T HE E LEMENTS OF S HORT S TORIES Honors English I Hilary Hardin
IRONY Things are not as they seem Verbal—Words are used to twist the meaning. SARCASM Situational—the situation is the root of the irony. You try to get your brother in trouble for breaking the lamp; he tattles on you for chasing him into it. You end up grounded; he gets candy. Dramatic—the reader/viewer knows something that the character doesn’t know. This builds suspense. JAWS—We see the shark; the victim doesn’t.
P OINT OF V IEW First Person: The narrator is a character in the story. “I” is used Third Person Limited: The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of a selected character. In some cases, it may be more than one, but not often and not many more. Third Person Objective: The narrator knows only what the characters say or do. He cannot see into the hearts or heads of the characters. He or she is removed from the story. Third Person Omniscient: The narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of each character and relates that information to the reader.
S YMBOLISM When something (person, place, thing, idea) is used to represent something else (person, place, thing, idea). Symbols in The Pearl by John Steinbeck The scorpion—evil The pearl—in the beginning—luck or good fortune The pearl—in the end—destruction and greed Kino’s canoe—life because it was a means to make a living
P ARADOX any person, thing, situation, or statement exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature -- similar to an oxymoron. A paradoxical statement is SELF- CONTRADICTING while still possibly true!
E XAMPLES OF P ARADOXES This is the beginning of the end. Mozambique is a rich country of poor people. The following sentence is true. The above sentence is a lie. Please ignore the notice. The day of hanging will be a surprise. So, it can't happen at all. The man who wrote such a stupid sentence cannot write at all. A man drowned in the fountain of eternal life. Advertisement: If you are illiterate, then write to us and we will send you a free of charge instruction booklet on how to read. Most paradoxical statements from buzzle.com
M ORE P ARADOXICAL STATEMENTS AND EXAMPLES Answer truthfully (yes or no) to the following question: Will the next word you say be 'no'? They must go to war to make peace. To believe with certainty we must begin with doubting. - King Stanislaw II. I can resist anything except temptation. Freedom is not doing what you want, freedom is wanting to do what you have to do...this kind of freedom is always rooted in practiced habit. - Northrop Frye. God exists. None of the sentences in this pair is true. Deep down, he's really shallow. I must be cruel to be kind—Shakespeare, Hamlet All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others—George Orwell, Animal Farm Most paradoxical statements from buzzle.com
A LLEGORY A fictional story in which symbols are used to represent people, places, or ideas in real life. The story usually makes a strong statement about human existence or a social issue of concern. Animal Farm, by George Orwell\ Aesop’s Fables are examples of simple allegories. Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is an example of a classical allegory.
F LASHBACK The story is interrupted to take the reader/viewer into the past. This techniques helps to provide key information important to the plot. Homer tells his reader Odysseus’s story through flashback. TIME MACHINE
F ORESHADOWING The author drops hints or clues about what will happen later in the story. Juliet— “My grave is like to be my wedding bed.” Romeo-- " I dreamt my lady came and found me dead-- Strange dream, that gives a dead man leave to think!-- And breathed such life with kisses in my lips."
PLOT 1. Exposition—setting up the story (setting and characters introduced and reader sees how they relate to one another) 2. Rising Action– events happen that lead to the climax. This is where the conflict is introduced. 3. Climax—the moment the outcome of the story is defined. Big action or decision. 4. Falling action: the loose ends are tied up. 5.Resolution/Denoument –conflict is resolved and story ends.
A SSIGNMENT Prepare to read The Necklace by Guy de Maupassant by studying the background and author information on pg. 293. Then read the story on 294- 301 Next, answer questions 1-9 on page 302. Work hard on this assignment; I will check it, and we will share answers/discuss on Tuesday.