Presentation on theme: "MALES AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION Alexis V. Marbach March 2, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
MALES AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION Alexis V. Marbach March 2, 2010
ESTER SOLER, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR AT THE FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION FUND In the end we cannot change society unless we put more men at the table, amplify mens voices in the debate, enlist men to help change social norms on the issue, and convince men to teach their children that violence against women is always wrong (Katz, p. 10) Katz, J. (2006). The Macho Paradox: Why Some Men Hurt Women and How All Men Can Help. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc.
CAN IT REALLY BE THAT HARD? Think about two men in your life. Have you tried to engage these men in the movement to end sexual violence? Why or why not? If you have, how did they respond? Did their responses encourage or discourage you from talking to more males about getting involved?
LETS CHECK OUR OWN ASSUMPTIONS… Men have been socialized into a misogynistic culture… but so have women!
OTHER REASONS THE MAJORITY OF MALES DO NOT GET INVOLVED The way we, in the movement, and as public health students frame the issue: womens issue addressing men vs. involving men Way we discuss violence as a culture What a male might have to admit or resign to get involved. The powerful influences of male culture and male peer culture
SOCIAL NORMS THEORY People misperceive the extent to which their peers hold certain attitudes or participate in certain behaviors. When people dont know their peers real attitudes or beliefs, they are likely to be influenced by what they think peers think and do rather than what they actually think and do. How do we change the norms?
Masculine NormsNegative Consequences Strong, daring, and braveRisky Behaviors: physical danger from daring acts and excessive drug or alcohol Use of violence (proving and policing gender norms) Failure to use available services, such as health care Provider and protector (of women)Stress or shame for not fulfilling those roles Use of violence Heterosexual and sexually activeHomophobia Sexual violence, date rape Unsafe sexual practices (real men dont use condoms and do have multiple partners) Do not show emotions: boys dont cryInability to express emotions in healthy ways Psychological disorders Entitled to privileges and services from women Perpetuating sexism and other oppressive behaviors Others?
Males seek the approval of other males, both identifying with and competing against them. If mens perceptions of collective masculine norms can be shifted, then individual men may shift as well (Flood, 2004). Gloucester Men Against Domestic Violence g/cgi- bin/commerce.cgi?pre add=action&key=219 Flood, M. (2004) Changing Men: Best practice in violence prevention work with men. Home Truths Conference: Stop sexual assault and domestic violence: A national challenge, Melbourne, September.
WHERE ARE THESE MESSAGES COMING FROM? HOW ARE THEY REINFORCED? feature=player_embedded feature=player_embedded Rape myths: Burt (1980) defined the term rape myth as prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists (Foulbert & Marriott, 1997) Foubert, J.D. & K.A. Marriott. Effects of a Sexual Assault Peer Education Program on Mens Belief in Rape Myths. Sex Roles, Vol. 36, Nos ¾, 1997, pg
WHY DO WE CARE ABOUT RAPE MYTHS? Recent research focusing on rape prevention had used a mans agreement with rape myths as a measure of his potential for raping a woman (Schaeffer & Nelson, 1993; Symanski, Devlin, Chrsiler, & Vyse, 1993). Endorsement of rape myths (e.g. women falsely report rape to call attention to themselves) is related to mens reported intent to rape (Breire & Malamulth, 1983; Hamilton & Yee, 1990; Malamuth, 1981) and is higher among men who admit to rape (Malamuth, 1981). Foubert, J.D. & K.A. Marriott. Effects of a Sexual Assault Peer Education Program on Mens Belief in Rape Myths. Sex Roles, Vol. 36, Nos ¾, pg
As one of the co-founders of MOVE (Men Overcoming Violence), Michael Radetsky, has noted: "An article of faith from the beginning was that men's violence was learned. Abusive behavior didn't come with the plumbing. That's what made it possible to even think about doing the work. If it was learned, it could be unlearned."
Change individual norms and small group dynamics Change group norms Change institutional norms Effective male engagement in sexual violence prevention
3 DIFFERENT KINDS OF PREVENTION WORK ON THE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL From the World Health Organizations Engaging men and boys in changing gender-based inequity in health: Evidence from programme interventions Gender neutral Gender sensitive Gender transformative World Health Organization (2007). Engaging men and boys in changing gender- based inequity in health: Evidence from programme interventions. Geneva.
Gender neutral: programs that distinguish little between the need of men and women, neither reinforcing nor questioning gender roles. Gender sensitive: recognize the specific needs and realities of men based on the social constructs of gender roles. Gender transformative: approaches that seek to transform gender roles and promote more gender equitable relationships between men and women. Identified as the most successful programming.
MEN CAN STOP RAPE Mobilizes male youth to prevent mens violence against. We build young mens capacity to challenge harmful aspects of traditional masculinity, to value alternative visions of male strength, and to embrace their vital role as allies with women and girls in fostering healthy relationships and gender equity (www.mystrength.org)
MOST / MYSTRENGTH CAMPAIGN
MENTORS IN VIOLENCE PREVENTION MVP STRATEGIES Men are not perpetrators or potential perpetrators, but actively engaged bystanders that can stand up to abusive peers as well as support abused peers. Engage powerful and influential members of a campus community Jackson Katz
WHITE RIBBON CAMPAIGN Men have traditionally been silent and through that silence, have allowed the violence to continue. White Ribbon Campaign breaks the silence, encourages active participation with the community as well as political bodies.
SO MANY MORE What about the ones you looked at for homework? Did any stand out to you? Any you liked, disliked, had already had experiences with?
QUESTIONS TO ASK OURSELVES BEFORE WE LAUNCH INTO A PROGRAM What does the evaluation of each program measure? How well does the program work? Does it measure attitudes associated with a proclivity to violence or does it measure actual violent acts? Challenge of social desirability: distinguishing between actual behavior and attitudes and the fact that men may tell researchers what they think that they want to hear* How are the facilitators trained? Are they trained to respond to males that are victims? Thinking especially about Mentors in Violence Prevention *World Health Organization (2007). Engaging men and boys in changing gender- based inequity in health: Evidence from programme interventions. Geneva.
ENABLING AND INSPIRING MEN: BUILDING ON THE POSITIVE Flood suggests that male sexual assault prevention programs should: Use men as facilitators and peer educators Minimize defensiveness Find and build on non-violent behaviors, attitudes and values. Encourage victim empathy Enable men as bystanders Undermine mens conformity to sexist peer norms utilizing the social norms approach
ALL PROGRAMS SHOULD… Address social diversity and sexual diversity. Cultural competency in sexual violence prevention and intervention is a very important and worthwhile topic to discuss. Unfortunately, given the time constraints of this presentation, I will not be spending time discussing cultural competency as it relates to males and sexual violence prevention. Programs should also address the issue of male sexual violence perpetrated against other males. Another issue that I would like to address is perpetration of rape as a right of initiation for street gangs.
WHAT DOES INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE LOOK LIKE? What can a school do to change social norms regarding male participation in ending sexual violence? What could a workplace do? Law enforcement? Government?
WHERE SHOULD WE MOVE IN THE FUTURE? As Emily stated before, we are the ones that are going to need to solve these problems! After this brief introduction to the topic, where should we go next?