to natural disasters. Earthquake: 54% of the landmass prone to earthquake. Earthquake: 54% of the landmass prone to earthquake. Flood: 40 million hectares of landmass prone to floods. Flood: 40 million hectares of landmass prone to floods. Cyclone: 8000 Km long coastline with two cyclone seasons. Cyclone: 8000 Km long coastline with two cyclone seasons. Drought: low and medium rainfall regions which constitute 68% of the total areas, are vulnerable to periodical drought. Drought: low and medium rainfall regions which constitute 68% of the total areas, are vulnerable to periodical drought. India is also vulnerable to other natural calamities like avalanches/landslides etc. India is also vulnerable to other natural calamities like avalanches/landslides etc.

4 What made us take up the project – Shaking Earth The Bhuj earthquake that shook the Indian Province of Gujarat on the morning of January 26, 2001 is one of the two most deadly earthquakes to strike India in its recorded history.

5 Aftermath of the Bhuj Earthquake Government of India figures: Government of India figures: Death toll: 19,727 Death toll: 19,727 Injured: 1,66,000 Injured: 1,66,000 Homeless: 6,00,000 Homeless: 6,00,000 Houses destroyed: 3,48,000 Houses destroyed: 3,48,000 Houses damaged: 8,44,000 Houses damaged: 8,44,000 The State Department estimates that the earthquake affected, directly or indirectly, 15.9 million people out of a total population of 37.8 million. More than 20,000 cattle were reported killed. Government estimates place direct economic losses at $1.3 billion. Other estimates indicate losses may be as high as $5 billion. The State Department estimates that the earthquake affected, directly or indirectly, 15.9 million people out of a total population of 37.8 million. More than 20,000 cattle were reported killed. Government estimates place direct economic losses at $1.3 billion. Other estimates indicate losses may be as high as $5 billion.

6 Understanding Earthquakes Why does the crust move? COLD!!! VERY HOT!!! The earth is divided into three main layers – a hard outer crust, a soft middle crust, and a center core. The outer crust is broken into massive irregular pieces called plates. These plates move very slowly, driven by energy forces deep within the earth.

7 Tectonic Plates - Pieces of the Crust 6 Continental Plates (14 sub-continental plates) Earthquake Locations Pacific Plate Antarctic Plate America Plate Africa Plate Eurasia Plate Australia Plate Earthquakes occur when these moving plates grind and scrape against each other. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free causing the ground to shake.

8 Seismic Waves The rupture of fault results in sudden release of the strain energy that has been built up over the years. The most important form which this suddenly released energy takes is that of seismic waves which is of 3 types. 1. P (primary) waves move the fastest 1. P (primary) waves move the fastest 2. S (shear) waves move more slowly, shake up and down 2. S (shear) waves move more slowly, shake up and down 3. L or Surface Waves travel slowly and are the most dangerous 3. L or Surface Waves travel slowly and are the most dangerous

9 Major Earthquakes world wide DateLocationMagnitudeDeaths 1556China8.0530, California Italy7.583, China7.8700, Mexico8.19, California India India , Pakistan7.684,000+

10 Effects of Earthquakes Ground Shaking Ground Shaking Liquefaction Liquefaction Dam Breaks Dam Breaks Landslides Landslides Tsunami Tsunami Flash floods Flash floods Disruption of gas, electric, and phone services Disruption of gas, electric, and phone services Fire Fire

11 What determines the amount of damage in an Earthquake? What determines the amount of damage in an Earthquake? Magnitude and Duration of the earthquake Magnitude and Duration of the earthquake Underlying Geology Underlying Geology Building Construction Building Construction

12 How can we prepare for Earthquakes? Understand what happened in the past Understand what happened in the past Understand how materials and structures respond Understand how materials and structures respond Understand how rescue agencies respond Understand how rescue agencies respond Understand the awareness level of the community Understand the awareness level of the community

13 Role Play Basic facts as contributed by each member of the team: Survey Specialist Survey Specialist Construction Engineer Construction Engineer Geologist Geologist Social worker Social worker We decided to focus on the three metros – Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore. Collected information through E- Mails, Blogs and Field Visit.

14 Metros at a glance Mumbai - Seismic zone III Mumbai - Seismic zone III Presence of major fault lines Presence of major fault lines Unsafe Buildings Unsafe Buildings Bangalore – Seismic Zone II Bangalore – Seismic Zone II Sudden spurt of buildings Sudden spurt of buildings Foundation on Lake beds Foundation on Lake beds Delhi – Seismic Zone IV Delhi – Seismic Zone IV Non-engineered structures Non-engineered structures Unauthorized colonies Unauthorized colonies Liquefaction susceptible Liquefaction susceptible

15 Observation – Survey Specialists Majority of the population in three metros are aware of the aftermath of Earthquakes Majority of the population in three metros are aware of the aftermath of Earthquakes Few know about Building Bye-Laws and Regulations laid down by the government Few know about Building Bye-Laws and Regulations laid down by the government Most do not know whether the building they reside are Earthquake Resistant or not Most do not know whether the building they reside are Earthquake Resistant or not Many are not aware about insurance against Natural Disasters Many are not aware about insurance against Natural Disasters Vague information about the dos and don'ts in case of an earthquake Vague information about the dos and don'ts in case of an earthquake

16 Awareness on various categories Sample Population

17 Observation - Engineering a Model Our task was to design an earthquake resistant building given the following criteria: 1. High Impact 2. Hill side home 3. Unstable terrain 1. We found that a relatively short, wide building can withstand a great impact when compared to a tall, narrow building. 2. A deep foundation with a large surface area can support a house on a hill. 3. A building on an uneven terrain can be stabilized by focusing most of its mass near the bottom. A pyramid shaped building proves to be the best bet.

18 Size of the Buildings Size of the Buildings a) In tall buildings the horizontal movement of the floors during ground shaking is large. b) In short but very long buildings, the damaging effects are many. c) In buildings with large plan area, the horizontal seismic forces can be excessive to be carried by columns and walls. b. a. c. Building Considerations - Tips that might help

19 HORIZONTAL LAYOUT OF BUILDINGS Building Plans with simple geometry perform well during strong earthquakes. Buildings with re-entrant corners, like U, V, H and + shaped in plan sustain significant damage. Such buildings can be made into two parts by using a separation joint at the junction.

20 Building Considerations Tips that might help When two buildings are close to each other, they may pound on each other during strong shaking. When building heights do not match the roof of the shorter building may pound at the mid- height of the column of the taller one and this can prove to be very dangerous ADJACENCY OF BUILDINGS

21 Earthquake Resistant Buildings Retrofitting Retrofitting Shock absorbers (viscous dampers) can be added to absorb seismic energy Use bearings or isolators to reduce shocks

22 Underlying Geology Liquefaction occurring beneath buildings and other structures can cause major damage during earthquakes. Liquefaction takes place when loosely packed, water- logged sediments at or near the ground surface lose their strength in response to strong ground shaking. When the soil is not homogeneous, then there is differential settlement, with some part of the structure sinking more than other. This induces excessive stress and causes cracking. When the soil is not homogeneous, then there is differential settlement, with some part of the structure sinking more than other. This induces excessive stress and causes cracking.

23 Observations - Geological Considerations Buildings can be constructed on firm and soft soils but it will be dangerous to build them on weak soils. Hence appropriate soil investigations should be carried out to establish the allowable bearing capacity and nature of soil. Type of soil present in most parts of the cities – Delhi – Weak Soil Mumbai – Alluvial sandy soil (soft soil) Bangalore - Loamy and clayey soil

24 Observation – Social Worker Relief Mechanism States primarily responsible for handling disasters. States primarily responsible for handling disasters. Central Government provides assistance as and when necessary. Central Government provides assistance as and when necessary. A Calamity Relief Fund is constituted at State level to which the Government of India contributes 75%. This is used for provision of immediate relief and restoration of essential infrastructure. A Calamity Relief Fund is constituted at State level to which the Government of India contributes 75%. This is used for provision of immediate relief and restoration of essential infrastructure. Police control rooms, Fire stations, Home Guard organization, Govt hospitals, Ambulance services are the local agencies that come to immediate rescue in case of an earthquake. Police control rooms, Fire stations, Home Guard organization, Govt hospitals, Ambulance services are the local agencies that come to immediate rescue in case of an earthquake.

25 Prevailing Conditions Inadequate Inadequate man power man power trained personnel trained personnel basic Infrastructure basic Infrastructure funds funds Outdated Equipments & Communication systems Outdated Equipments & Communication systems Lack of definite guidelines Lack of definite guidelines Misuse & mismanagement of resources Misuse & mismanagement of resources

26 Recommendations Recommendations Specialist teams should be given intensive training on search, rescue and evacuation procedures. Specialist teams should be given intensive training on search, rescue and evacuation procedures. New and latest equipments should be procured New and latest equipments should be procured Development policies and programs must be examined and monitored at regular intervals Development policies and programs must be examined and monitored at regular intervals Based on the research we would like to advocate some recommendations to mitigate the losses that might occur due to earthquakes.

27 Recommendations Establish web-enabled, centralized database for quick access to resources to minimize response time in emergencies. Establish web-enabled, centralized database for quick access to resources to minimize response time in emergencies. Publicize disaster resistant design features Publicize disaster resistant design features Review building by-laws and make it mandatory Review building by-laws and make it mandatory Provide guidelines for masonry buildings Provide guidelines for masonry buildings Certify builders to ensure technical competency Certify builders to ensure technical competency

28 Recommendations Impose risk disclosure requirements on real estate agents Impose risk disclosure requirements on real estate agents Retrofit the life line buildings. Retrofit the life line buildings. Create awareness through technology demonstration. Create awareness through technology demonstration. Encourage community involvement and participation Encourage community involvement and participation Formulate preparedness and response plans. Formulate preparedness and response plans.

29 What we can do Encourage our parents to insure not just for life but also for structures and household goods Encourage our parents to insure not just for life but also for structures and household goods Increase public awareness of the earthquake hazard Increase public awareness of the earthquake hazard Create and distribute Earthquake Preparedness Campaign among the students and nearby community Create and distribute Earthquake Preparedness Campaign among the students and nearby community Conduct Mock Drills in the schools at regular intervals Conduct Mock Drills in the schools at regular intervals Contribute towards Disaster Relief Fund/PM Relief Fund Contribute towards Disaster Relief Fund/PM Relief Fund Provide a common platform for exchange of views among schools for discussing methods of developing and implementing Earthquake Preparedness and Evacuation plan. Provide a common platform for exchange of views among schools for discussing methods of developing and implementing Earthquake Preparedness and Evacuation plan. Establish a good rapport with the social /voluntary agencies of the city so that help can be extended when required Establish a good rapport with the social /voluntary agencies of the city so that help can be extended when required

30 Time to Act Action Plan: Action Plan: Analyse why we need to take preventive measures in case of an Earthquake and prepare an Earthquake Preparedness Campaign Brochure to be circulated in the school and nearby community Analyse why we need to take preventive measures in case of an Earthquake and prepare an Earthquake Preparedness Campaign Brochure to be circulated in the school and nearby community

31 Bibliography es_affect_reinforced_concrete_buildings_.html es_affect_reinforced_concrete_buildings_.html arthquake_resistant_structures.html arthquake_resistant_structures.html Presentation by Shri R.K. Singh, Joint Secretary (DM), Ministry of Home Affairs 5A7846DDEAB13DCAC6AE32437C89EEC5.dc90 5A7846DDEAB13DCAC6AE32437C89EEC5.dc90


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