Presentation on theme: "Heather Davis, M.Ed. Texas A&M University August 19th 2014"— Presentation transcript:
1Heather Davis, M.Ed. Texas A&M University August 19th 2014 Social and Emotional Development for Young Children Using Positive Behavior SupportsHeather Davis, M.Ed.Texas A&M UniversityAugust 19th 2014Adapted from: Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2009). The Teaching Pyramid: A model for the implementation of classroom practices within a program-wide approach to behavior support. NHSA Dialogue, 12(2),
2How Teachers’ Impact Learning Interactions between a teacher and a child foster social, behavioral, and cognitive development in the early years of schooling and many years later (Hamre, Hatfield, Pianta, & Jamil, 2014)Delays in social-emotional and behavioral development for children entering early childhood settings are reported by teachers as one of the greatest challenges in educating young children (Whitted, 2014)Children who are unsuccessful at meeting classroom behavioral expectations early on often face rejection from both their peers and teachers (Chang, 2003; Coie & Dodge, 1998)The Center for Evidence-Based Practice (2004) stated, “Early appearing behavioral problems during a child’s preschool years are the single best predictors of school dropout, delinquency, gang membership, and adult incarceration” (p. 1).1. Teachers’ interactions with children are resources that foster social, behavioral, and cognitive development in the early years of schooling and beyond (e.g., Curby et al., 2009; Hamre & Pianta, 2005;O’Connor & McCartney, 2007)2. Yet, it is not children’s delays in cognitive skills that concern kindergarten teachers; it is the children’ssocial-emotional and behavioral deficits that alarms them (Rimm-Kaufman, Pianta, & Cox, 2000). Kindergarten teachers report that their single greatest challenge is that a majority of the children lack some or all of the needed social and emotional competencies necessary for school success (Arnold,McWilliams,&Arnold, 1998). In a national survey of more than 3,000 teachers, 30% of kindergarten teachers reported that at least half of the children in their classes lacked academic skills and had difficulty following directions and working in a group, and 20% reported that at least half the class had problems with social skills (Rimm-Kaufman et al.)3. In return, childrenwho are unable to meet the behavioral expectationsof the classroom face rejection from educators and peers(Chang, 2003; Coie & Dodge, 1998). When this occurs,children quickly become alienated from the school setting.In response, these children become increasingly frustratedin their academic environment and either become withdrawnand socially isolated or act out behaviorally. Underthese conditions, teaching and learning cannot occur,and far too often, a trajectory of school failure is set inplace.4. The Center forEvidence-Based Practice (2004) stated, “Early appearingbehavioral problems during a child’s preschool years arethe single best predictors of school dropout, delinquency,gangmembership, and adult incarceration” (p. 1).
3Understanding Social & Emotional Development for Young Children Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2009). The Teaching Pyramid: A model for the implementation of classroom practices within a program-wide approach to behavior support. NHSA Dialogue, 12(2),
4The Goal of the Pyramid is to Promote Children’s Success By: Creating an environment where EVERY child feels good about coming to school.Designing an environment that promotes child engagement.Focusing on teaching children what TO DO!Teach expectations and routines.Teach skills that children can use in place of challenging behaviors.
5Key Social Emotional Skills Children Need as They Enter School ConfidenceCapacity to develop good relationships with peers and adultsConcentration and persistence on challenging tasksAbility to effectively communicate emotionsAbility to listen to instructions and be attentiveAbility to solve social problemsWhat do children do when they don’t have each of these skills?
6Building Relationships Why is it important?The relationships that we build with children, families, and colleagues are at the foundation of everything we do. It is important to build these relationships early on rather than waiting until there is a problem.Children learn and develop in the context of relationships that are responsive, consistent, and nurturing.6
7Building Relationships Helps each child feel accepted in the groupAssists children in learning to communicate and get along with othersEncourages feelings of empathy and mutual respect among children and adultsProvides a supportive environment in which children can learn and practice appropriate and acceptable behaviors as individuals and as a group
8Examining Attitudes about Challenging Behaviors Preschool: Module 14/15/2010Examining Attitudes about Challenging BehaviorsWhat behaviors push your button?How do these behaviors make you feel?What is your response when these behaviors occur?How does this impact your relationship with a child and his/her family?CHART PAPER Activity: have teachers list the behaviors, discuss with their neighbor, and then share with whole groupDiscuss how we all have different “button” pushers
9Reframing Activity In pairs or in small groups: Read the four examples listed. Have participants take each of their “hot buttons,” reread it, and consider how they can reframe the behavior.In reframing the challenging behaviors, do not come up with solutions but rather restate the behaviors to make them more manageable.Be prepared to share your ideas with the large group.CHART PAPER: SMALL GROUP AND LARGE GROUP DISCUSSION
10Teach Me What to Do Instead Friendship skillsFollowing rules, routines and directionsIdentifying feelings in self and othersControlling anger and impulseProblem solving
11Building Positive Relationships by Making Deposits Maintain a 5:1 (positive to negative) Give attention when the child is engaged in appropriate behaviors
12It All Adds Up Deposits: Withdrawals: Active Listening No Wait Time Preschool: Module 14/15/2010It All Adds UpDeposits:Active ListeningWait TimeObservationMirroringSelf TalkParallel TalkReflectionExpansionModelingWithdrawals:NoDon’tStopDemands - directionsUsing a loud voiceIntimidating requestMirroring: Imitate the child’s actions and vocalizations; acknowledge the childSelf-Talk: Talk about what you are doing, thinking, and /or feelinge.g. “I feel happy when you hold my hand.”“I am stirring my coffee.”“I feel hungry, I think I will eat something.”Parallel Talk: State what the child is doing, or possibly thinking or feelinge.g. “You are singing a song.”“You feel sad that we need to leave.”Vocal and Verbal Reflection: Let the child know you are listening.Acknowledge that what they are saying is accepted. Repeat the word or phrase exactly how they said it or model the correct pronunciation.Expansion/Modeling: Make a statement using some or all of the child’s word and expand it. This will provide the child with a meaningful language model.e.g. child “car.”Adult says “red car goes.”
13“Every child needs one person who is crazy about him “Every child needs one person who is crazy about him.” -Uri Bronfenbrenner
14High Quality Supportive Environments Changed visual-MJThe Pyramid Model provides a conceptual framework for the evidence-based practices that are used to promote the healthy social development of all young children. The first tier of the model, promotion practices, describe the strategies that are used to promote and support the optimal social development of all children. The prevention tier of the model includes targeted, social emotional supports that are provided to the smaller number of children who at risk of social delays and challenging behavior. The tip of the pyramid includes the individualized intervention practices necessary to address the challenging behavior or intervention needs of the very small number of children who have persistent problems or are in need of more intensive support.Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2009). The Teaching Pyramid: A model for the implementation of classroom practices within a program-wide approach to behavior support. NHSA Dialogue, 12(2),14
15High Quality Supportive Environments Engagement for Every ChildUniversal Design for LearningMaking Accommodations, Providing Support
16Classroom Arrangement and Environmental Supports Physical DesignEnvironmental CuesSchedules and RoutinesTransitionsPromoting Engagement During Large and Small Group ActivitiesSimple Rules/ExpectationsOngoing Monitoring and Positive Attention
17What is This Environment Telling Children to Do? Physical DesignEnvironmental CuesTransitionsWhat is This Environment Telling Children to Do?
18Providing Choices Schedules & Routines Provide visual cues that allow children to make choices in engaging activities where applicable in the classroom
20Teaching New Skills: Stages of Learning Show and TellAcquisition: new skill or conceptPractice Makes PerfectFluency: the ability to immediately use the skill or concept without a promptYou Got It!Maintenance: continuing to use the skill or concept over timeGeneralization: applying the skill or concept to new situations, people, activities, ideas, and settings
21Promoting the Social Development of All Children Teach the whole classCircle timeCentersSmall group activitiesPartnering with familiesTarget the individual skill instruction needs of each childEmbedded instructionPrompting and priming (ounce of prevention)
22Learning About Our Feelings Recognizing and relating with others’ feelingsRecognize anger in oneself and othersUnderstanding appropriate ways to express angerLearning how to calm downRecognizing our feelings and using self- regulation22
24Checking InTeachers and children can “check in” each morning by choosing a feeling face that best describes their affective state and putting it next to their name.Children can be encouraged to change their feeling faces throughout the day as their feelings change.
25Turtle Technique Recognize that you feel angry. “Think” Stop. Go into shell. Take 3 deep breaths. And think calm, coping thoughts.Come out of shell when calm and think of a solution.
26How would everyone feel? Problem Solving StepsWould it be safe?Would it be fair?How would everyone feel?
27Help the Child Think of a Possible Solution: Get an adultAsk nicelyIgnorePlaySay, “Please stop.”Say, “Please.”ShareTrade toys/itemWait and take turnsGet an Adult
28When Children Lack Key Social Emotional Skills Structure a supportive learning environmentMake deposits with positive reinforcement and praiseIndividually teach children who are missing social emotional skillsTarget the skills that are most importantIncrease learning opportunities to teach and practice