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Chapter 1 - Introduction

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1 Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership Chapter 1 - Introduction Northouse, 4th edition

2 Overview Conceptualizing Leadership Leadership Definition
Components of the Definition Followers & Leadership

3 Conceptualizing Leadership
Some definitions view leadership as: The focus of group processes A personality perspective An act or behavior In terms of the power relationship between leaders & followers An instrument of goal achievement A skills perspective Leader at center of group change & activity – represents the “will” of the group combo of special traits/characteristics - allows them to affect others to accomplish tasks. 3. Things leaders do that bring about change 4. Leaders have power and use it to cause change 5. In helping group members achieve their goals/meet needs

4 Leadership Leadership Defined
is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.

5 Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership
Is a process Involves influence Occurs within a group context Involves goal attainment Leaders Are not above followers Are not better than followers Rather, an interactive relationship with followers

6 LEADERSHIP DESCRIBED Trait vs. Process Leadership
Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership Leadership & Power Leadership & Coercion Leadership & Management

7 Trait vs. Process Leadership
Trait definition of leadership: Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders. Resides in select people Restricted to those with inborn talent LEADER Height Intelligence Extroversion Fluency Other Traits Leadership FOLLOWERS

8 Trait vs. Process Leadership
The process definition of Leadership: Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982). Observed in leadership behaviors Can be learned LEADER Leadership (Interaction) FOLLOWERS

9 Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization Team leaders Plant managers Department heads Directors An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title Emerges over time through communication behaviors Verbal involvement Being informed Seek other’s opinions Being firm but not rigid

10 Leadership & Power The capacity or potential to influence. Referent
Bases of Social Power French & Raven (1959) Power The capacity or potential to influence. Ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes & actions Referent Expert Legitimate Reward Coercive Power is a relational concern for both leaders and followers.

11 Leadership & Power Five Bases of Power

12 Leadership & Power Five Bases of Power
REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification and liking for the leader. ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent power. EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence. ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country has expert power. LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or formal job authority. ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits legitimate power

13 Leadership & Power Five Bases of Power
REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others. ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard is using reward power. COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others. ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to practice is using coercive power.

14 Leadership & Power Types and Bases of Power
Position Power Personal Power Power derived from office or rank in an organization Legitimate Reward Coercive Power is influence derived from being seen as likable & knowledgeable Referent Expert

15 Examples of Coercive Leaders
Leadership & Coercion Coercion Involves Examples of Coercive Leaders Use of force to effect change Influencing others to do something via manipulation of rewards and penalties in the work environment Use of threats, punishments, & negative rewards Adolf Hitler Jim Jones David Koresh Power & restraint used to force followers to engage in extreme behavior

16 Leadership & Management Kotter (1990)
Activities Leadership Activities “Produces order and consistency” “Produces change and movement” Planning & Budgeting Organizing & Staffing Controlling & Problem Solving Establishing direction Aligning people Motivating / Inspiring Major activities of management & leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.

17 Leadership & Management Kotter (1990)
Major activities of management and leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.

18 Leadership & Management Zaleznik (1977)
Managers Unidirectional Authority Leaders Multidirectional Influence Are emotionally active & involved Are reactive Shape ideas over responding to them Prefer to work with people on problem solving Act to expand available options Low emotional involvement Change the way people think about what is possible

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