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Congress Gets Organized! The First Day in the House The First Day in the House All members are sworn in All members are sworn in House elects the Speaker.

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Presentation on theme: "Congress Gets Organized! The First Day in the House The First Day in the House All members are sworn in All members are sworn in House elects the Speaker."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Congress Gets Organized! The First Day in the House The First Day in the House All members are sworn in All members are sworn in House elects the Speaker House elects the Speaker Always a member of the majority party – they have picked him in private meetings before session Always a member of the majority party – they have picked him in private meetings before session

4 John Boehner Elected Speaker Channel=1003&videoId= Channel=1003&videoId= Channel=1003&videoId= Channel=1003&videoId=

5 Congress Gets Organized! Members are put into committees Members are put into committees Also prearranged Also prearranged Majority party gets a majority in every committee Majority party gets a majority in every committee Seniority Rule – longest serving members get the first pick, become chairperson Seniority Rule – longest serving members get the first pick, become chairperson

6 Congress Gets Organized! First Day in the Senate First Day in the Senate 1/3 of the members are sworn in (only 1/3 coming off of election) 1/3 of the members are sworn in (only 1/3 coming off of election) Vacant committee seats are filled Vacant committee seats are filled

7 House Leadership Speaker of the House Speaker of the House John Boehner (R-OH) John Boehner (R-OH) Presides over House session Presides over House session

8 House Leadership Speaker of the House Speaker of the House Refers bills to relevant committee Refers bills to relevant committee Appoints members of the Rules committee Appoints members of the Rules committee

9 House Leadership House Majority Leader House Majority Leader Eric Cantor (R- VA) Helps Speaker to plan party strategy

10 House Leadership House Majority Whip House Majority Whip Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) Right hand of Majority Leader Right hand of Majority Leader

11 House Leadership Link between leadership and rank and file Link between leadership and rank and file Check who plans to vote and how Check who plans to vote and how Persuade defectors to vote with the party Persuade defectors to vote with the party

12 House Leadership House Minority Leader House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) Plans minority party strategy to take power back Expected to become Speaker if they win

13 House Leadership House Minority Whip House Minority Whip Steny Hoyer (D-MD) Steny Hoyer (D-MD)

14 Senate Leadership President of the Senate President of the Senate Vice President of the U.S. Joe Biden

15 Senate Leadership Presides over the Senate Powerless and thankless job V.P. has better things to do Can only vote to break a tie

16 Senate Leadership President Pro- Tempore of the Senate President Pro- Tempore of the Senate Patrick Leahy Patrick Leahy(D-VT) Presides in place of the VP Presides in place of the VP

17 Senate Leadership President Pro- Tempore of the Senate President Pro- Tempore of the Senate Longest serving member of the majority party Longest serving member of the majority party Also doesnt want to do it, passes the job off on junior members Also doesnt want to do it, passes the job off on junior members

18 Senator Byrd and Ted Stevens january /headlines---braked-alaska january /headlines---braked-alaska january /headlines---braked-alaska january /headlines---braked-alaska

19 Senate Leadership Senate Majority Leader Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) Plans party strategy

20 Senate Leadership Places bills on the calendar for voting May speak first on any bill Refers bill to relevant committee

21 Senate Leadership Senate Majority Whip Senate Majority Whip Richard Dick Durbin (D-IL) Richard Dick Durbin (D-IL)

22 Senate Leadership Senate Minority Leader Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY)

23 Senate Leadership Senate Minority Whip Senate Minority Whip John Cornyn III (R-TX) John Cornyn III (R-TX)

24 Committees Committee – expert groups of Congressmen who decide what bills will go to the whole house for a vote Committee – expert groups of Congressmen who decide what bills will go to the whole house for a vote Most work in Congress is done in committees Most work in Congress is done in committees

25 Types of Committees Standing Committee – permanent committees that remain from session to session Standing Committee – permanent committees that remain from session to session

26 Current Standing Committees in the House of Representatives Agriculture Agriculture Appropriations Appropriations Armed Services Armed Services Budget Budget Education and the Workforce Education and the Workforce Energy and Commerce Energy and Commerce Financial Services Financial Services Government Reform Government Reform House Administration House Administration International Relations International Relations Judiciary Judiciary Resources Resources Rules Rules Science Science Small Business Small Business Standards of Official Conduct Standards of Official Conduct Transportation and Infrastructure Transportation and Infrastructure Veterans Affairs Veterans Affairs Ways and Means Ways and Means

27 Current Standing Committees in the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Appropriations Armed Services Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Environment and Public Works Finance Finance Foreign Relations Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Governmental Affairs Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Indian Affairs Indian Affairs Judiciary Judiciary Rules and Administration Rules and Administration Small Business Small Business Veterans Affairs Veterans Affairs

28 Types of Committees Select or Special Committees – Temporary committee to investigate wrongdoing or research a special matter Select or Special Committees – Temporary committee to investigate wrongdoing or research a special matter Examples: Senate Watergate Committee, Select Committee on Aging Examples: Senate Watergate Committee, Select Committee on Aging

29 Types of Committees Joint Committees – have members of both the House and Senate Joint Committees – have members of both the House and Senate Conference Committees – compromise different versions of bills between House and Senate Conference Committees – compromise different versions of bills between House and Senate

30 How a Bill Becomes a Law For a brief overview, lets watch a short documentary on the process For a brief overview, lets watch a short documentary on the process

31 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 1 – The House Step 1 – The House Bill is introduced Bill is introduced Can only be introduced by a member of the House Can only be introduced by a member of the House Bill is read to the entire chamber Bill is read to the entire chamber

32 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 2 – The House Step 2 – The House Referred to a standing committee Referred to a standing committee Speaker of the House chooses the committee Speaker of the House chooses the committee Full committee decides whether to consider it, orpidgeonhole it Full committee decides whether to consider it, orpidgeonhole it

33 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 3 – The House Step 3 – The House Referred to subcommittee Referred to subcommittee Chairman of the committee decides which subcommittee Chairman of the committee decides which subcommittee Subcommittee does the vast majority of research and work on the bill Subcommittee does the vast majority of research and work on the bill 90% of bills die in steps 2 and 3 90% of bills die in steps 2 and 3

34 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 4 – The House Step 4 – The House Committee/Subcommittee Hearings Committee/Subcommittee Hearings Government officials, experts invited to speak in favor or against bills Government officials, experts invited to speak in favor or against bills Congressmen may take junkets, or trips to locations for further research Congressmen may take junkets, or trips to locations for further research Meanwhile, they markup, or make changes to the bill Meanwhile, they markup, or make changes to the bill

35 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 5 – The House Step 5 – The House Sent back to full committee Sent back to full committee Committee can either Committee can either Send the bill to step 6 with ado pass recommendation Send the bill to step 6 with ado pass recommendation Or refuse to report the bill, thus killing it Or refuse to report the bill, thus killing it

36 How a Bill Becomes a Law *If the rest of Congress disagrees with a committees decision to kill a bill, there is one option* *If the rest of Congress disagrees with a committees decision to kill a bill, there is one option* Discharge Petition – majority of the House votes to pull a dead bill out of committee Discharge Petition – majority of the House votes to pull a dead bill out of committee

37 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 6 – The House Step 6 – The House Referred to Rules Committee Referred to Rules Committee Places bill on the calendar Places bill on the calendar Sets the rules for time limits and number of amendments allowed Sets the rules for time limits and number of amendments allowed If they refuse to put rules on it… If they refuse to put rules on it…

38 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 7 – The House Step 7 – The House Whole House Debates Whole House Debates During debate, members can propose amendments to add onto the bill During debate, members can propose amendments to add onto the bill In the House, amendments must be relevant to the subject of the bill In the House, amendments must be relevant to the subject of the bill

39 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 8 – The House Step 8 – The House Whole House Votes Whole House Votes Majority vote passes, sends bill to the Senate Majority vote passes, sends bill to the Senate

40 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 9 – The Senate Step 9 – The Senate Introduced in the Senate Introduced in the Senate Step 10 – The Senate Step 10 – The Senate Referred to a standing committee Referred to a standing committee Senate Majority Leader chooses which committee Senate Majority Leader chooses which committee

41 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step – The Senate Step – The Senate Same as House – referred to subcommittee, back to committee, then out to floor for debate Same as House – referred to subcommittee, back to committee, then out to floor for debate

42 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 13 – The Senate Step 13 – The Senate Whole Senate Debates Whole Senate Debates No Rules Committee, so no limits on time or amendments No Rules Committee, so no limits on time or amendments Filibuster – talking at length to stall action on a bill, can only be ended by cloture (60 votes) Filibuster – talking at length to stall action on a bill, can only be ended by cloture (60 votes)

43 How a Bill Becomes a Law Riders - amendments that have nothing to do with a bill Riders - amendments that have nothing to do with a bill This leads to…

44 Pork Barrel Spending Generally occurs through a process calledEarmarking Generally occurs through a process calledEarmarking Setting aside money within an appropriations bill and earmarking it for a specific purpose Setting aside money within an appropriations bill and earmarking it for a specific purpose For some reason, doesnt go through typical spending authorization procedures that other spending proposals go through For some reason, doesnt go through typical spending authorization procedures that other spending proposals go through Cost taxpayers approximately $17.1 billion in 2008 Cost taxpayers approximately $17.1 billion in 2008

45 In 2008 Taxpayers Paid For… $148,950 for the Montana Sheep Institute $148,950 for the Montana Sheep Institute $211,508 for olive fruit fly research in Paris, France $211,508 for olive fruit fly research in Paris, France $1,117,125 to suppress Mormon crickets $1,117,125 to suppress Mormon crickets $1,950,000 for the Charles B. Rangel Center for Public Service (Rangel is the Congressman who got this money spent) $1,950,000 for the Charles B. Rangel Center for Public Service (Rangel is the Congressman who got this money spent) $98,000 to develop a walking tour of Boydton, Virginia $98,000 to develop a walking tour of Boydton, Virginia

46 Pork Barrel Spending How congressmen bring home the bacon How congressmen bring home the bacon Shows constituents that their congressman gets stuff for their district or state Shows constituents that their congressman gets stuff for their district or state Helps congressman win reelection! Helps congressman win reelection!

47 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 14 – The Senate Step 14 – The Senate Senate votes Senate votes Step 15 – Conference Committee Step 15 – Conference Committee Members of both houses subcommittees that worked on the bill compromise Members of both houses subcommittees that worked on the bill compromise Both houses then vote again on the compromise bill Both houses then vote again on the compromise bill

48 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 16 – The President Step 16 – The President President has 3 options (maybe 4): President has 3 options (maybe 4): 1. Sign the bill, make it law 1. Sign the bill, make it law

49 How a Bill Becomes a Law Step 16 – The President Step 16 – The President President has 4 options: President has 4 options: 2. Veto the bill, explain why 2. Veto the bill, explain why Goes back to Congress, who can override with 2/3 vote in both houses Goes back to Congress, who can override with 2/3 vote in both houses

50 How a Bill Becomes a Law 3. Wait 10 days and let it become law without his signature 3. Wait 10 days and let it become law without his signature 4. (Maybe) Pocket Veto - If Congress ends its session before 10 days are up, bill dies without a veto 4. (Maybe) Pocket Veto - If Congress ends its session before 10 days are up, bill dies without a veto


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