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Antonio E. Puente University of North Carolina Wilmington

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Presentation on theme: "Antonio E. Puente University of North Carolina Wilmington"— Presentation transcript:

1 What Does the Culture in Cultural Neuropsychology Tell Us About Psychology?
Antonio E. Puente University of North Carolina Wilmington Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne, Florida April 14, 2006

2 Outline Purpose of Presentation Background and Biases
Assumptions and Limitations Defining Concepts Examples from Neuropsychological Studies Pragmatic Observations Theoretical Speculations

3 Purpose of Presentation
Summary of 25 Years of Research Where Do Biopsychosocial Variables Fit in Brain Dysfunction? Searching for a Neuropsychological “g”

4 Background and Biases Ethnicity Educational Professional Theoretical
Sperry Vygotsky-Luria

5 Assumptions and Limitations
Philosophy Vs Science Functional Vs Organic Culture Vs Biology Individual Vs Contextual

6 Defining Concepts Culture (Shared Extra-genetic Knowledge)
Brain and Neuropsychology (Processor of Information; Information about the Processor) Intelligence and Cognition (Understanding/Tracking/Using Discrete Information)

7 Overall Purpose To Increase Purpose/Validity/Value by Understanding the Individual in a Biopsychosocial Context Historical- psychological (learning & emotion aka psychopathology) Present- biological (and cognitive) Future- social cultural context

8 Insert Slides for Hispanic
4,5, 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22,23, 24, 25, 26

9 Examples from Neuropsychological Studies
Background ( ) Grenada, W.I.- Hypertension & Stress Argentina- Fulbright & the Malvinas Puerto Rico- APA Visiting Psychologist Program & the Translation of Tests

10 Examples from Studies: Continued
Intention (since 1985) Why do Ethnic-Minorities do Poorly on Most Cognitive & Neuropsychological Measures? Three Generations = Anglo Saxon Cattell and the Concept of “g” Is There Common Information Processing Across Cultures?

11 Examples From Five “Studies”
Wechsler Intelligence Scales Luria-Nebraska Battery Amazon Indians Russia Hispanics

12 Wechsler Scales: I Background Item Bias on the Wechsler Scales WISC
Puerto Rican Version WAIS vs WISC

13 Wechsler Scales: II Principal Collaborators In Psych Corp:
William Hrabrick,, Aurelio Prifitera, Michael O’Callahan, David Tulsky Principal Co-Collaborators: Alfredo Ardila, Josette Harris, Andres Barona, Laura Herrans (& Monica Rosselli) Consulting Workgroup (7) Other Collaborators: 50-70 School and Clinical Neuropsychologists Throughout the US

14 Wechsler Scales: III Time-Frame Items Production Sampling

15 Wechsler Scales: IV Time-Frame: Initial Work= late 1980s-1993
Formal Work=

16 Wechsler Scales: V Items: Borrowed Items Explicit and Implicit Bias
Across Hispanic Subgroup Agreement Scoring Criteria

17 Wechsler Scales: VI Production: Using Prior WISC & Foreign Versions
Drawings Printing Pricing & Packaging Production

18 Wechsler Scales: VII Sampling: Age Sex
Educational Level (child and parent) Country of Origin Acculturation Level Language Preference of Child Socio-economic Status

19 Wechsler Scales: VIII Standardization: Examiners Methods 36
Geographical & Cultural Variability Taped Tryout Methods Tryout= 600 Standardization= 1,000 Test-Retest= 300

20 Wechsler Scales: IX Current Status: “On Hold”
No Internal or External Project Director nor Funding

21 Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: I
Background National Academy of Neuropsychology 1979 Meeting in Orlando Luria-North Dakota Neuropsychological Battery Initial Collaboration with Golden & “Item Interpretation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery” Chilean Journal of Psychology (1982)

22 LNNB: II Failed Attempts: Spanish Collaborators: Argentina Puerto Rico
Madrid- Juan Tobal, Antonio Cano, Juan Manuel Cepedez, Itziar Iruarrizaga Granada- Juan Gody, Juana Garcia. Miguel Perez Other- Salamanca; TEA, Western Psych.

23 LNNB: III Literature Review: 500 Total Articles on the LNNB
34 on the LNNB and Ethnic/Foreign Samples 4= Children; 30= Adult Empirical= 23 (BD, Schizophrenia) Translations= 9

24 LNNB: IV Problems: Items Copyright Hispanic Subculture
Literal Translation Copyright Luria Christensen TEA Western Psychological Services

25 LNNB: V Translation: Original Translation by Bilingual Neuropsychologist Back Translation by Two Bilingual Neuropsychologist New Translation Developed Discrepancies With English Translation Reconciled

26 LNNB: VI Major Item Changes: Receptive Speech Expressive Speech
Writing & Reading Arithmetic Intellectual Processes

27 LNNB: VII Sampling: Total= 232 (men= 126; women= 106)
Mean Age= (15-88) Mean Education= 9.93(0-21)

28 LNNB: VIII Correlations with LNNB I: Range= .5356 to .7232
Education= -.48 to -.72 Scales= .52 to .845

29 LNNB: IX Next Steps: Publishing Patient Group Info
TEA/Western Psychological Corporation Copyright & Related Difficulties

30 Amazon Indians: I Background: Collaborators: Culture-free Sample
Caribbean, Latin America, Spain, Russia Collaborators: Vivian Andrade (Brazil) Miguel Perez (Spain)

31 Amazon: II First Study Task Sampling CVLT Type Task (15 words)
Words in Guaranis & Portuguese Sampling Total= 20 Guaranis (educated vs “uneducated”)

32 Amazon: III (First Study Continued)
Results: Verbal Memory similar number of words in first trial different learning curves more words total for indigenous Indians

33 Amazon Indians: IV Second Study
Sample N= 12 per group Educated vs “non-educated” Guaranis Tasks CVLT type task (15 matched words) 12 Figures of indigenous animals WMS-R Logical Memory WAIS-R Digit Span WAIS-R Block Design

34 Amazon Indians: V Second Study (continued)
Results No between-group differences “Un-educated” Indians did significantly better in motor and visual tasks than in verbal tasks in either language

35 Russia Background Luria & Vygotsky
Biannual International Luria Conference Anna Agranovich

36 Russia: II Sample Total = 40 per group USA Russia
Age (18-44) (18-43) Ed (12-17) (12-17)

37 Russia: III Methodology/Instruments Hemisphere Anterior Posterior
left/verbal Fluency Digits Forward Digits Backward Verbal Memory right/visual Ruff Figural Fluency Visual Memory Color Trails Clock Test

38 Russia: IV Results Verbal Fluency 21.75 24.18
Test USA Russia Verbal Fluency Digits Backwards Digits Forward Verbal Memory Visual Memory Clock RFFT CTT CTT

39 Hispanics in The US Insert slides 28, 29

40 Some Pragmatic Observations
Translations Typical vs Required Translators Norms Paucity of Data Heterogeneity of Groups Criterion Validity Who is the Reference Value What is “Brain Damage” Personnel Few Academics, in general Even Fewer Ethnic-Minorities Within the Field

41 Some Theoretical Questions
New, Novel, & Extremely Difficult History and Culture Do Matter Personal Manipulation of History and Culture Matter Even More Cultural Knowledge Might be the Manner in Which Natural Selection Expresses Itself in Homo Sapiens Clinical Neuropsychology Might Help Unravel This Expression

42 Insert slide 30,

43 Answers with Questions: Where Do We Go From Here?
Is Reductionism Enough? Is the Tabula Rasa Really Blank? Does Individual Cognition Affect Gene Pool Constitution? If so, is Culture the Mechanism? Is Intelligence and Neuropsychological Constructs (e.g. Memory, Problem Solving, etc.) Equal to Understanding of Culture? If so, Does Mind Emerge from Brain and, in turn, Control Brain?

44 Insert Slide 31

45 Further Information Address: E-mail: Web Site:
Department of Psychology, UNC-W, Wilmington, NC Web Site:

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