Presentation on theme: "The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Introduction to the Literary Period Fast Facts Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Key Concept: The Normans."— Presentation transcript:
The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Introduction to the Literary Period Fast Facts Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Your Turn Feature Menu
Historical Highlights King Alfred and his descendants unite Anglo- Saxon England in the late ninth century. The Romans invade Britain in 55 B.C. and create a four-hundred-year period of political stability. William the Conqueror defeats the Anglo-Saxons in 1066 and introduces feudalism to Britain. The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Fast Facts
Literary Highlights The bards ensure stories have an important position in early British culture. The brooding fatalism of pagan Anglo-Saxon culture gives the first British epic, Beowulf, its melancholy tone and stress on earthly heroism. Christian monks copy ancient manuscripts, preserving classical and Anglo-Saxon texts. [End of Section] The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Fast Facts Chivalry gives rise to a new form of literature, the romance.
History of the Times Troubles at home forced Rome to evacuate its soldiers in A.D. 409, opening Britain to invasion.invasion After the legions of Rome conquered the Celts, Roman armies kept Britain free from invaders.RomeCelts Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
55 B.C. Hadrian’s Wall Romans evacuate their troops. Central government breaks down. Julius Caesar invades Britain. Celts defeated by Claudius. A.D. 43 Romans build walls, villas, baths, roads. Roman ruins Britain left vulnerable to attack. A.D. 409 Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
Celtic religion a form of animism. Stonehenge Druids were Celtic priests. Britain named for one Celtic tribe—the Brythons. Britain home to several Celtic tribes. Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Celts in Britain—before fourth century A.D.
A.D. 449 Angles, Saxons, and Jutes sweep ashore from Germany. The invaders push the Celts into the far west of Britain. Angles Saxons Jutes Celts Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
Until ninth century, Britain is subject to constant invasions and battles.invasions King Alfred unites Anglo-Saxons against the invading Danes.King Alfred Angle and Saxon clans impose warrior culture on the island for six centuries. warrior culture History of the Times The spread of Christianity helps unify the Anglo-Saxons.Christianity Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
Anglo-Saxon Society Kinship groups led by strong warrior chief. Constant threat of war bonded local clans through harsh living conditions. People farmed, established local governments, and produced fine craftwork. Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy English emerged as a written language.
Invasion of the Danes The Danes were one of the fierce Viking peoples who crossed the North Sea in their dragon-prowed boats, plundering and destroying everything in their path. Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
8th–9th centuries Vikings called Danes invade Britain. 878 King Alfred unifies the Anglo and Saxon clans against the Danes. 871 Alfred of Wessex is king of England. England becomes a nation. King Sweyn and his Danish troops arrive in England, from a manuscript (c. 14 th century) Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
Christianity and Anglo- Saxon culture co-exist. Christian monks settle in Britain. Christianity replaces British pagan religions. Around A.D. 400 By A.D. 699 Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Christianity’s hope of an afterlife becomes more appealing than Anglo-Saxon religion.religion
Anglo-Saxon religion offered no hope of an afterlife valued earthly virtues of bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship was similar to what we call Norse mythology ThunorThor WodenOdin WeekdayAnglo-Saxon godNorse god Wednesday Thursday Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy Norse god Thor
Poetry, like fighting, hunting, and farming, had great significance. Literature of the Times Old English epic poem Beowulf combines Germanic heroism and Anglo-Saxon fatalism. Anglo-Saxon literature is rooted in oral tradition. Bards relied on sound devices and repeated phrases to remember their tales.Bards Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
Anglo-Saxons did not believe in an afterlife. Warriors gained fame and immortality through songs. Why were the scops important? The Anglo-Saxon bards also called scops Anglo-Saxon harp strummed harp as they sang sang of heroic deeds were often warriors Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
Christian monks copy ancient manuscripts, preserving classical and Anglo-Saxon texts.monks Literature of the Times English emerges as a written language. Historical poems in Anglo- Saxon Chronicle detail events of early English history. Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
The Book of Kells In 760 A.D. monks began creating The Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript of Latin Gospels. This page reflects the opening words of St. Matthew’s Gospel. Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
Comprehension Check What event led to the Anglo-Saxon invasion of the British provinces? [End of Section] Key Concept: The Anglo-Saxon Legacy
By establishing a social structure called feudalism, William created a hierarchy of rulers under one lord and a network of thousands of knights sworn to serve him. feudalismknights History of the Times To squash revolts, William divided the land among his loyal barons and built castles around the country.divided the land In the Norman invasion of 1066, William the Conqueror defeats the Anglo-Saxons.William the Conqueror Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain
a duke from Normandy, France, claimed the English throne had been promised to him William the Conqueror crosses the English Channel with a huge army defeats King Harold and the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain
The Normans Change England land divided among William’s followers from Normandy more contact with European civilization French replaces English as language of the ruling class Normans add law and order to Anglo-Saxon’s democratic and artistic achievements Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain
Feudalism social, economic, and military system based on a religious concept of rank King Lords powerful landowners Vassals did work or military service for feudal lords in exchange for land Serfs servants to lords and vassals, bound to their master’s land some vassals appointed by king in return for loyalty lords (powerful vassals) appoint their own vassals Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain
Knights in Shining Armor provided military service to lords often the sons of nobles began training at an early age wore very heavy armor into battle followed a code of chivalry Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain
Bibles and gospels created in monasteries were celebrated for their brilliant illuminated manuscripts, all created by hand. Literature of the Times Reflecting the chasm between the British masses and the Norman rulers, literature was usually written in Latin or Norman French after 1066. Old English disappears from laws and literature after William makes French the language of the state. Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain
Comprehension Check How was William the Conqueror able to form such a powerful army following his victory in 1066? [End of Section] Key Concept: The Normans Invade Britain
History of the Times The contributions of each group affected how well villages and towns prospered.villages Medieval society was dependent on strictly defined social classes—nobility, knights, priests, merchants, and peasants.peasants Villages, built around castles, were the fundamental center of medieval society. Social mobility was nearly impossible in the Middle Ages. Social rank remained fixed.Social rank Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society
The Middle Ages This illustration from the Golf Book of Hours shows peasants taking a break from their work in the fields. The bulk of society consisted of laborers. Peasants owned their land; serfs did not. Serfs were little more than slaves to their overlords. Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society
most merchants and artisans lived in villages townspeople’s tastes influence arts, ballads, plays, and so on Growth of Cities and Towns merchant class—people earn their own money Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society villagers viewed themselves as having more freedom for art
Regardless of how hard a merchant worked or how much money an artisan earned, social status was fixed. Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Social Status A family’s only hope was to apprentice a son to a higher vocation or “marry up” a daughter to a husband from a higher class.
Works written in English, such as ballads and romances, helped to define England’s identity. Some medieval writers began to use the vernacular, or language of the people. Literature of the Times A new literary form—the romance—becomes popular, reflecting the concepts of courtly love and chivalry.romancechivalry Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Scholarly works from monasteries and universities reflect society’s interest in moral instruction and morality plays.
The Romance new genre of literature inspired by legends of chivalrous knights hero goes on quest to conquer evil enemy includes stories of distant, idealized courtly lovecourtly love hero often has magical help Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur (from a 14 th c manuscript)
Courtly Love The knight glorified the lady in words adored the lady and was inspired by her The lady was set above her admirer remained pure and out of reach Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society
how to resist the urge to run away if captured Code of Chivalry A code of conduct that covered whom to defend — knight’s lord, the king, and the Christian faith how to treat a lady— courtly love how to help others Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society
Comprehension Check Describe the trends in English literature during the Middle Ages. Were they reflective of life at the time? [End of Section] Key Concept: Life in Medieval Society
Your Turn Copy the Academic Vocabulary list into a notebook. [End of Section] Try to use the words as you outline the main ideas of the selections in the collection that follows. concept status diverse attribute emphasis The Anglo-Saxon Period and the Middle Ages Introduction to the Literary Period