Presentation on theme: "1 International Consultants Ltd Andrew Leung A Sustainable China in a Turbulent World: Survival, Adaptation and Transformation Andrew K P Leung, SBS, FRSA."— Presentation transcript:
1 International Consultants Ltd Andrew Leung A Sustainable China in a Turbulent World: Survival, Adaptation and Transformation Andrew K P Leung, SBS, FRSA A presentation for the TOChina Program University of Turin, Italy Wednesday, 5 May, 2010
2 Stage is set in 21 st Century The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman, 2005 – Walmart Just-In-Time; UPS 2% world GDP across the globe; internet sans frontiers (Facebook, Twitter,LinkedIn etc) Global value chain migration (Rolls Royce 60% research and 70% components); creative destruction and world competition (Bear outside your tent) Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx,expanding markets …over the entire surface of the globe,,,,, new wants …products of distant lands and climes …universal interdependence of nations Power shifts into individuals - Cosmocrats – A Future Perfect – The Challenge and Hidden Opportunities of Globalization, John Micklethwait & Adrian Woodridge, 2000 Three Billion New Capitalists, Clyde Prestowitz, 2005 Future profits lie in scale, knowledge, creativity, technology and brands - $1 profit DVD player; 1.65% value of iPod, Google becoming worlds most profitable China launched Going Global strategy 2001 Globalization and Its Discontents, Making Globalization Work, 2006, Joseph Stiglitz; The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Adam Smith Global Financial and Economic Crisis and Rising Protectionism
3 The swing of the global pendulum National Intelligence Council Report Project 2025: –US leadership capacity weakening (EU fractious) v rise of BRIC + ME –New developing countries alliances e.g. ASEAN + 3, SCO – pose challenge to old- styled UN, IMF, WB –Global industrialization - geopolitics and geo-economics of energy, food, water and climate security –Struggle for development in failing states = Arc of Instability –Chinas dramatic growth – Beijing Consensus – set to play a key role in new world order Emerging Markets lead contributers to world growth – China 27% v US 21% to growth: DCs 15% v world GDP) Emerging Markets lead contributers to world growth – China 27% v US 21%: DCs15% v world GDP)
4 Some New Power Brokers Foreign assets ($T) MGI, July (est) Pension Funds Mutual Funds Insurance assets Oil Producers 5.1 *5 8.9 – 13.2 Asian SWFs 4.35 *4.76 (!) 7.5 – 8.5 Hedge Funds – 2.4 Private Equity – 1.2 (!) Increase virtually all due to China * Total Net capital outflow from surplus countries ($b, 2006) (Mckinsey & Co) Oil producers East Asia West Europe Rest of World 4 81 ____ ___
5 East Asia dynamics re-defined (When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques, 2009) Complex supply chain centred on China ASEAN + 3; ACFTA (largest FTA with 2b people); 2003 Treaty of Amity & Cooperation; Chiang Mai Initiative (currency swaps);East Asia FTA +Asian Monetary Fund; ASEAN + 6 ; Process-oriented Constructivism (Socialization of Power – Influence without Authority) Qin Yaqing + Wei Ling, in Chinas Ascent, Cornell University Press, 2008) China now South Koreas largest trading partner + Singapore + Philippines + Thailand all closer to China (all formal US allies) Intra-NE Asia trade (China, Japan, Taiwan + 2 Koreas) 52% total 5, ASEAN imports % p.a. 4 x US aid to Philippines; 2 x Indonesia; far > US to Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar (Chinese navy access to Indian Ocean) Increasing Mandarin learning + Chinese tourists Australia double benefit – rising resource export and cheap imports Taiwan more accommodating Japan - Manufacturing; trade > US, influence < Japanese nationalism US influence declining except for naval power East Asia Economic Union? Asian Dollar? RMB regional currency? A future Asian Commonweath?
6 Africa becoming more China-centric (When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques, 2009) FOCAC 2006 Beijing (48 countries; Action Plan: $5b Development Fund, $5b preferential loans + credits: schools, hospitals, professional training etc ) Chinas % share of Africas export of selected commodities Crude Oil Metals Wood Cotton Angola 100 Sudan 98.8 Nigeria 88.9 Congo 85.9 Gabon DRC 99.6 Ghanna 59.8 SA 46.5 Cameroon 39.7 Tanzania Africas 3 rd trading partner (US, France) > UK; soon 1 st Africa > 30% of Chinas total oil imports Angola > Saudi Arabia as Chinas largest oil supplier (15%) More direct flights Africa/China > few Africa/US Chinese Diaspora = 500,000 growing Future 100m tourists (Abah Ofon, The New Sinosphere, 2006) > IMF/WB – undermining v pathway to development Beijing Consensus > Washington Consensus Overarching e.g. Zimbabwe (railways, power supply, Air Zimbabwe, ZBC); Zambia (a district– Opposition candidate); 5 SEZs More Winner > Losers v narrow economic development 2007 PEW Global Attitudes 10 Africa countries – China> US
7 Threshold of Chinas Renaissance (When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques, 2009) Ranking of economies (Goldman Sachs, 2007) US (~$20T) China (~$70T) 2. China (~$18T)) US (~$38T) 3. Japan (~$5T) India (~$38T) 4. India Brazil 5. Germany Mexico 6. Russia Russia 7. UK Indonesia 8. France Japan 9. Brazil UK 10. Italy Germany 11. Mexico Nigeria 12. Korea France 13. Canada Korea 14. Indonesia Turkey 15. Turkey Vietnam 16. Iran Canada 17. Vietnam Philippines 18. Nigeria Italy 19. Philippines Iran 20. Pakistan Egypt 21. Egypt Pakistan 22. Bangladesh Bangladesh Already EUs and Japans largest trading partner; leading in SE Asia and Africa; Latin Americas 2nd largest trading partner by 2010 Peoples satisfaction - China 72%, UK 44%, US 39%, France 28%, Germany 25% etc > 40 m Chinese Disapora All roads lead to China ? - Pax Sinica?
8 Grand Design v Dengs caution Grand Design nationalism, (Unhappy China) 2009 Global Realities, Risks and Constraints – Internal – Inequalities, 5 Imbalances, Corruption, Rule of (> by) Law, Governance, Checks and Balance, Environment, Ethnic Harmony, Aging (4-2-1) Population Burden – GDP Turkey; % (86.4m) of projected 1.6 b population still in farming External – Global military reach, energy and resources, technological gap, creativity and innovation, financial expertise, ideas and values, global institutions, conflict with Western norms Dangers and Opportunities of Power Transition: Institutionalized International Order > Security Dilemma - Chinas Ascent – Power, Security, and the future of International Politics, Robert S. Ross & Zhu Feng (Editors, Cornell University Press, 2008); Chinas Rise – Challenges and Opportunities, Bergsten, Freeman, Lardy, and Mitchell, Petersen Institute and CSIS, Washington DC, 2008 Dengs 28-word caution :, (in line with conclusions of Study Project + Neoliberal Defensive Realism, Tang Shiping, in Chinas Ascent, Cornell University Press, 2008)
How Open is Chinas Economy? Open economy- Closed society? No Pepsi in Danone, CocaCola v Huiyuan (Anti-Trust?), Diageo v Shui Jing Fang Trade = 75% GDP (v US < 40%, Japan, India, Brazil 25 – 35%) Chinas foreign trade growing faster than GDP over past 25 yrs FDI $90b, first amongst developing countries, 3 rd largest in world Massive IPOs - BoC ($9.7b), ICBC ($21.9b), Alibaba ($1.5 b, largest Internet IPO v Google; Sinopec ($7.3b 100% Swiss Addax Petroleum 2009 ; China XD Electric ($1.5b largest 2010); global IPO $5.6 b Jan 2010 (only $72 m, 2009) - $4.5 b or 79% by China. Private sector 70% economy (Hu Angang) Growing consumption: Retail $800 b (2006) rest of Asia. 30% global retail growth , ~$1.3 T by 2012; Worlds largest car market (13.5 m v 10.9 m in US), 48.7m v 250 m cars in US best selling BYD Multi-hybrid. Most buyers households < mileage (Why gasoline consumption doesnt gel!) FDI policies -SEZs, tech parks distort market (China Daily ) States Visible Hand: RMB, exchange control, SOEs (+ Big Four Banks 34.5% total lending); macro-adjustment policies. Total loans fell 22% to RMB7.5 T v +95% 2009, moderating M2 expansion to 17% 2010 v 28% Budget deficit to be 2.9% GDP 2010, v 2.4% last year. Target GDP 8% 2010 v 8.7% 2009 TFP (inc Tech +Efficiency) +4% p.a. v1990 fastest in world history (UBS report 2009) Unstable, Unbalanced, Uncoordinated, and Unsustainable – 17 TH Party Congress, Premier Wen, (5 Imbalances: Regional, Environmental, Social, Central-Local, Outward )
Adam Smith – Too little or Too much? (Mckinsey Quarterly, 2006) except* % China GDP & Lending % Financial stock SOE Private Bank deposits Equity % GDP US Lending China Equity % GDP Corporate Debt % GDP US 139 US 145 China 17 China 1 *Public Debt % GDP *Household Debt % US 60 (105% by 2012) US 140 China 18 China 14
11 The Triffin Dilemma Article by Zhou Xiaochuan, Governor, PBOC 1960s USD glut (Marshall Plan + exuberant US economy) led to abandoning the Gold Standard Triffin Dilemma – Conflict of Goals or Interest between national v global monetary requirements Reinforced SDRs to be managed by IMF; supported by a pool of currencies; SDR-denominated securities and assets; SDRs as medium of international trade Unlikely to materialize anytime soon but apparent support from oBenn Steil, Director of International Economics, US Council of Foreign Relations oJoseph Stiglitz, Nobel Prize laureate and head of UN Panel oJeffrey Sachs, Professor of Columbia University and Special Advisor to UN Seccretary-General oDominique Strauss-Kahn, Managing Director, IMF oBrazilian President oRussian Presidential aide Subject to Voting Rights adjustment, China willing to assume more proactive IMF role (a) to help regulate global finances (b) to address the Triffin Dilemma (c) to help protect Chinas USD Savings (d) to build up the RMB as an international currency for eventual convertibility
12 Getting out of the US Dollar Trap The USD Trap (Paul Krugman, Nobel Prize laureate) Zhou Xiaochuan, Governor, PBOC hinted at unofficial USD peg being temporary (FT ) Three Ways out of the USD (Nomura, 5 March 2010) (1) Incremental Diversification out of US Treasuries (Dec 2009 foreign-held UST dropped $53b of which $34.2 due to China) (2) Reducing current account surplus (gradual RMB appreciation, more imports, more consumption, outward FDI (inc SWF) especially in resources e.g. Aluminum Corp of China (Chinalco) $19.5 b in Rio Tinto $25 b loan for 15 m tons crude for 20 yrs with Russias Rosneft and Transneft $10 b loan for oil deal with Kazakhstan $10 b Sinopec deal with Petrobras ( ) (3) Eventual RMB internationalization as a global reserve currency e.g. Currency swaps (> $120 b) Promoting RMB as settlement currency (HK + Asian countries) Issuing RMB bonds (initially in HK)
13 MegaTrend 1 – Massive Urbanization McKinsey Global Institute (Preparing for Chinas Urban Billion, March 2008) : 1 b urbanites by 2025, m in 221 cities each > 1 m population (EU=35) 15 super-cities each > 25 m population 11 hub-and-spoke conurbations each > 60 m population Westward Ho! Most new urbanization to spawn in currently-less-developed central, north-east and western provinces Concentrated mode of urbanization projected to save 35% of carbon footprint and 2.5% GDP in government expenditure A YouTube snapshot Global implications: resources, business opportunities, experimentation, civil society
14 MegaTrend 2 – Rapid Mobility Extensive inter-provincial highway network 2 nd only to US Interstate in 17 years Railway (6% of world total length, 25% total traffic) to increase from 78,000 km to 100,000 km by 2020 (worlds largest railway expansion since 19 th century) More city conurbations to be linked by integrated transport infrastructure e.g. $ 1.64b sea-spanning bridge over Hangzhou Bay linking Shanghai to Ningbo and other cities in the Provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu with a combined population of 72.4 million Global implications: rapidly developing Chinese middle-class, changing lifestyles, vast supply chains
15 MegaTrend 3 – Rise of the middle-class Combined urban disposable income household income > RMB 100,001 to 200,000 to grow from 0.1% of total 2005 to 36.4% by 2025 (Serving the New Chinese Consumer, The McKinsey Quarterly, 2006 Special Edition). Largely come from 100 m single-child generation, inc post-80s, post-90s, and 21 st century new-comers Luxury goods sales already 12% by value of worlds total, to grow to 33% by 2015 Car ownership to expand from 11/1,000 towards world average 120/1,000 (
16 MegaTrend 4 – Largest moderate-income economy China > US by 2027/28 and > by 75% by 2050 (when India = US) (Goldman Sachs, The Economist, ) ranks < 100 in the world = some poorest countries in Africa. By = middle-income nation in Asia or Eastern Europe Aging population profile ( > 30% to be aged 60 or over by 2050) Subsidized voluntary basic pension plan for rural population to grow from 60% in 2010 to 80% by 2015 Legacy of One-Child Policy, phenomenon, relaxed if both parents single children, likely to be relaxed further Still > 100 m with < $1 a day v 800 m such in Poverty to shrink significantly in coming decades Global implications: China will get old before getting rich. Needs a benign internal and external environment to consolidate an economic foundation to face social and financial burden of a looming aged profile
17 MegaTrend 5 – Quiet Green Revolution Green Great Wall 4,480 km forestation absorbing 8% or 500m tons emissions p.a.- 20% or 1 b tons absorption by Small coal-power plants of < 10m kW capacity closed by Most of < 50m kW likely to be cleared or expanded within a decade. To invest $2.3 trillion in energy development , inc $200b to increase renewable energies from 8.3% to 10% of primary energy by 2010 and 15% by 2020, + 7% to 10% p.a. by 2010 and 20% p.a. by 2020, inc hydro-electric, nuclear, coal-seam gas, biomass, wind, solar, terrestrial heat and wave energies (IEA) Hydro-electric power worlds first in installed capacity 145 m kW and billion kWh power generation Total of 110 million square meters of solar panels by far the worlds largest Wind power has increased 7 x to > 6 m kW, 5 th largest 2 nuclear power stations p.a. for the next 15 years. BYD, (Shenzhen) introduced worlds first mass- produced plug-in hybrid electric range 100 km on electric engine. Miles XS500, range 120 miles at 80 mph, to launch in Tianjin in 2009 (Iain Carson and Vijay V Vaitheeswaran, Zoom: The Global Race to Fuel the Car of the Future, Hachette Book Group, 2007) Dongtan eco-city concept of sustainable housing and urban design on the cards for new cities, towns and villages. Eco- friendly lifestyle catching on with rising middle-class. Methane gas from human and animal waste in villages Law on the Circular Economy effective mandating energy, water, and material recycling, conservation and emission reduction supported by tax breaks and fines. Global implications: an ecologically-conscious society with 1/5 mankind; worlds car industries to be revolutionized
18 MegaTrend 6 – Science, Technology and Innovation Change-1 Moon Probe (2007), Shenzhou-7 Space Walk (2008). Planned Tiantong-1 small space station in docking with Shenzhou 8, 9, & 10; Lunar Rover on moon surface ; Lunar Rover exploration and return ; planned satellite Yinghuo- 1(+ Russian Phobos-Grunt) to fly towards Mars 2009; possible participation in European Space Agencys Aurora manned Mars exploration program m university graduates p.a. mainly engineers and technologists, top in nos.scientific papers. Vast majority no productive research. Still no home-grown Nobel Prize laureates. Committee representation, let alone chairmanship, extremely low in world-class scientific organizations But fast developing technologies in energy and water resources, environmental conservation, proprietary technologies, life sciences, aeronautics, and ocean sciences Various silicon valleys, leading science parks e, g. Beijings Zhongguancun and high-tech cities like Hefei, Anhui. 40% of overseas post-doctoral students in US are from China. Growing numbers of scientific returnees to seek greener pastures International corporate R& D centres 750 (100 in India), 35% v UK 47% and US 59% Shenyang Aircraft Corporation joint ventures in assembly and fuselage manufacture with Boeing, Airbus and Bombardier. May 2008, Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China formed with capitalization of $2.7 billion to compete with Boeing and Airbus. Chinas home-made regional jet ARJ21 maiden flight on with an order book > 100 aircraft Global implications: Chinas aerospace industry, including commercial satellites, is set to grow by leaps and bounds. International space program cooperation. Growing competition in worlds aircraft industries. Advances in life and environmental sciences and commercialization
19 MegaTrend 7 – China goes more Global 3 world top 5 by market capitalization - PetroChina ($1trillion, 2 x ExxonMobile), ICBC (worlds largest bank), and ChinaMobile Chinese corporations + SWFs taking equity in financial and energy companies: ICBC 20% in Standard Bank, Africas largest bank; CHINALCO (Aluminum Corp of China) planned 30% stake in bauxite mine of Rio Tinto; Geely bought Volvo from Ford for $1.8b and majority stake in Magnanese Bronze (London Black Cab) Controlled outflow - $10b (Deutsche Bank); Liberalising QDII - 50% overseas investment quota for approved equity funds 4 of Big Five state-controlled banks have embraced foreign equity: HSBC 19.9% of BoCom; BoA 10% of CCB; Goldman Sachs 10% of ICBC; RBSs (recently divested) 10% of BoC. Local incorporation of foreign banks – Citibank, HSBC, SCB, BEA China to grow RMB private equity – Wu Xiaoling, Dep Gov, PBoC, 2007 China M & A Annual Conference, Tianjin. Launch of stock index futures – approved in principle ( ) RMB as storage of value and stable means of exchange. RMB- denominated transactions and financial products more acceptable for China-related businesses. Eventual full convertibility. China to build 3 transnational high-speed ( km/hr) rail links by 2025 (a) Kunming to SE Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore); (b) Urumqi to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, - Germany?) (c) Heilongjiang – Siberia – W Europe (BJ/Lon in 2 days) (SCMP 8 March 2010)
20 MegaTrend 8 - Defense Historical trauma with continental-sized borders and coastline anxious to protect territorial integrity (including Taiwan) + choke-points of life-blood energy supply Total defense expenditure (2/3 for personnel, training and maintenance) rest of world combined. As % GDP, much < UK, Russia and France v US (Chinas 2006 National Defense White Paper) In light of US repeatedly rejection of call from 160 countries, China included, to de-militarize space, China showed capability of killing moving satellite as space defense deterrence Already a nuclear power, only major country without a single aircraft carrier, doubt about cost- benefit of blue-water navy + regional diplomatic interests giving way to clear signal (Defense Minster, ) Likely to to keep up with modern military technology for more cost-effective credible deterrence, including submarines and asymmetric warfare Global implications: need for more transparency to ease ungrounded fears (China needs benign environment to continue survival); scope for more international cooperation for peace-keeping and fight against piracy
21 MegaTrend 9 – Building a Harmonious World Best defense is having no enemies – Confucian Harmony Also joining no blocs. Simply cannot afford to be aggressive. Need for benign environment to build solid foundation - numerous challenges and contradictions + looming aging population profile US - Leadership accepted except where national interests undermined, but differences on Chinas internal issues and international approach to conflict resolution remain EU- main trading partner and plenty of scope for economic, trade, investment, technological, and scientific cooperation, but differences on Chinas internal issues remain, less so v US Russia – Energy partner and balance against uni-polarity ME – Main oil supply source – eager to see more stability (geopolitics) but unlikely to intervene in ME politics ASEAN and the Asia community growing importance in global supply chain + geopolitical advantages in the Asia-Pacific Central Asia - Shanghai Cooperation Organization – harmony in neighboring region and alternative energy supply route – national security Africa for 3 rd world cooperation and trade/investment in resources Latin America – also 3 rd world support + Venezuela (energy + support in US backyard); Brazil (soybeans and resources) Global implications: Waning dominance + economic symbiosis, US needs China as much as China needs US (Global Trends 2025 – A Transformed World, National Intelligence Council, Washington D.C., November, 2008). China growing global influence likely more active in UN, World Bank and the IMF, dynamics for a more harmonious world best suited to Chinas national interests.
23 MegaTrend 10 – Civil Society Vibrant civil society rapidly developing, e.g. spontaneous response to Sichuan earthquake Quarter of a million local NGOs campaign for consumer rights + environment + the under-privileged 80 to 100 million practising Christians (Jesus in Beijing, David Aikman, 2003) Vibrant 36 million blogs. More public hearings for major polices, often mandated by law Local elections held for all village and county chiefs and urban neighborhood committees More party secretaries and senior officials monitor public feedback through the internet CPC government for the people, law-based governance, official accountability, public transparency, public consultation, fight against corruption, more freedom of expression as instruments for legitimacy. Direct entry to government through public examinations. Competitive progression to high office. Confucian ideal of Mandate of Heaven shi ren xinzhe, shi tianxia (He who loses the hearts and minds of the people, loses the world). CPC think-tank on reform of political system post-17th Party Congress – NPC and CPPCC, centralizing power to appoint judges in the provinces (Storming the Citadel, Professor Zhou Tianyong et al, November 2007). Global network of Confucius Institutes, ultra-modern CCTV English channels, ancient culture and architecture, UNESCO-designated world heritage sites, colorful arts and customs all attracting an ever-mounting number of foreign tourists + trade, business, professional, academic, and educational visitors from all corners of world Renaissance China defined by 21 st C interpretation of the Confucian Golden Mean, calibrated balance between opposites, + prudent harmony between contradictions Global failure of market fundamentalism + looming ecological collapse - a blindness to excess and a disregard for prudence. A renaissance China stands a good chance of restoring a measure of global balance and harmony.
24 A roadmap for Sustainable Industrial Development State Council, October 2008 Value-added hi-tech industries + 5% : IT, bio-eng, aeronautics, space aviation, new energy & materials, marine industries Energy efficiency, conservation + emission reduction in processes, projects and buildings; restrict energy-and-emission intensive industries (coal – 77.2% % 2007);Energy Law in draft; 12 th FYP Renewable energies - nuclear, hydro, solar, wind, biomass, marsh gas, solid + liquid bio-fuels as % primary energy by up to 10%; coal-bed gas up to 10 bcm Less input, consumption, emission + high efficiency, including energy optimization, energy conservation and eco-preservation Concrete progress building water-conserving society; complete anti-flood systems large rivers + drought resistance of farmlands Recycling Economy - Circular Economy Promotion Law Accelerate service sector - value-added contribution to GDP by 3% S & T + international cooperation C but Differentiated R State Council February, 2009 Light, petrochemical, non-ferrous metals + logistics industries – rural- urban consumption, tech upgrade + innovation, -outdated capacity; environmental protection and energy conservation, M & A to achieve scale, clusters in central & Western provinces, quality and food safety
25 Chinas Green Opportunity McKinsey Quarterly, May GHG emissions mgt CO2 equivalent 6.8 Unrestrained growth frozen technology scenario 22.9 Policy reduction (policies, targets, tech development) Policy scenario 14.5 Full technical abatement potential* Abatement scenario 7.8 * Green Power – 2005 % Coal (81) 2030 % Coal (34) hydro (19), nuclear (16), wind (12), solar (8), gas (8), other (4) * Green Transport – 330m cars by 2030 > US; 100% green cars by 2020 = oil import less 30-40% * Green Industry – 1/3 of energy consumed 44% emissions; technology, efficiency, standards, conservation, recycling (e.g. coal-bed methane), agric waste, CCS * Green Buildings – eco-villages, towns and cities; natural gas, CFL (compact fluorescent light-bulbs); green designs, efficient heating and ventilation * Green Ecosystems – Forest coverage being raised from 11 to 20% by 2010; regulated grazing; widespread use of agricultural methane (already 23m homes); sustainable agriculture – land management, desertification and water management
27 Lessons from Financial and Ecological Collapse Survival, Adaptation, and Transformation Global Financial and Economic Crisis –Overleveraging ($1.4 quadrillion debt, some still underneath the carpet) –Excessive fundamentalism –Adam Smiths missing Visible Hand –Global economic imbalance –Who Moved My Cheese? Spencer Johnson, 1999 –Chrysler, Volvo, Magnanese Bronze v GM, GE, IBM, R J Reynolds, BYD, Suntech, Alibaba Collapse, How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Jared Diamond, Penguin Books, 2009 –Easter Island – Splendid isolation, 1400 m from nearest habitable island; first settled 900 A.D, original pristine paradise, Giant Palm (80 ft tall, 6 ft diameter); statue (moai) production peaked to 65 ft tall 270 tons; accumulative deforestation; collapse of food chain; by 1700 population crashing + wars, all statues toppled by 1884, today only 2 small trees and 2 small shrubs left –Greenland Inuit v Norse – Adapted sewn-skin kayak + harpoons with bladder floats as efficient hunting machines for resource-rich whales; Norse tied to European origin: church, walrus tusks for income (wiped out by new supply of ivory from new colonial era)
28 Andrew Leung International Consultants Ltd Thank you Andrew K P Leung, SBS, FRSA