Presentation on theme: "Feature Menu Fast Facts Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy"— Presentation transcript:
1The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Introduction to the Literary Period Feature MenuFast FactsKey Concept: The Anglo-Saxon LegacyKey Concept: The Normans Invade BritainKey Concept: Life in Medieval SocietyYour Turn
2The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Fast Facts Historical HighlightsThe Romans invade Britain in 55 B.C. and create a four-hundred-year period of political stability.King Alfred and his descendants unite Anglo-Saxon England in the late ninth century.William the Conqueror defeats the Anglo-Saxons in 1066 and introduces feudalism to Britain.
3The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Fast Facts Literary HighlightsThe brooding fatalism of pagan Anglo-Saxon culture gives the first British epic, Beowulf, its melancholy tone and stress on earthly heroism.The bards ensure stories have an important position in early British culture.Christian monks copy ancient manuscripts, preserving classical and Anglo-Saxon texts.Chivalry gives rise to a new form of literature, the romance.[End of Section]
4Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy History of the TimesAfter the legions of Rome conquered the Celts, Roman armies kept Britain free from invaders.Troubles at home forced Rome to evacuate its soldiers in A.D. 409, opening Britain to invasion.
5Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy 55 B.C.Hadrian’s WallJulius Caesar invades Britain.A.D. 43Celts defeated by Claudius.Romans build walls, villas, baths, roads.A.D. 409Romans evacuate their troops.Britain left vulnerable to attack.Roman ruinsCentral government breaks down.
6Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Celts in Britain—before fourth century A.D.Britain home to several Celtic tribes.Britain named for one Celtic tribe—the Brythons.Celtic religion a form of animism.Druids were Celtic priests.Stonehenge
7Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy JutesAnglesSaxonsCeltsA.D. 449 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes sweep ashore from Germany. The invaders push the Celts into the far west of Britain.
8Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy History of the TimesAngle and Saxon clans impose warrior culture on the island for six centuries.Until ninth century, Britain is subject to constant invasions and battles.King Alfred unites Anglo-Saxons against the invading Danes.The spread of Christianity helps unify the Anglo-Saxons.
9Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Anglo-Saxon SocietyKinship groups led by strong warrior chief.Constant threat of war bonded local clans through harsh living conditions.People farmed, established local governments, and produced fine craftwork.English emerged as a written language.
10Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Invasion of the DanesThe Danes were one of the fierce Viking peoples who crossed the North Sea in their dragon-prowed boats, plundering and destroying everything in their path.
11Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy 8th–9th centuriesVikings called Danes invade Britain.871 Alfred of Wessex is king of England.878 King Alfred unifies the Anglo and Saxon clans against the Danes.King Sweyn and his Danish troops arrive in England, from a manuscript (c. 14th century)England becomes a nation.
12Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Around A.D. 400Christian monks settle in Britain.Christianity and Anglo-Saxon culture co-exist.Christianity’s hope of an afterlife becomes more appealing than Anglo-Saxon religion.By A.D. 699Christianity replaces British pagan religions.
13Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Anglo-Saxon religionNorse god Thoroffered no hope of an afterlifevalued earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendshipwas similar to what we call Norse mythologyThunorThorWodenOdinWeekdayAnglo-Saxon godNorse godWednesdayThursday
14Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Literature of the TimesAnglo-Saxon literature is rooted in oral tradition.Poetry, like fighting, hunting, and farming, had great significance.Bards relied on sound devices and repeated phrases to remember their tales.Old English epic poem Beowulf combines Germanic heroism and Anglo-Saxon fatalism.
15Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy The Anglo-Saxon bardsalso called scopsstrummed harp as they sangsang of heroic deedswere often warriorsWhy were the scops important?Anglo-Saxons did not believe in an afterlife.Anglo-Saxon harpWarriors gained fame and immortality through songs.
16Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Literature of the TimesEnglish emerges as a written language.Christian monks copy ancient manuscripts, preserving classical and Anglo-Saxon texts.Historical poems in Anglo-Saxon Chronicle detail events of early English history.
17Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy The Book of KellsIn 760 A.D. monks began creating The Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript of Latin Gospels.This page reflects the opening words of St. Matthew’s Gospel.
18Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Comprehension CheckWhat event led to the Anglo-Saxon invasion of the British provinces?[End of Section]18
19Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain History of the TimesIn the Norman invasion of 1066, William the Conqueror defeats the Anglo-Saxons.To squash revolts, William divided the land among his loyal barons and built castles around the country.By establishing a social structure called feudalism, William created a hierarchy of rulers under one lord and a network of thousands of knights sworn to serve him.
20Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain William the Conquerora duke from Normandy, France, claimed the English throne had been promised to himcrosses the English Channel with a huge armydefeats King Harold and the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings
21Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain The Normans Change Englandland divided among William’s followers from Normandymore contact with European civilizationFrench replaces English as language of the ruling classNormans add law and order to Anglo-Saxon’s democratic and artistic achievements
22Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain KingLords powerful landownersVassals did work or military service for feudal lords in exchange for landSerfs servants to lords and vassals, bound to their master’s landFeudalismsocial, economic, and military systembased on a religious concept of ranksome vassals appointed by king in return for loyaltylords (powerful vassals) appoint their own vassals
23Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain Knights in Shining Armorprovided military service to lordsoften the sons of noblesbegan training at an early agewore very heavy armor into battlefollowed a code of chivalry
24Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain Literature of the TimesOld English disappears from laws and literature after William makes French the language of the state.Reflecting the chasm between the British masses and the Norman rulers, literature was usually written in Latin or Norman French after 1066.Bibles and gospels created in monasteries were celebrated for their brilliant illuminated manuscripts, all created by hand.
25Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain Comprehension CheckHow was William the Conqueror able to form such a powerful army following his victory in 1066?[End of Section]25
26Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society History of the TimesMedieval society was dependent on strictly defined social classes—nobility, knights, priests, merchants, and peasants.The contributions of each group affected how well villages and towns prospered.Villages, built around castles, were the fundamental center of medieval society.Social mobility was nearly impossible in the Middle Ages. Social rank remained fixed.
27Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society The Middle AgesThis illustration from the Golf Book of Hours shows peasants taking a break from their work in the fields.The bulk of society consisted of laborers. Peasants owned their land; serfs did not. Serfs were little more than slaves to their overlords.
28Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Growth of Cities and Townsmost merchants and artisans lived in villagesmerchant class—people earn their own moneyvillagers viewed themselves as having more freedom for arttownspeople’s tastes influence arts, ballads, plays, and so on
29Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Social StatusRegardless of how hard a merchant worked or how much money an artisan earned, social status was fixed.A family’s only hope was to apprentice a son to a higher vocation or “marry up” a daughter to a husband from a higher class.
30Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Literature of the TimesSome medieval writers began to use the vernacular, or language of the people.Works written in English, such as ballads and romances, helped to define England’s identity.A new literary form—the romance—becomes popular, reflecting the concepts of courtly love and chivalry.Scholarly works from monasteries and universities reflect society’s interest in moral instruction and morality plays.
31Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society The Romancenew genre of literatureinspired by legends of chivalrous knightshero goes on quest to conquer evil enemyhero often has magical helpMalory’s Le Morte d’Arthur (from a 14th c manuscript)includes stories of distant, idealized courtly love
32Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Courtly LoveThe knightadored the lady and was inspired by herglorified the lady in wordsThe ladyremained pure and out of reachwas set above her admirer
33Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Code of ChivalryA code of conduct that coveredwhom to defend—knight’s lord, the king, and the Christian faithhow to treat a lady— courtly lovehow to help othershow to resist the urge to run away if captured
34Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Comprehension CheckDescribe the trends in English literature during the Middle Ages. Were they reflective of life at the time?[End of Section]34
35The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Introduction to the Literary Period Your TurnCopy the Academic Vocabulary list into a notebook.Try to use the words as you outline the main ideas of the selections in the collection that follows.concept statusdiverse attributeemphasis[End of Section]35