Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Culture in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology: An Attempt at Developing a Research Program and Its Implications for the Contemporary Practice of Clinical.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Culture in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology: An Attempt at Developing a Research Program and Its Implications for the Contemporary Practice of Clinical."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Culture in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology: An Attempt at Developing a Research Program and Its Implications for the Contemporary Practice of Clinical Neuropsychology With Hispanics

2 Crosscultural Challenges to Neuropsychologys Brain Theories and Clinical Practice New York Neuropsychology Group Psychology Forum, New York Academy of Sciences May 1, 2004 Antonio E. Puente Department of Psychology University of North Carolina at Wilmington Wilmington, NC

3 Outline n Purpose of Presentation n Background and Biases n Assumptions and Limitations n Defining Concepts n Changing Face of Americas Demographics n Examples from Four Neuropsychological Studies n Current Efforts n Pragmatic Observations n Theoretical Speculations

4 Purpose of Presentation n Summary of 25 Years of Research Where Do Biopsychosocial Variables Fit in Brain Dysfunction? n Searching for a Neuropsychological g

5 Background and Biases n Not About Social Correctness; –Its About Science n Ethnicity n Educational n Professional n Theoretical –Sperry –Vygotsky-Luria

6 Assumptions and Limitations n Philosophy Vs Science n Functional Vs Organic n Culture Vs Biology n Individual Vs Contextual

7 Defining Concepts n Culture (Shared Extra-genetic Knowledge) n Brain and Neuropsychology (Processor of Information; Information about the Processor) n Intelligence and Cognition (Understanding/Tracking/Using Discrete Information)

8 Changing Face of America: A Focus on Hispanics n Add Demo Info here

9 Examples from Four Neuropsychological Studies n Background –Grenada, W.I.- Hypertension & Stress –Argentina- Fulbright & the Malvinas –Puerto Rico- APA Visiting Psychologist Program & the Translation of Test

10 Examples from Studies: Continued n Intention –Why do Ethnic-Minorities do Poorly on Most Cognitive & Neuropsychological Measures? –Three Generations = Anglo Saxon –Cattell and the Concept of g –Is There Common Information Processing Across Cultures?

11 Examples From Studies: Five Attempts n Wechsler Intelligence Scales n Luria-Nebraska Battery n Amazon Indians n Russia n Intellectual Assessment (in general)

12 Wechsler Scales: I n Background –Item Bias on the Wechsler Scales –WISC n Puerto Rican Version n WAIS vs WISC

13 Wechsler Scales: II n Principal Collaborators In Psych Corp: –William Hrabrick,, Aurelio Prifitera, Michael OCallahan, David Tulsky n Principal Co-Collaborators: –Alfredo Ardila, Josette Harris, Andres Barona, Laura Herrans (& Monica Rosselli) –Consulting Workgroup (7) n Other Collaborators: –50-70 School and Clinical Neuropsychologists Throughout the US

14 Wechsler Scales: III n Time-Frame n Items n Production n Sampling n Standardization

15 Wechsler Scales: IV n Time-Frame: –Initial Work= late 1980s-1993 –Formal Work=

16 Wechsler Scales: V n Items: –Borrowed Items –Explicit and Implicit Bias –Across Hispanic Subgroup Agreement –Scoring Criteria

17 Wechsler Scales: VI n Production: –Using Prior WISC & Foreign Versions –Drawings –Printing –Pricing & Packaging –Production

18 Wechsler Scales: VII n Sampling: –Age –Sex –Educational Level (child and parent) –Country of Origin –Acculturation Level –Language Preference of Child –Socio-economic Status

19 Wechsler Scales: VIII n Standardization: –Examiners n 36 n Geographical & Cultural Variability n Taped Tryout –Methods n Tryout= 600 n Standardization= 1,000 n Test-Retest= 300

20 Wechsler Scales: IX n Current Status: –Re-constituted with Josette Harris –Possibly available in 2005 –Not Aware of the Specifics

21 Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: I n Background –National Academy of Neuropsychology 1979 Meeting in Orlando –Luria-North Dakota Neuropsychological Battery –Initial Collaboration with Golden & Item Interpretation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery –Chilean Journal of Psychology (1982)

22 LNNB: II n Failed Attempts: –Argentina –Puerto Rico n Spanish Collaborators: –Madrid- Juan Tobal, Antonio Cano, Juan Manuel Cepedez, Itziar Iruarrizaga –Granada- Juan Gody, Juana Garcia. Miguel Perez –Other- Salamanca; TEA, Western Psych.

23 LNNB: III n Literature Review: –500 Total Articles on the LNNB –34 on the LNNB and Ethnic/Foreign Samples –4= Children; 30= Adult –Empirical= 23 (BD, Schizophrenia) –Translations= 9

24 LNNB: IV n Problems: –Items n Hispanic Subculture n Literal Translation –Copyright n Luria n Christensen n TEA n Western Psychological Services

25 LNNB: V n Translation: –Original Translation by Bilingual Neuropsychologist –Back Translation by Two Bilingual Neuropsychologist –New Translation Developed –Discrepancies With English Translation Reconciled

26 LNNB: VI n Major Item Changes: –Receptive Speech –Expressive Speech –Writing & Reading –Arithmetic –Intellectual Processes

27 LNNB: VII n Sampling: –Total= 232 (men= 126; women= 106) –Mean Age= (15-88) –Mean Education= 9.93(0-21)

28 LNNB: VIII n Correlations with LNNB I: –Range=.5356 to.7232 –Education= -.48 to -.72 –Scales=.52 to.845

29 LNNB: IX n Next Steps: –Publishing Patient Group Info –TEA/Western Psychological Corporation Copyright & Related Difficulties

30 Amazon Indians: I n Background: –Culture-free Sample –Caribbean, Latin America, Spain, Russia n Collaborators: –Vivian Andrade (Brazil) –Miguel Perez (Spain)

31 Amazon: II First Study n Task –CVLT Type Task (15 words) –Words in Guaranis & Portuguese n Sampling –Total= 20 –Guaranis (educated vs uneducated)

32 Amazon: III (First Study Continued) n Results: – Verbal Memory n similar number of words in first trial n different learning curves n more words total for indigenous Indians

33 Amazon Indians: IV Second Study n Sample –N= 12 per group –Educated vs non-educated Guaranis n Tasks –CVLT type task (15 matched words) –12 Figures of indigenous animals –WMS-R Logical Memory –WAIS-R Digit Span –WAIS-R Block Design

34 Amazon Indians: V Second Study (continued) n Results –No between-group differences –Un-educated Indians did significantly better in motor and visual tasks than in verbal tasks in either language

35 Russia n Background –Luria & Vygotsky –Biannual International Luria Conference –Anna Agranovich

36 Russia: II n Sample Total = 40 per group USARussia Age28.95 (18-44)29.15 (18-43) Ed (12-17)14.25 (12-17)

37 Russia: III n Methodology/Instruments Hemisphere Anterior Posterior left/verbalFluencyDigits Forward Digits BackwardVerbal Memory right/visualRuff Figural FluencyVisual Memory Color TrailsClock Test

38 Russia: IV n Results TestUSARussia –Verbal Fluency –Digits Backwards –Digits Forward –Verbal Memory –Visual Memory –Clock –RFFT –CTT –CTT

39 Intellectual Assessment of Hispanics n Add LA Poster info here

40 Current Efforts n Trail Making (Chile & US) n Acculturation and Intelligence (Beta) n Intellectual Assessment in Hispanics

41 Some Pragmatic Observations n Translations –Typical vs Required n Translators –Typical vs Required n Norms –Paucity of Data –Heterogeneity of Groups n Criterion Validity –Who is the Reference Value –What is Brain Damage n Personnel –Few Academics, in general –Even Fewer Ethnic-Minorities Within the Field

42 Some Theoretical Questions n New, Novel, & Extremely Difficult n History and Culture Do Matter n Personal Manipulation of History and Culture Matter Even More n Cultural Knowledge Might be the Manner in Which Natural Selection Expresses Itself in Homo Sapiens n Clinical Neuropsychology Might Help Unravel This Expression

43 Answers with Questions: Where Do We Go From Here? n Is Reductionism Enough? n Is the Tabula Rasa Really Blank? n Does Individual Cognition Affect Gene Pool Constitution? n If so, is Culture the Mechanism? n Is Intelligence and Neuropsychological Constructs (e.g. Memory, Problem Solving, etc.) Equal to Understanding of Culture? n If so, Does Mind Emerge from Brain and, in turn, Control Brain?

Download ppt "The Culture in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology: An Attempt at Developing a Research Program and Its Implications for the Contemporary Practice of Clinical."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google