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Making Sense of Maps Doug R. Oetter Dept. of History and Geography Georgia College & State University 6 October 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Making Sense of Maps Doug R. Oetter Dept. of History and Geography Georgia College & State University 6 October 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Making Sense of Maps Doug R. Oetter Dept. of History and Geography Georgia College & State University 6 October 2004

2 Geography Study of Earth phenomena Includes an analysis of distributional patterns and interrelationships among these phenomena.

3 Two Branches of Geography Human geography –Populations & Migrations –Culture (Languages, Religions) –Regions –Trade & Transportation –Geopolitics Physical Geography –Meteorology –Geomorphology –Biogeography –Soil science

4 Technology, Tools, and Methods of Geography Maps Photographs and satellite images Surveying Global Positioning System Field work and remote measurements Instruments Geo-statistics

5 Maps Maps are a way to record and store information Maps are a means of analyzing locational distribution and spatial patterns Maps are a method of presenting information and communicating findings Maps are 2-dimensional representations of a 3-dimensional spheroid

6 Maps and Mapping Advantages of Maps –Graphic representations with symbolic language –Show spatial relationships with great efficiency –Can be changed through time and space –Useful to laypeople as well as geographers Limitations of Maps –Can never be completely accurate because they leave out detail and conditions change –Map distortion is inherent due to the Earth’s curvature

7 Global Grid Parallels are always parallel and evenly spaced –111 km (69 mi) Meridians converge at the poles Meridians and parallels cross at right angles

8 Map Projections

9 Essential Map Elements Title Legend Scale Orientation Metadata

10 Types of Maps Thematic Location Distribution Topographic Isolines Charts

11 Thematic Focuses attention on one feature or theme Shows the distribution of a single attribute or the relationship among several

12 Location Shows geographic situation and other important locational information

13 Distribution Dot map shows relative density by position and number of dots

14 Isolines Isolines show boundaries between areas of equal value –Elevation –Air temperature –Precipitation

15 Topographic Contour lines plus surface features

16 Charts Specially designed to serve the needs of nautical and aeronautical navigators

17 Small vs. Large Scale Small scale –small amount of detail –small RF Large scale –large detail –large RF

18 Exercise 1: What Type of Map is This? What does it show? What scale is it?

19 What makes a Good Map? What is the motive, intent, or goal of the map? Who will read the map? Where will the map be used? What data are available for the composition of the map? What resources are available in terms of both time and equipment?

20 Exercise 2: Can you Make a Map? Mental Maps –A person's perception of the world is known as a mental map. –A mental map is an individual's own internal map of their known world.

21 Traditional Mapping Methods Manual technologies –Hand-drawn from navigators Magnetic technology –Compass Mechanical technology –Printing press –Photography –Field stations & surveying –Air photos –Stereoscopes and zoom transfers

22 Digital technology Hardware Software Data

23 Modern Mapping Methods GIS Remote Sensing –Active Emitting and detecting reflected signal –Passive Detecting reflected sunlight or thermal signal Computer Cartography

24 GIS Digitizer Geocoding Attributes Digital Imagery Digital Elevation Models Point, Line, and Polygon Features

25 Remote Sensing Gathering and interpretation of all types of aerial and space imagery

26 Aerial Photography Vertical vs. oblique True color, near-infrared

27 Passive Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Scanning (TIR) Multi-spectral sensors –Landsat –SPOT –Ikonos –MODIS

28 Computer Cartography

29 Exercise 3: GIS Demonstration

30 Map Links Map, maps, maps: All about "The World of Maps - Die Welt der Karten" Map Collections Home Page PCL Map Collection Mapping History: The Darkwing Atlas Project MapQuest! Welcome! Excite Maps: Map a U.S. Address GlobeXplorer TopoZone - The Web's Topographic Map Digital Chart of the World Digital Atlas of Idaho The Virtual Earth Atlas of the World Early Washington Maps: A Digital Collection Cartographic Images Home Page USGS National Mapping Information: Home Page Maps101 Plus--Educational Maps--Demo Area Atlas Maps - The National Atlas of the United States of America 3G on W3: The Great Globe Gallery on the World Wide Web David Rumsey Historical Map Collection Heritage Antique Map Museum *The Map Guide!* - Map links to World, Country and more maps Raven Maps and Images - "World's most beautiful maps!" Historical Photography of Oregon Oddens bookmarks Earth Sciences & Map Library Home Page Graphic Maps Worlimania - sphere Xerox PARC Map Viewer: world 0.00N 0.00E (1.0X) Amazing Map Collections - MAPS.COM Color Landform Atlas of the United States DeLorme | Maps and Mapping Software Globes, Wallmaps, Topographic Maps, US Maps, the World and the Universe Beyond Maps.com - The Place for Maps Online DRG Maps Map Images and Geographic Information On the Web Find Retailer - USGS Mapping Business Partner Home Page Duiker/Spielvogel Interactive Maps Table of Contents -- Library of Congress Geography and Maps: An Illustrated Guide Oddens' bookmarks. The Fascinating World of Maps and Mapping

31 Historical Maps http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/map_sites/hist_sites.html

32 Internet Resources http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/

33 Internet Resources http://ecaimaps.berkeley.edu/clearinghouse/

34 Internet Resources http://www.timemap.net/

35 Internet Resources http://www2.cr.nps.gov/gis/

36 Internet Resources http://www.geographynetwork.com/

37 Internet Resources http://www.esri.com/library/journals/archaeology/index.html


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