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Fascism, Nazism, and Communism in Europe

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Presentation on theme: "Fascism, Nazism, and Communism in Europe"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fascism, Nazism, and Communism in Europe
Mr. White’s World History

2 Objectives After this section, we should be able to:
Explain how fascism and Nazism grew in power in Europe Explain how communist leaders worked to control the USSR

3 Part I: Italian Fascism
Benito Mussolini and the Fascist party took power in Italy following World War I.

4 Totalitarianism During World War I, many governments had adopted increased control over most aspects of life to support the war effort After the war, many non-democratic nations adopted this approach to peacetime government, as well Totalitarian governments resulted, in which the government sought to control every aspect of its citizens lives

5 Italy’s Problems Many Italians were unhappy after World War I
Thought Italy had been cheated at the Paris Peace Conference Heavy unemployment for returning soldiers, strikes, peasants seized land The Italian government wasn’t able to do anything to relieve these problems

6 Benito Mussolini In 1919, Benito Mussolini, a former socialist, formed a new political party – the Fasci di Combattimento (Fascist party) Totalitarian government that supported: Glorification of the state Single-party system with strong ruler Aggressive nationalism Expand and increase glory through war, if necessary

7 Mussolini and the Blackshirts
Mussolini, as head of the fascist party, was able to use the unrest and discontent, plus the violence of the fascist blackshirts, to take power as prime minister 1924 election – Blackshirts used intimidation and beatings to make sure people voted only for fascist candidates Mussolini and the fascists worked to end democratic government in Italy

8 Mussolini’s rule Many Italians opposed fascism – Mussolini and the fascists responded by saying that “the masses must obey.” Most Italians supported Mussolini Opposed communism and revolution Brought order to the nation Mussolini rekindled feelings of patriotism in Italians and spoke of a future of renewed Italian power

9 Part II: Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party took power in Germany.

10 Weimar Republic Germany had adopted a democratic form of government after the war known as the Weimar Republic This government struggled with Germany’s post-war problems and tried to hold onto power In 1920, nationalist army officers tried to overthrow the government; failed

11 Germany’s Problems German war reparations had been set at $35 billion – German government, in 1922, said it couldn’t pay the reparations France sent troops into Germany and took over coal mines and steel mills; German workers went on strike To make the payments, the German government began to print more money – inflation soared In the mid 1920s, Germany and France made an agreement to decrease the payments – Germany began to recover slightly

12 Hitler and the Nazis Many different political parties opposed the Weimar government – among them was the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei Adolf Hitler joined the Nazi party after World War I, and formed the Sturmabteilung (SA), or brownshirts, a paramilitary group of young veterans and street thugs Hitler attempted to seize power in 1923, but was arrested

13 Mein Kampf In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf, a book that outlined the basic beliefs of Nazism Communists, Jews, and other groups were responsible for Germany’s defeat in World War I Germans made up a master race that should rise in power and expand Hitler and the Nazis created a false history behind why the Germans were a master race

14 Hitler’s Rise After Hitler got out of prison, he continued his leadership of the Nazi party During the Great Depression, he promised to end unemployment in Germany Also promised to restore Germany’s military power In the early 1930s, the Nazis gained a large number of seats in the Reichstag, Germany’s law-making lower house In 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany

15 Reichstag Fire Hitler still didn’t have enough power to set up a totalitarian government A week before new elections were to be held, the Reichstag building burned to the ground – Hitler blamed communists The SA forced German voters to back the Nazis, who took many more seats in the Reichstag After the elections, Hitler was granted emergency powers to deal with the “communist threat.”

16 Nazi Reforms All parties except the Nazi party were banned
Freedom of speech, press, religion, and assembly were limited Nazi government took over factories and production, also controlled churches

17 Nuremberg Laws 1935 – Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws, taking away citizenship from Jews, banning them from schools November 9 and 10th, 1938 – Nazis attacked Jews on the streets and vandalized Jewish property; Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) arrested Jews and political opponents, some shot Jews and others were rounded up and sent to concentration camps

18 Hitler’s Rule Now with absolute power, Hitler adopted the title, “der Fuhrer” – leader Set about to restore Germany’s power Ignored the Treaty of Versailles and ordered German factories to begin building weapons, ammunition, planes, tanks, etc. Stopped payments to the Allies

19 Nazi Controls To glorify Nazism, the Nazis brought all art, architecture, learning, etc., under the control of the government – many of Germany’s brightest minds left Propaganda praising the government flooded the population Stressed the importance of devotion to the nation The Nazis even set up youth organizations to teach young children the beliefs of Nazism (Hitlerjugend)

20 Part III: the USSR Lenin and Stalin worked to increase the power of the USSR, and the power of the communist government.

21 Lenin and the USSR V.I. Lenin had taken power in Russia as part of the communist revolution Lenin brought all major industries under state control, but early in his rule, allowed some small industries to operate privately Russia changed its name to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR In theory, the state was controlled by the workers, but in reality, it was controlled by the government and the Communist party

22 Josef Stalin Lenin dies of a stroke; in 1922 Josef Stalin takes over
Stalin thought the USSR should concentrate on growing strong, and that this would encourage communist revolutions in other nations Stalin was a capable administrator, and was also paranoid, cold, and ruthless

23 Five Year Plans Stalin wanted to transform the USSR into an industrial power Announced Five Year Plans to reorganize industrial and agricultural production under government control Built heavy industry and collectivized farming at the expense of consumer goods The Five Year Plans and Stalin’s reign were characterized by tight control and careful planning – often inefficient and clumsy

24 Farm Collectivization
Stalin brought farms under government control; thought it would be more efficient and would allow for a surplus He also used collectivization to intimidate anti-Communist peasants Many collectivizations resulted in revolts by the peasants; the government put down this resistance and often sent these people to prison camps or starved them into submission

25 Terror and Control Stalin demanded complete obedience from his people and used terror as a government tool Used secret police to keep an eye on people and their actions Stalin purged the government and Communist party of elements that he thought might be disloyal; extremely paranoid

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