Translation Translate the following sentence: Law is a common word, so common that most people never stop to consider what it means. Infinitive v. Gerund
Problems with defining law A common word An abstract notion Law v. morality Many possible definitions (each depending on the point of view of the person making it)
Law and morality Morality is what is right and wrong according to a set of values or beliefs governing a group’s behaviour Law and morality usually overlap on major issues, but may differ on other matters Positivists state that law and morality are essentially separate, while proponents of the natural law theory believe that law and morality should coincide
Possible definitions Law is a set of rules that plays an important part in the creation and maintenance of social order. John Austin’s definition: Law is a command issued from a Sovereign power to an inferior and enforced by coercion. Sir John Salmond’s definition: Law is the body of principles recognised and applied by the State in the administration of justice.
The most common definition in English legal textbooks Law: rules of conduct imposed by a state upon its members and enforced by the courts Elements of the definition: rules of conduct, state, courts
Rules of conduct Social purpose of law: to regulate human behaviour – hence rules of conduct v. simply rules
State A state – each state has different rules Upon its members – valid for the citizens of that state
The courts Law exists to establish social order in a manner defined by the interest of the rulers of society Crime and punishment Crime as an offence against the community punishable by the state – the state acts as the prosecutor
Reading exercise Read Unit 1 and list the words which are unfamiliar to you
Vocabulary Conform – pridržavati se Neglect - zanemarivanje Infraction – kršenje To violate a rule – prekršiti pravilo Coercion – prisila ili prinuda
Translation Translate Max Weber’s definition: A rule is a law if it is externally guaranteed by the probability that coercion (physical or psychological), to bring about conformity or avenge violation, will be applied by a staff of people holding themselves specially ready for that purpose.
Translate the following phrases with law: To break the law To read law To take the law into one’s hands To enact a law To be at law To lay down the law The rule of law
Answer key To break the law – kršiti zakon To read law – studirati pravo To take the law into one’s hands – krojiti pravdu To enact a law - ozakoniti To be at law – parničiti se To lay down the law – propisivati zakon ili pravila (nametati svoje tumačenje kao autoritativno) The rule of law – vladavina prava, pravna država
Find definitions for these basic terms: Legal action, court, tribunal, judge, the judiciary, legislation, rule, legal system, authority, govern A body that is appointed to make a judgement or inquiry _____________ A country’s body of judges __________ An act or acts passed by a law-making body ____________ Behaviour recognised by a community as binding _____________ Legal proceeedings ___________________ An official body that has authority to try criminals, resolve disputes, or make other legal decisions _______________ A senior official in a court of law ______________ The body or system of rules recognised by a community that are enforceable by established process______________ The control resulting from following a community’s system of rules _____________ To rule a society and control the behaviour of its members ______________
Answer key A body that is appointed to make a judgement or inquiry TRIBUNAL A country’s body of judges THE JUDICIARY An act or acts passed by a law-making body LEGISLATION Behaviour recognised by a community as binding RULE Legal proceeedings LEGAL ACTION An official body that has authority to try criminals, resolve disputes, or make other legal decisions COURT A senior official in a court of law JUDGE The body or system of rules recognised by a community that are enforceable by established process LEGAL SYSTEM The control resulting from following a community’s system of rules AUTHORITY To rule a society and control the behaviour of its members GOVERN