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Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership Chapter 1 - Introduction Northouse, 4 th edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership Chapter 1 - Introduction Northouse, 4 th edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership Chapter 1 - Introduction Northouse, 4 th edition

2 Chapter 1 - Introduction Overview  Conceptualizing Leadership  Leadership Definition  Components of the Definition  Followers & Leadership

3 Chapter 1 - Introduction Conceptualizing Leadership  The focus of group processes  A personality perspective  An act or behavior  In terms of the power relationship between leaders & followers  An instrument of goal achievement  A skills perspective Some definitions view leadership as:

4 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership Defined Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.

5 Chapter 1 - Introduction Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership  Is a process  Involves influence  Occurs within a group context  Involves goal attainment Leadership Leaders  Are not above followers  Are not better than followers  Rather, an interactive relationship with followers

6 Chapter 1 - Introduction LEADERSHIP DESCRIBED  Trait vs. Process Leadership  Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership  Leadership & Power  Leadership & Coercion  Leadership & Management

7 Chapter 1 - Introduction Trait vs. Process Leadership  Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders. – Resides in select people – Restricted to those with inborn talent Trait definition of leadership: LEADER FOLLOWERS Leadership Height Intelligence Extroversion Fluency Other Traits

8 Chapter 1 - Introduction Trait vs. Process Leadership  Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982). – Observed in leadership behaviors – Can be learned The process definition of Leadership: LEADER Leadership (Interaction) FOLLOWERS

9 Chapter 1 - Introduction Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership  Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization – Team leaders – Plant managers – Department heads – Directors  An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title –Emerges over time through communication behaviors  Verbal involvement  Being informed  Seek other’s opinions  Being firm but not rigid Assigned Emergent

10 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power  The capacity or potential to influence. –Ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes & actions  Referent  Expert  Legitimate  Reward  Coercive Power Bases of Social Power French & Raven (1959) Bases of Social Power French & Raven (1959) Power is a relational concern for both leaders and followers.

11 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power Five Bases of Power

12 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power  REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification and liking for the leader. –ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent power.  EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence. –ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country has expert power.  LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or formal job authority. –ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits legitimate power Five Bases of Power

13 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power  REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others. –ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard is using reward power.  COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others. –ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to practice is using coercive power. Five Bases of Power

14 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power  Power is influence derived from being seen as likable & knowledgeable – Referent – Expert Position Power Personal Power  Power derived from office or rank in an organization –Legitimate – Reward –Coercive Types and Bases of Power

15 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Coercion  Use of force to effect change  Influencing others to do something via manipulation of rewards and penalties in the work environment  Use of threats, punishments, & negative rewards  Adolf Hitler  Jim Jones  David Koresh Coercion Involves Examples of Coercive Leaders Power & restraint used to force followers to engage in extreme behavior

16 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) Management Activities Leadership Activities “Produces order and consistency” Planning & Budgeting Organizing & Staffing Controlling & Problem Solving “Produces change and movement” Establishing direction Aligning people Motivating / Inspiring Major activities of management & leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.

17 Chapter 1 - Introduction Major activities of management and leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper. Leadership & Management Kotter (1990)

18 Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Management Zaleznik (1977) Managers Unidirectional Authority Leaders Multidirectional Influence Are reactive Prefer to work with people on problem solving Low emotional involvement Are emotionally active & involved Shape ideas over responding to them Act to expand available options Change the way people think about what is possible


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