Presentation on theme: "International Consultants Ltd"— Presentation transcript:
1International Consultants Ltd Andrew LeungInternational Consultants LtdA Sustainable China in a Turbulent World:Survival, Adaptation and TransformationAndrew K P Leung, SBS, FRSAA presentation for the TOChina ProgramUniversity of Turin, ItalyWednesday, 5 May, 2010
2Stage is set in 21st Century The World is Flat, Thomas Friedman, 2005 – Walmart Just-In-Time; UPS 2% world GDP across the globe; internet sans frontiers (Facebook, Twitter,LinkedIn etc)Global value chain migration (Rolls Royce 60% research and 70% components); creative destruction and world competition (‘Bear outside your tent’)Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx,‘expanding markets …over the entire surface of the globe ,,,,, new wants …products of distant lands and climes …universal interdependence of nations’Power shifts into individuals - ‘Cosmocrats’ – A Future Perfect – The Challenge and Hidden Opportunities of Globalization, John Micklethwait & Adrian Woodridge, 2000Three Billion New Capitalists, Clyde Prestowitz, 2005Future profits lie in scale, knowledge, creativity, technology and brands - $1 profit DVD player; 1.65% value of iPod, Google becoming world’s most profitableChina launched ‘Going Global’ strategy 2001Globalization and Its Discontents, Making Globalization Work, 2006, Joseph Stiglitz; The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Adam SmithGlobal Financial and Economic Crisis and Rising Protectionism
3The swing of the global pendulum National Intelligence Council Report Project 2025:US leadership capacity weakening (EU fractious) v rise of BRIC + MENew developing countries alliances e.g. ASEAN + 3, SCO – pose challenge to old-styled UN, IMF, WBGlobal industrialization - geopolitics and geo-economics of energy, food, water and climate securityStruggle for development in failing states = Arc of InstabilityChina’s dramatic growth – Beijing Consensus – set to play a key role in new world orderEmerging Markets lead contributers to world growth – China 27% v US 21% to growth: DCs 15% v world GDP)Emerging Markets lead contributers to world growth – China 27% v US 21%: DCs15% v world GDP)
4Some New Power Brokers Foreign assets ($T) MGI, July 2009 (est)Pension FundsMutual FundsInsurance assetsOil Producers * – 13.2Asian SWFs *4.76 (!) – 8.5Hedge Funds – 2.4Private Equity – 1.2(!) Increase virtually all due to China* TotalNet capital outflow from surplus countries ($b, 2006) (Mckinsey & Co)Oil producersEast AsiaWest EuropeRest of World____ ___
5East Asia dynamics re-defined (When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques, 2009)Complex supply chain centred on ChinaASEAN + 3; ACFTA (largest FTA with 2b people); 2003 Treaty of Amity & Cooperation; Chiang Mai Initiative (currency swaps);‘East Asia FTA’ + ‘Asian Monetary Fund’; ASEAN + 6 ; Process-oriented Constructivism (Socialization of Power – Influence without Authority) Qin Yaqing + Wei Ling, in China’s Ascent, Cornell University Press, 2008)China now South Korea’s largest trading partner + Singapore + Philippines + Thailand all closer to China (all formal US allies)Intra-NE Asia trade (China, Japan, Taiwan + 2 Koreas) 52% total 5, ASEAN imports % p.a.4 x US aid to Philippines; 2 x Indonesia; far > US to Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar (Chinese navy access to Indian Ocean)Increasing Mandarin learning + Chinese touristsAustralia double benefit – rising resource export and cheap importsTaiwan more accommodatingJapan - Manufacturing; trade > US, influence < Japanese nationalismUS influence declining except for naval powerEast Asia Economic Union? Asian Dollar? RMB regional currency? A future Asian Commonweath?
6Africa becoming more China-centric (When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques, 2009)FOCAC 2006 Beijing (48 countries; Action Plan: $5b Development Fund, $5b preferential loans + credits: schools, hospitals, professional training etc )China’s % share of Africa’s export of selected commoditiesCrude Oil Metals Wood CottonAngolaSudanNigeriaCongoGabonDRCGhannaSACameroonTanzaniaAfrica’s 3rd trading partner (US, France) > UK; soon 1stAfrica > 30% of China’s total oil importsAngola > Saudi Arabia as China’s largest oil supplier (15%)More direct flights Africa/China > few Africa/USChinese Diaspora = 500,000 growingFuture 100m tourists (Abah Ofon, The New Sinosphere, 2006)> IMF/WB – undermining v pathway to developmentBeijing Consensus > Washington ConsensusOverarching e.g. Zimbabwe (railways, power supply, Air Zimbabwe, ZBC); Zambia (‘a district’– Opposition candidate); 5 SEZsMore Winner > Losers v narrow economic development2007 PEW Global Attitudes 10 Africa countries – China> US
7Threshold of China’s Renaissance (When China Rules the World, Martin Jacques, 2009)Ranking of economies (Goldman Sachs, 2007)1. US (~$20T) China (~$70T)2. China (~$18T)) US (~$38T)3. Japan (~$5T) India (~$38T)4. India Brazil5. Germany Mexico6. Russia Russia7. UK Indonesia8. France Japan9. Brazil UK10. Italy Germany11. Mexico Nigeria12. Korea France13. Canada Korea14. Indonesia Turkey15. Turkey Vietnam16. Iran Canada17. Vietnam Philippines18. Nigeria Italy19. Philippines Iran20. Pakistan Egypt21. Egypt Pakistan22. Bangladesh BangladeshAlready EU’s and Japan’s largest trading partner; leading in SE Asia and Africa; Latin America’s 2nd largest trading partner by 2010People’s satisfaction - China 72%, UK 44%, US 39%, France 28%, Germany 25% etc> 40 m Chinese Disapora‘All roads lead to China ?’ - Pax Sinica?
8Grand Design v Deng’s caution Grand Design nationalism,中国不高兴 (Unhappy China) 2009Global Realities, Risks and Constraints –Internal –Inequalities, 5 Imbalances, Corruption, Rule of (> by) Law, Governance, Checks and Balance, Environment, Ethnic Harmony, Aging (4-2-1)Population Burden – GDP < 100 countries, GDP => Turkey; % (86.4m) of projected 1.6 b population still in farmingExternal –Global military reach, energy and resources, technological gap, creativity and innovation, financial expertise, ideas and values, global institutions, conflict with Western normsDangers and Opportunities of Power Transition: Institutionalized International Order > Security Dilemma - China’s Ascent – Power, Security, and the future of International Politics, Robert S. Ross & Zhu Feng (Editors, Cornell University Press, 2008); China’s Rise – Challenges and Opportunities, Bergsten, Freeman, Lardy, and Mitchell, Petersen Institute and CSIS, Washington DC, 2008Deng’s 28-word caution : 冷静观察，稳住阵脚，沉着应付，韬光养晦，决不当头, 有所作为 (in line with conclusions of 大国崛起 Study Project + ‘Neoliberal Defensive Realism’, Tang Shiping, in China’s Ascent, Cornell University Press, 2008)888
9How Open is China’s Economy? Open economy- Closed society? ‘No Pepsi in Danone’, CocaCola v Huiyuan (Anti-Trust?), Diageo v Shui Jing Fang 水井坊Trade = 75% GDP (v US < 40%, Japan, India, Brazil 25 – 35%)China’s foreign trade growing faster than GDP over past 25 yrsFDI $90b, first amongst developing countries, 3rd largest in worldMassive IPOs - BoC ($9.7b), ICBC ($21.9b), Alibaba ($1.5 b, largest Internet IPO v Google; Sinopec ($7.3b 100% Swiss Addax Petroleum 2009 ; China XD Electric ($1.5b largest 2010); global IPO $5.6 b Jan 2010 (only $72 m, 2009) - $4.5 b or 79% by China.Private sector 70% economy (Hu Angang)Growing consumption: Retail $800 b (2006) < only US, Japan, > rest of Asia. 30% global retail growth , ~$1.3 T by 2012; World’s largest car market (13.5 m v 10.9 m in US), 48.7m v 250 m cars in US best selling BYD Multi-hybrid. Most buyers households < mileage (Why gasoline consumption doesn’t gel!)FDI policies -SEZs, tech parks distort market (China Daily )State’s ‘Visible Hand’: RMB, exchange control, SOEs (+ Big Four Banks 34.5% total lending); macro-adjustment policies. Total loans fell 22% to RMB7.5 T v +95% 2009, moderating M2 expansion to 17% v 28% Budget deficit to be 2.9% GDP 2010, v 2.4% last year. Target GDP 8% v 8.7% 2009TFP (inc Tech +Efficiency) +4% p.a. v1990 fastest in world history (UBS report 2009)Unstable, Unbalanced, Uncoordinated, and Unsustainable – 17TH Party Congress, Premier Wen, (5 Imbalances: Regional, Environmental, Social, Central-Local, Outward )
10Adam Smith – Too little or Too much? (Mckinsey Quarterly, 2006) except*% China GDP & Lending % Financial stockSOE Private Bank deposits Equity % GDP US Lending ChinaEquity % GDP Corporate Debt % GDPUS USChina China*Public Debt % GDP *Household Debt %US (105% by 2012) USChina China
11The Triffin Dilemma Article by Zhou Xiaochuan, Governor, PBOC 1960s USD glut (Marshall Plan + exuberant US economy) led to abandoning the Gold StandardTriffin Dilemma – Conflict of Goals or Interest between national v global monetary requirementsReinforced SDRs to be managed by IMF; supported by a pool of currencies; SDR-denominated securities and assets; SDRs as medium of international tradeUnlikely to materialize anytime soon but apparent support fromBenn Steil, Director of International Economics, US Council of Foreign RelationsJoseph Stiglitz, Nobel Prize laureate and head of UN PanelJeffrey Sachs, Professor of Columbia University and Special Advisor to UN Seccretary-GeneralDominique Strauss-Kahn, Managing Director, IMFBrazilian PresidentRussian Presidential aideSubject to Voting Rights adjustment, China willing to assume more proactive IMF role (a) to help regulate global finances (b) to address the Triffin Dilemma (c) to help protect China’s USD Savings (d) to build up the RMB as an international currency for eventual convertibility
12Getting out of the US Dollar Trap The USD Trap (Paul Krugman, Nobel Prize laureate)Zhou Xiaochuan, Governor, PBOC hinted at unofficial USD peg being ‘temporary’ (FT )Three Ways out of the USD (Nomura, 5 March 2010)(1) Incremental Diversification out of US Treasuries (Dec 2009 foreign-held UST dropped $53b of which $34.2 due to China)(2) Reducing current account surplus (gradual RMB appreciation, more imports, more consumption, outward FDI (inc SWF) especially in resources e.g.Aluminum Corp of China (Chinalco) $19.5 b in Rio Tinto$25 b loan for 15 m tons crude for 20 yrs with Russia’s Rosneft and Transneft$10 b loan for oil deal with Kazakhstan$10 b Sinopec deal with Petrobras ( )(3) Eventual RMB internationalization as a global reserve currency e.g.Currency swaps (> $120 b)Promoting RMB as settlement currency (HK + Asian countries)Issuing RMB bonds (initially in HK)
13MegaTrend 1 – Massive Urbanization McKinsey Global Institute (Preparing for China’s Urban Billion, March 2008) :1 b urbanites by 2025, m in 221 cities each > 1 m population (EU=35)15 super-cities each > 25 m population11 hub-and-spoke conurbations each > 60 m populationWestward Ho! Most new urbanization to spawn in currently-less-developed central, north-east and western provincesConcentrated mode of urbanization projected to save 35% of carbon footprint and 2.5% GDP in government expenditureA YouTube snapshotGlobal implications: resources, business opportunities, experimentation, civil society
14MegaTrend 2 – Rapid Mobility Extensive inter-provincial highway network 2nd only to US Interstate in 17 yearsRailway (6% of world’ total length, 25% total traffic) to increase from 78,000 km to 100,000 km by 2020 (world’s largest railway expansion since 19th century)More city conurbations to be linked by integrated transport infrastructure e.g. $ 1.64b sea-spanning bridge over Hangzhou Bay linking Shanghai to Ningbo and other cities in the Provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu with a combined population of 72.4 millionGlobal implications: rapidly developing Chinese middle-class, changing lifestyles, vast supply chains
15MegaTrend 3 – Rise of the middle-class Combined urban disposable income household income > RMB 100,001 to 200,000 to grow from 0.1% of total 2005 to 36.4% by 2025 (Serving the New Chinese Consumer, The McKinsey Quarterly, 2006 Special Edition).Largely come from 100 m ‘single-child’ generation, inc post-80s, post-90s, and 21st century new-comersLuxury goods sales already 12% by value of world’s total, to grow to 33% by 2015Car ownership to expand from 11/1,000 towards world average 120/1,000 (<US 500/1,000) 500 m cars by 2050 (Goldman Sachs)Young entrepreneurs to jump from current 300,000Average 50,000 USD millionaires to be added annuallyA more consumer-oriented economy emerging in coming decadesGlobal implications: reducing over-reliance on exports, mitigating economic imbalance with the US.
16MegaTrend 4 – Largest moderate-income economy China > US by 2027/28 and > by 75% by 2050 (when India = US) (Goldman Sachs, The Economist, )ranks < 100 in the world = some poorest countries in Africa. By = middle-income nation in Asia or Eastern EuropeAging population profile ( > 30% to be aged 60 or over by 2050) Subsidized voluntary basic pension plan for rural population to grow from 60% in 2010 to 80% by 2015Legacy of One-Child Policy, phenomenon, relaxed if both parents single children, likely to be relaxed furtherStill > 100 m with < $1 a day v 800 m such in Poverty to shrink significantly in coming decadesGlobal implications: China will get old before getting rich. Needs a benign internal and external environment to consolidate an economic foundation to face social and financial burden of a looming aged profile
17MegaTrend 5 – Quiet Green Revolution Green Great Wall 4,480 km forestation absorbing 8% or 500m tons emissions p.a.- 20% or 1 b tons absorption by 2010.Small coal-power plants of < 10m kW capacity closed by Most of < 50m kW likely to be cleared or expanded within a decade.To invest $2.3 trillion in energy development , inc $200b to increase renewable energies from 8.3% to 10% of primary energy by 2010 and 15% by 2020, + 7% to 10% p.a. by 2010 and 20% p.a. by 2020, inc hydro-electric, nuclear, coal-seam gas, biomass, wind, solar, terrestrial heat and wave energies (IEA)Hydro-electric power world’s first in installed capacity 145 m kW and billion kWh power generationTotal of 110 million square meters of solar panels by far the world’s largestWind power has increased 7 x to > 6 m kW, 5th largest2 nuclear power stations p.a. for the next 15 years.BYD, (Shenzhen) introduced world’s first mass-produced plug-in hybrid electric range 100 km on electric engine. Miles XS500, range 120 miles at 80 mph, to launch in Tianjin in 2009 (Iain Carson and Vijay V Vaitheeswaran, Zoom: The Global Race to Fuel the Car of the Future, Hachette Book Group, 2007)Dongtan eco-city concept of sustainable housing and urban design on the cards for new cities, towns and villages. Eco-friendly lifestyle catching on with rising middle-class. Methane gas from human and animal waste in villagesLaw on the Circular Economy effective mandating energy, water, and material recycling, conservation and emission reduction supported by tax breaks and fines.Global implications: an ecologically-conscious society with 1/5 mankind; world’s car industries to be revolutionized
18MegaTrend 6 – Science, Technology and Innovation Chang’e-1 Moon Probe (2007), Shenzhou-7 Space Walk (2008). Planned Tiantong-1 small space station in docking with Shenzhou 8, 9, & 10; Lunar Rover on moon surface ; Lunar Rover exploration and return ; planned satellite Yinghuo-1(+ Russian Phobos-Grunt) to fly towards Mars 2009; possible participation in European Space Agency’s Aurora manned Mars exploration program 20305m university graduates p.a. mainly engineers and technologists, top in nos.scientific papers. Vast majority no productive research. Still no home-grown Nobel Prize laureates. Committee representation, let alone chairmanship, extremely low in world-class scientific organizationsBut fast developing technologies in energy and water resources, environmental conservation, proprietary technologies, life sciences, aeronautics, and ocean sciencesVarious silicon valleys, leading science parks e, g. Beijing’s Zhongguancun and high-tech cities like Hefei, Anhui. 40% of overseas post-doctoral students in US are from China. Growing numbers of scientific returnees to seek greener pasturesInternational corporate R& D centres 750 (100 in India), 35% v UK 47% and US 59%Shenyang Aircraft Corporation joint ventures in assembly and fuselage manufacture with Boeing, Airbus and Bombardier. May 2008, Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China formed with capitalization of $2.7 billion to compete with Boeing and Airbus. China’s home-made regional jet ARJ21 maiden flight on with an order book > 100 aircraftGlobal implications: China’s aerospace industry, including commercial satellites, is set to grow by leaps and bounds. International space program cooperation. Growing competition in world’s aircraft industries. Advances in life and environmental sciences and commercialization
19MegaTrend 7 – China goes more Global 3 world top 5 by market capitalization - PetroChina ($1trillion, 2 x ExxonMobile), ICBC (world’s largest bank), and ChinaMobileChinese corporations + SWFs taking equity in financial and energy companies: ICBC 20% in Standard Bank, Africa’s largest bank; CHINALCO (Aluminum Corp of China) planned 30% stake in bauxite mine of Rio Tinto; Geely bought Volvo from Ford for $1.8b and majority stake in Magnanese Bronze (London Black Cab)Controlled outflow - $10b (Deutsche Bank); Liberalising QDII - 50% overseas investment quota for approved equity funds4 of Big Five state-controlled banks have embraced foreign equity: HSBC 19.9% of BoCom; BoA 10% of CCB; Goldman Sachs 10% of ICBC; RBS’s (recently divested) 10% of BoC. Local incorporation of foreign banks – Citibank, HSBC, SCB, BEAChina to grow RMB private equity – Wu Xiaoling, Dep Gov, PBoC, 2007 China M & A Annual Conference, Tianjin. Launch of stock index futures – approved in principle ( )RMB as storage of value and stable means of exchange. RMB-denominated transactions and financial products more acceptable for China-related businesses. Eventual full convertibility.China to build 3 transnational high-speed ( km/hr) rail links by 2025 (a) Kunming to SE Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore); (b) Urumqi to Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, - Germany?) (c) Heilongjiang – Siberia – W Europe (BJ/Lon in 2 days) (SCMP 8 March 2010)
20MegaTrend 8 - DefenseHistorical trauma with continental-sized borders and coastline anxious to protect territorial integrity (including Taiwan) + choke-points of life-blood energy supplyTotal defense expenditure (2/3 for personnel, training and maintenance) < UK, Japan, France, and Germany v US expenditure > rest of world combined. As % GDP, much < UK, Russia and France v US (China’s 2006 National Defense White Paper)In light of US repeatedly rejection of call from 160 countries, China included, to de-militarize space, China showed capability of killing moving satellite as space defense deterrenceAlready a nuclear power, only major country without a single aircraft carrier, doubt about cost- benefit of blue-water navy + regional diplomatic interests giving way to clear signal (Defense Minster, )Likely to to keep up with modern military technology for more cost-effective credible deterrence, including submarines and asymmetric warfareGlobal implications: need for more transparency to ease ungrounded fears (China needs benign environment to continue survival); scope for more international cooperation for peace-keeping and fight against piracy
21MegaTrend 9 – Building a Harmonious World Best defense is having no enemies – Confucian Harmony Also joining no blocs.Simply cannot afford to be aggressive. Need for benign environment to build solid foundation - numerous challenges and contradictions + looming aging population profileUS - Leadership accepted except where national interests undermined, but differences on China’s internal issues and international approach to conflict resolution remainEU- main trading partner and plenty of scope for economic, trade, investment, technological, and scientific cooperation, but differences on China’s internal issues remain, less so v USRussia – Energy partner and balance against uni-polarityME – Main oil supply source – eager to see more stability (geopolitics) but unlikely to intervene in ME politicsASEAN and the Asia community growing importance in global supply chain + geopolitical advantages in the Asia-PacificCentral Asia - Shanghai Cooperation Organization – harmony in neighboring region and alternative energy supply route – national securityAfrica for 3rd world cooperation and trade/investment in resourcesLatin America – also 3rd world support + Venezuela (energy + support in US backyard); Brazil (soybeans and resources)Global implications: Waning dominance + economic symbiosis, US needs China as much as China needs US (Global Trends 2025 – A Transformed World, National Intelligence Council, Washington D.C., November, 2008). China growing global influence likely more active in UN, World Bank and the IMF, dynamics for a more harmonious world best suited to China’s national interests.
23MegaTrend 10 – Civil Society Vibrant civil society rapidly developing, e.g. spontaneous response to Sichuan earthquakeQuarter of a million local NGOs campaign for consumer rights + environment + the under-privileged80 to 100 million practising Christians (Jesus in Beijing, David Aikman, 2003)Vibrant 36 million blogs.More public hearings for major polices, often mandated by lawLocal elections held for all village and county chiefs and urban neighborhood committeesMore party secretaries and senior officials monitor public feedback through the internetCPC ‘government for the people’, law-based governance, official accountability, public transparency, public consultation, fight against corruption, more freedom of expression as instruments for legitimacy. Direct entry to government through public examinations. Competitive progression to high office. Confucian ideal of Mandate of Heaven ‘shi ren xinzhe, shi tianxia’ (He who loses the hearts and minds of the people, loses the world).CPC think-tank on reform of political system post-17th Party Congress – NPC and CPPCC, centralizing power to appoint judges in the provinces (Storming the Citadel, Professor Zhou Tianyong et al, November 2007).Global network of Confucius Institutes, ultra-modern CCTV English channels, ancient culture and architecture, UNESCO-designated world heritage sites, colorful arts and customs all attracting an ever-mounting number of foreign tourists + trade, business, professional, academic, and educational visitors from all corners of worldRenaissance China defined by 21st C interpretation of the Confucian Golden Mean, calibrated balance between opposites, + prudent harmony between contradictionsGlobal failure of market fundamentalism + looming ecological collapse - a blindness to excess and a disregard for prudence. A renaissance China stands a good chance of restoring a measure of global balance and harmony.
24A roadmap for Sustainable Industrial Development State Council, October 2008Value-added hi-tech industries + 5% : IT, bio-eng, aeronautics, space aviation, new energy & materials, marine industriesEnergy efficiency, conservation + emission reduction in processes, projects and buildings; restrict energy-and-emission intensive industries (coal – 77.2% % 2007);Energy Law in draft; 12th FYPRenewable energies - nuclear, hydro, solar, wind, biomass, marsh gas, solid + liquid bio-fuels as % primary energy by up to 10%; coal-bed gas up to 10 bcm‘Less input, consumption, emission + high efficiency’, including energy optimization, energy conservation and eco-preservationConcrete progress building water-conserving society; complete anti-flood systems large rivers + drought resistance of farmlandsRecycling Economy - Circular Economy Promotion LawAccelerate service sector - value-added contribution to GDP by 3%S & T + international cooperation ‘C but Differentiated R’State Council February, 2009Light, petrochemical, non-ferrous metals + logistics industries – rural-urban consumption, tech upgrade + innovation, -outdated capacity; environmental protection and energy conservation, M & A to achieve scale, clusters in central & Western provinces, quality and food safety
25China’s Green Opportunity McKinsey Quarterly, May 20092005 GHG emissions mgt CO2 equivalentUnrestrained growth2030 frozen technology scenarioPolicy reduction (policies, targets, tech development)2030 Policy scenarioFull technical abatement potential*2030 Abatement scenario* Green Power – 2005 % Coal (81) 2030 % Coal (34) hydro (19), nuclear (16), wind (12), solar (8), gas (8), other (4)* Green Transport – 330m cars by 2030 > US; 100% green cars by 2020 = oil import less 30-40%* Green Industry – 1/3 of energy consumed 44% emissions; technology, efficiency, standards, conservation, recycling (e.g. coal-bed methane), agric waste, CCS* Green Buildings – eco-villages, towns and cities; natural gas, CFL (compact fluorescent light-bulbs); green designs, efficient heating and ventilation* Green Ecosystems – Forest coverage being raised from 11 to 20% by 2010; regulated grazing; widespread use of agricultural methane (already 23m homes); sustainable agriculture – land management, desertification and water management
27Lessons from Financial and Ecological Collapse Survival, Adaptation, and TransformationGlobal Financial and Economic CrisisOverleveraging ($1.4 quadrillion debt, some still underneath the carpet)Excessive fundamentalismAdam Smith’s missing Visible HandGlobal economic imbalanceWho Moved My Cheese? Spencer Johnson, 1999Chrysler, Volvo, Magnanese Bronze v GM, GE, IBM, R J Reynolds, BYD, Suntech, AlibabaCollapse, How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Jared Diamond, Penguin Books, 2009Easter Island – Splendid isolation, 1400 m from nearest habitable island; first settled 900 A.D, original pristine paradise, Giant Palm (80 ft tall, 6 ft diameter); statue (moai) production peaked to 65 ft tall 270 tons; accumulative deforestation; collapse of food chain; by 1700 population crashing + wars, all statues toppled by 1884, today only 2 small trees and 2 small shrubs leftGreenland Inuit v Norse – Adapted sewn-skin kayak + harpoons with bladder floats as efficient hunting machines for resource-rich whales; Norse tied to European origin: church, walrus tusks for income (wiped out by new supply of ivory from new colonial era)
28International Consultants Ltd Andrew LeungInternational Consultants LtdThank youAndrew K P Leung, SBS, FRSA