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What Does the Culture in Cultural Neuropsychology Tell Us About Psychology? Antonio E. Puente University of North Carolina Wilmington Florida Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "What Does the Culture in Cultural Neuropsychology Tell Us About Psychology? Antonio E. Puente University of North Carolina Wilmington Florida Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Does the Culture in Cultural Neuropsychology Tell Us About Psychology? Antonio E. Puente University of North Carolina Wilmington Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne, Florida April 14, 2006

2 Outline n Purpose of Presentation n Background and Biases n Assumptions and Limitations n Defining Concepts n Examples from Neuropsychological Studies n Pragmatic Observations n Theoretical Speculations

3 Purpose of Presentation n Summary of 25 Years of Research Where Do Biopsychosocial Variables Fit in Brain Dysfunction? n Searching for a Neuropsychological g

4 Background and Biases n Ethnicity n Educational n Professional n Theoretical –Sperry –Vygotsky-Luria

5 Assumptions and Limitations n Philosophy Vs Science n Functional Vs Organic n Culture Vs Biology n Individual Vs Contextual

6 Defining Concepts n Culture (Shared Extra-genetic Knowledge) n Brain and Neuropsychology (Processor of Information; Information about the Processor) n Intelligence and Cognition (Understanding/Tracking/Using Discrete Information)

7 Overall Purpose n To Increase Purpose/Validity/Value by Understanding the Individual in a Biopsychosocial Context –Historical- psychological (learning & emotion aka psychopathology) –Present- biological (and cognitive) –Future- social cultural context

8 Insert Slides for Hispanic n 4,5, 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,22,23, 24, 25, 26

9 Examples from Neuropsychological Studies n Background ( ) –Grenada, W.I.- Hypertension & Stress –Argentina- Fulbright & the Malvinas –Puerto Rico- APA Visiting Psychologist Program & the Translation of Tests

10 Examples from Studies: Continued n Intention (since 1985) –Why do Ethnic-Minorities do Poorly on Most Cognitive & Neuropsychological Measures? –Three Generations = Anglo Saxon –Cattell and the Concept of g –Is There Common Information Processing Across Cultures?

11 Examples From Five Studies n Wechsler Intelligence Scales n Luria-Nebraska Battery n Amazon Indians n Russia n Hispanics

12 Wechsler Scales: I n Background –Item Bias on the Wechsler Scales –WISC n Puerto Rican Version n WAIS vs WISC

13 Wechsler Scales: II n Principal Collaborators In Psych Corp: –William Hrabrick,, Aurelio Prifitera, Michael OCallahan, David Tulsky n Principal Co-Collaborators: –Alfredo Ardila, Josette Harris, Andres Barona, Laura Herrans (& Monica Rosselli) –Consulting Workgroup (7) n Other Collaborators: –50-70 School and Clinical Neuropsychologists Throughout the US

14 Wechsler Scales: III n Time-Frame n Items n Production n Sampling n Standardization

15 Wechsler Scales: IV n Time-Frame: –Initial Work= late 1980s-1993 –Formal Work=

16 Wechsler Scales: V n Items: –Borrowed Items –Explicit and Implicit Bias –Across Hispanic Subgroup Agreement –Scoring Criteria

17 Wechsler Scales: VI n Production: –Using Prior WISC & Foreign Versions –Drawings –Printing –Pricing & Packaging –Production

18 Wechsler Scales: VII n Sampling: –Age –Sex –Educational Level (child and parent) –Country of Origin –Acculturation Level –Language Preference of Child –Socio-economic Status

19 Wechsler Scales: VIII n Standardization: –Examiners n 36 n Geographical & Cultural Variability n Taped Tryout –Methods n Tryout= 600 n Standardization= 1,000 n Test-Retest= 300

20 Wechsler Scales: IX n Current Status: –On Hold –No Internal or External Project Director nor Funding

21 Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: I n Background –National Academy of Neuropsychology 1979 Meeting in Orlando –Luria-North Dakota Neuropsychological Battery –Initial Collaboration with Golden & Item Interpretation of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery –Chilean Journal of Psychology (1982)

22 LNNB: II n Failed Attempts: –Argentina –Puerto Rico n Spanish Collaborators: –Madrid- Juan Tobal, Antonio Cano, Juan Manuel Cepedez, Itziar Iruarrizaga –Granada- Juan Gody, Juana Garcia. Miguel Perez –Other- Salamanca; TEA, Western Psych.

23 LNNB: III n Literature Review: –500 Total Articles on the LNNB –34 on the LNNB and Ethnic/Foreign Samples –4= Children; 30= Adult –Empirical= 23 (BD, Schizophrenia) –Translations= 9

24 LNNB: IV n Problems: –Items n Hispanic Subculture n Literal Translation –Copyright n Luria n Christensen n TEA n Western Psychological Services

25 LNNB: V n Translation: –Original Translation by Bilingual Neuropsychologist –Back Translation by Two Bilingual Neuropsychologist –New Translation Developed –Discrepancies With English Translation Reconciled

26 LNNB: VI n Major Item Changes: –Receptive Speech –Expressive Speech –Writing & Reading –Arithmetic –Intellectual Processes

27 LNNB: VII n Sampling: –Total= 232 (men= 126; women= 106) –Mean Age= (15-88) –Mean Education= 9.93(0-21)

28 LNNB: VIII n Correlations with LNNB I: –Range=.5356 to.7232 –Education= -.48 to -.72 –Scales=.52 to.845

29 LNNB: IX n Next Steps: –Publishing Patient Group Info –TEA/Western Psychological Corporation Copyright & Related Difficulties

30 Amazon Indians: I n Background: –Culture-free Sample –Caribbean, Latin America, Spain, Russia n Collaborators: –Vivian Andrade (Brazil) –Miguel Perez (Spain)

31 Amazon: II First Study n Task –CVLT Type Task (15 words) –Words in Guaranis & Portuguese n Sampling –Total= 20 –Guaranis (educated vs uneducated)

32 Amazon: III (First Study Continued) n Results: – Verbal Memory n similar number of words in first trial n different learning curves n more words total for indigenous Indians

33 Amazon Indians: IV Second Study n Sample –N= 12 per group –Educated vs non-educated Guaranis n Tasks –CVLT type task (15 matched words) –12 Figures of indigenous animals –WMS-R Logical Memory –WAIS-R Digit Span –WAIS-R Block Design

34 Amazon Indians: V Second Study (continued) n Results –No between-group differences –Un-educated Indians did significantly better in motor and visual tasks than in verbal tasks in either language

35 Russia n Background –Luria & Vygotsky –Biannual International Luria Conference –Anna Agranovich

36 Russia: II n Sample Total = 40 per group USARussia Age28.95 (18-44)29.15 (18-43) Ed (12-17)14.25 (12-17)

37 Russia: III n Methodology/Instruments Hemisphere Anterior Posterior left/verbalFluencyDigits Forward Digits BackwardVerbal Memory right/visualRuff Figural FluencyVisual Memory Color TrailsClock Test

38 Russia: IV n Results TestUSARussia –Verbal Fluency –Digits Backwards –Digits Forward –Verbal Memory –Visual Memory –Clock –RFFT –CTT –CTT

39 Hispanics in The US n Insert slides 28, 29

40 Some Pragmatic Observations n Translations –Typical vs Required n Translators –Typical vs Required n Norms –Paucity of Data –Heterogeneity of Groups n Criterion Validity –Who is the Reference Value –What is Brain Damage n Personnel –Few Academics, in general –Even Fewer Ethnic-Minorities Within the Field

41 Some Theoretical Questions n New, Novel, & Extremely Difficult n History and Culture Do Matter n Personal Manipulation of History and Culture Matter Even More n Cultural Knowledge Might be the Manner in Which Natural Selection Expresses Itself in Homo Sapiens n Clinical Neuropsychology Might Help Unravel This Expression

42 n Insert slide 30,

43 Answers with Questions: Where Do We Go From Here? n Is Reductionism Enough? n Is the Tabula Rasa Really Blank? n Does Individual Cognition Affect Gene Pool Constitution? n If so, is Culture the Mechanism? n Is Intelligence and Neuropsychological Constructs (e.g. Memory, Problem Solving, etc.) Equal to Understanding of Culture? n If so, Does Mind Emerge from Brain and, in turn, Control Brain?

44 Insert Slide 31

45 Further Information n Address: –Department of Psychology, UNC-W, Wilmington, NC n n Web Site: – –

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