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Mosquito-borne disease in the United States Renée Huth, D.P.T. Ph.D. Student, Walden University PUBH 8165-1: Environmental Health Instructor: Dr. David.

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Presentation on theme: "Mosquito-borne disease in the United States Renée Huth, D.P.T. Ph.D. Student, Walden University PUBH 8165-1: Environmental Health Instructor: Dr. David."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mosquito-borne disease in the United States Renée Huth, D.P.T. Ph.D. Student, Walden University PUBH : Environmental Health Instructor: Dr. David Anderson Term 3, Year 1

2 Purpose of Presentation Health Professionals & Health Educators will be able to: Describe how vector borne diseases are transmitted. Name 3 mosquito–related diseases within the United States and resulting symptoms. Describe 3 environmentally mindful practices each of us can do to reduce the risk of exposure, thereby reducing the incidence or impact. Share knowledge gained with 3 others to Pay it forward.

3 Overview Arthropod borne (Ar-bo-viruses) insects mosquitoes fleas lice biting flies bugs arachnids mites ticks Virginia Department of Health. (2012) Vector-borne disease control. Virginia.gov. Retrieved from

4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Arboviral zoonosis transmission cycle. Retrieved from

5 Exposure/Risk Being outdoors – Occupations – Recreation Low income areas Those who are > 50 or < 2 years of age Handling birds which are infected CDC(2011) reported there is a very low risk from blood transfusions and organ transplants Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, April 18). West Nile Virus: What you need to know. Retrieved from

6 Mosquito-transmitted diseases in the U.S. West Nile (WNV) Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) LaCrosse encephalitis (LAC) St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV) Malaria No More. (2011). Retrieved from National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health. (2011, February 16). Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet. USA.gov. Retrieved from gitis.htm

7 West Nile virus (WNV) Neuroinvasive Disease Incidence reported to ArboNET, by state, United States, 2011 (as of January 10, 2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). West Nile Virus. Statistics, surveillance, and control. Retrieved from

8 West Nile Symptoms Emergency Symptoms: high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. Monitor symptoms: fever, headache, and body aches, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes swollen lymph glands or a skin rash on the chest, stomach and back. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, April 18). West Nile Virus: What you need to know. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Diseases. (2008, October 9). West Nile Virus diagnostic testing. Retrieved from

9 Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Cases Reported by Year, Moore, C.G., McLean, R.G., Mitchell, C.J., Nasci, R.S., Tsai, T.F., Calisher, C.H., …& Gubler, D.J., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (1993). Guidelines for Arbovirus surveillance programs in the United States. Retrieved from

10 Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) Infects birds, horses and humans Signs and Symptoms: Mild: fever, general flu-like muscle pains, and headache (adults) Severe: coma and death in severe cases (children under 1 year most at risk) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health. (2011, February 16). Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet. USA.gov. Retrieved from

11 California Serogroup Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Average Annual Incidence by County, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, September 9). California Serogroup Virus Neuroinvasive Disease* Average Annual Incidence by County, La Crosse Encephalitis. Retrieved from National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health. (2011, February 16). Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet. USA.gov. Retrieved from

12 LaCrosse encephalitis (LAC) Most of the 100 cases per year diagnosed in the U.S. are children under 16 years of age. Signs and symptoms (rare): – Mild: vomiting, headache, fever, and lethargy – Severe: seizure, coma, and permanent neurologic damage National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health. (2011, February 16). Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet. USA.gov. Retrieved from

13 St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Cases Reported by State, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011b, June 13). St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Cases Reported by State, Retrieved from

14 St. Louis Encephalitis (SLEV) The CDC (2011a) reported an average of 102 cases annually (range 2-1,967) between 1964 and Cases are typically in late summer in temperate weathered areas of the country. Signs and symptoms: 7-10 days – Mild: headache and fever (children) – Severe: confusion and disorientation, tremors, and coma (elderly) One exception: convulsions (very young) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011a, June 13). Saint Louis Encephalitis. Epidemiology & geographic distribution. Retrieved from

15 Environmentally mindful prevention Personal Environment Community Making a world difference

16 Personal & Ambient environment- limited biting and breeding Personal Stay indoors (dusk and dawn). When outdoors: Wear long, loose and light- colored clothing. DEET Limit perfumes, scented soaps and lotions-better yet shower after. Travel planning Ambient Environment Clear roof, gutters and downspout screens Do not allow water to collect and stagnate Clean birdbaths, fountains, and wading pools weekly. Trim grass regularly. Illinois Department of Public Health. (n.d.). Prevention & control. Questions and Answers about Spraying for Adult Mosquitoes. Retrieved from Moeller, D.W. (2011). The scope. In Author (Ed.), Environmental Health (4 th Ed.), (pp.1-22). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Turner, S.L., Li, N., Guda, T., Githure, J., Carde, R.T. & Ray, A. (2011). Ultra-prolonged activation of CO2-sensing neurons disorients mosquitoes. Nature, 474,87–91. Retrieved from

17 Community level U.S. Vector Surveillance based on CDC guidelines (1993) examples: Monitoring rainfall and temperature Testing vertebrates (Cs. Melanura for EEE prevention) Community fogging efforts, pesticides Moore, C.G., McLean, R.G., Mitchell, C.J., Nasci, R.S., Tsai, T.F., Calisher, C.H., …& Gubler, D.J., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (1993). Guidelines for Arbovirus surveillance programs in the United States. Retrieved from Turner, S.L., Li, N., Guda, T., Githure, J., Carde, R.T. & Ray, A. (2011). Ultra-prolonged activation of CO2- sensing neurons disorients mosquitoes. Nature, 474,87–91. Retrieved from

18 Global Environmental Efforts As practitioners, stay vigilant to questionable symptoms. Increase natural predators of mosquitos. Reduce pollution to reduce global warming. – Consider alternatives to chemicals such as pesticides and household cleaners – CO2 emissions-seek alternative fuel sources and ways to limit use of electricity Knowlton, K., Solomon, G., Rotkin-Ellman, M. & the Natural Resources Defense Council. (2009). Mosquito-Borne Dengue Fever threat spreading in the Americas. Fever Pitch. National Resource Council Defense Paper. Retrieved from Shuman, E.K. (2011). Global climate change and infectious diseases. International Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2(1), Trevedi, B.P. (2011, October 24). The wipeout gene (Preview). Scientific American. Retrieved from

19 Think global, act local. Challenge

20 Additional Resources For more information on Vector Borne Diseases: – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Diseases. – World Health Organization, Vector Borne Diseases. For more information on what you can do to reduce mosquito population and alternative means to protect yourself: – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Pesticides and Mosquito control. – Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Public Health Medicine, Division of Environmental Health. – Journal of Pesticide Reform. Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Public Health Medicine, Division of Environmental Health. (n.d.). Mosquito-borne Diseases in Florida. Retrieved from Cox, C. (2005, Fall). Plant based mosquito repellents: Making careful choice. Journal of Pesticide Reform, 25(3). Retrieved from

21 References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Arboviral zoonosis transmission cycle. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009, October 16). La Crosse Encephalitis. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, April 18). West Nile Virus: What you need to know. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, June 10). Eastern Equine Encephalitis. Epidemiology & geographic distribution. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011a, June 13). Saint Louis Encephalitis. Epidemiology & geographic distribution. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011b, June 13). St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Cases Reported by State, Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010, August 16). Eastern Equine Encephalitis.. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, September 9). California Serogroup Virus Neuroinvasive Disease* Average Annual Incidence by County, La Crosse Encephalitis. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, January 10). West Nile Virus. Statistics, surveillance, and control. Retrieved from

22 References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector Borne Diseases. (2008, October 9). West Nile Virus diagnostic testing. Retrieved from Cox, C. (2005, Fall). Plant based mosquito repellents: Making careful choice. Journal of Pesticide Reform, 25(3). Retrieved from Illinois Department of Public Health. (n.d.). Prevention & control. Questions and Answers about Spraying for Adult Mosquitoes. Retrieved from Knowlton, K., Solomon, G., Rotkin-Ellman, M. & the Natural Resources Defense Council. (2009). Mosquito-Borne Dengue Fever threat spreading in the Americas. Fever Pitch. National Resource Council Defense Paper. Retrieved from Malaria No More. (2011). Retrieved from Moeller, D.W. (2011). The scope. In Author (Ed.), Environmental Health (4th Ed.), (pp.1-22). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Moore, C.G., McLean, R.G., Mitchell, C.J., Nasci, R.S., Tsai, T.F., Calisher, C.H., …& Gubler, D.J., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (1993). Guidelines for Arbovirus surveillance programs in the United States. Retrieved from National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Health. (2011, February 16). Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet. USA.gov. Retrieved from

23 References Shuman, E.K. (2011). Global climate change and infectious diseases. International Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2(1), Trevedi, B.P. (2011, October 24). The wipeout gene (Preview). Scientific American. Retrieved from Turner, S.L., Li, N., Guda, T., Githure, J., Carde, R.T. & Ray, A. (2011). Ultra-prolonged activation of CO2-sensing neurons disorients mosquitoes. Nature, 474,87–91. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2005, December 1). FDA Approves First Test to Screen for West Nile Virus in Donors of Blood, Organs, Cells and Tissues. FDA News Release. Retrieved from Virginia Department of Health. (2012) Vector-borne disease control. Virginia.gov. Retrieved from World Health Organization (WHO). (2012). West Nile virus. Fact Sheet. Retrieved from


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