2 Overview Conceptualizing Leadership Leadership Definition Components of the DefinitionFollowers & Leadership
3 Conceptualizing Leadership Some definitions view leadership as:The focus of group processesA personality perspectiveAn act or behaviorIn terms of the power relationship between leaders & followersAn instrument of goal achievementA skills perspectiveLeader at center of group change & activity – represents the “will” of the groupcombo of special traits/characteristics - allows them to affect others to accomplish tasks.3. Things leaders do that bring about change4. Leaders have power and use it to cause change5. In helping group members achieve their goals/meet needs
4 Leadership Leadership Defined is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
5 Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership Is a processInvolves influenceOccurs within a group contextInvolves goal attainmentLeadersAre not above followersAre not better than followersRather, an interactive relationship with followers
6 LEADERSHIP DESCRIBED Trait vs. Process Leadership Assigned vs. Emergent LeadershipLeadership & PowerLeadership & CoercionLeadership & Management
7 Trait vs. Process Leadership Trait definition of leadership:Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders.Resides in select peopleRestricted to those with inborn talentLEADERHeightIntelligenceExtroversionFluencyOther TraitsLeadershipFOLLOWERS
8 Trait vs. Process Leadership The process definition of Leadership:Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982).Observed in leadership behaviorsCan be learnedLEADERLeadership(Interaction)FOLLOWERS
9 Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership Leadership based on occupying a position within an organizationTeam leadersPlant managersDepartment headsDirectorsAn individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s titleEmerges over time through communication behaviorsVerbal involvementBeing informedSeek other’s opinionsBeing firm but not rigid
10 Leadership & Power The capacity or potential to influence. Referent Bases of Social PowerFrench & Raven (1959)PowerThe capacity or potential to influence.Ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes & actionsReferentExpertLegitimateRewardCoercivePower is a relational concern for both leaders and followers.
12 Leadership & Power Five Bases of Power REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification and liking for the leader.ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent power.EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence.ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country has expert power.LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or formal job authority.ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits legitimate power
13 Leadership & Power Five Bases of Power REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others.ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard is using reward power.COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others.ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to practice is using coercive power.
14 Leadership & Power Types and Bases of Power Position PowerPersonal PowerPower derived from office or rank in an organizationLegitimateRewardCoercivePower is influence derived from being seen as likable & knowledgeableReferentExpert
15 Examples of Coercive Leaders Leadership & CoercionCoercion InvolvesExamples of Coercive LeadersUse of force to effect changeInfluencing others to do something via manipulation of rewards and penalties in the work environmentUse of threats, punishments, & negative rewardsAdolf HitlerJim JonesDavid KoreshPower & restraint used to force followers toengage in extremebehavior
16 Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) ActivitiesLeadershipActivities“Produces orderand consistency”“Produces changeand movement”Planning & BudgetingOrganizing & StaffingControlling & Problem SolvingEstablishing directionAligning peopleMotivating / InspiringMajor activities of management & leadershipare played out differently; BUT, both are essentialfor an organization to prosper.
17 Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) Major activities of management and leadershipare played out differently;BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.
18 Leadership & Management Zaleznik (1977) ManagersUnidirectional AuthorityLeadersMultidirectional InfluenceAre emotionally active& involvedAre reactiveShape ideas overresponding to themPrefer to work withpeople on problemsolvingAct to expandavailable optionsLow emotionalinvolvementChange the way peoplethink about what ispossible