Chapter 1 - Introduction Conceptualizing Leadership The focus of group processes A personality perspective An act or behavior In terms of the power relationship between leaders & followers An instrument of goal achievement A skills perspective Some definitions view leadership as:
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership Defined Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
Chapter 1 - Introduction Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership Is a process Involves influence Occurs within a group context Involves goal attainment Leadership Leaders Are not above followers Are not better than followers Rather, an interactive relationship with followers
Chapter 1 - Introduction LEADERSHIP DESCRIBED Trait vs. Process Leadership Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership Leadership & Power Leadership & Coercion Leadership & Management
Chapter 1 - Introduction Trait vs. Process Leadership Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders. – Resides in select people – Restricted to those with inborn talent Trait definition of leadership: LEADER FOLLOWERS Leadership Height Intelligence Extroversion Fluency Other Traits
Chapter 1 - Introduction Trait vs. Process Leadership Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982). – Observed in leadership behaviors – Can be learned The process definition of Leadership: LEADER Leadership (Interaction) FOLLOWERS
Chapter 1 - Introduction Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization – Team leaders – Plant managers – Department heads – Directors An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title –Emerges over time through communication behaviors Verbal involvement Being informed Seek other’s opinions Being firm but not rigid Assigned Emergent
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power The capacity or potential to influence. –Ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes & actions Referent Expert Legitimate Reward Coercive Power Bases of Social Power French & Raven (1959) Bases of Social Power French & Raven (1959) Power is a relational concern for both leaders and followers.
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power Five Bases of Power
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification and liking for the leader. –ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent power. EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of the leader’s competence. –ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country has expert power. LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or formal job authority. –ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits legitimate power Five Bases of Power
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to provide rewards to others. –ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard is using reward power. COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity to penalize or punish others. –ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to practice is using coercive power. Five Bases of Power
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Power Power is influence derived from being seen as likable & knowledgeable – Referent – Expert Position Power Personal Power Power derived from office or rank in an organization –Legitimate – Reward –Coercive Types and Bases of Power
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Coercion Use of force to effect change Influencing others to do something via manipulation of rewards and penalties in the work environment Use of threats, punishments, & negative rewards Adolf Hitler Jim Jones David Koresh Coercion Involves Examples of Coercive Leaders Power & restraint used to force followers to engage in extreme behavior
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) Management Activities Leadership Activities “Produces order and consistency” Planning & Budgeting Organizing & Staffing Controlling & Problem Solving “Produces change and movement” Establishing direction Aligning people Motivating / Inspiring Major activities of management & leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.
Chapter 1 - Introduction Major activities of management and leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper. Leadership & Management Kotter (1990)
Chapter 1 - Introduction Leadership & Management Zaleznik (1977) Managers Unidirectional Authority Leaders Multidirectional Influence Are reactive Prefer to work with people on problem solving Low emotional involvement Are emotionally active & involved Shape ideas over responding to them Act to expand available options Change the way people think about what is possible