Presentation on theme: "Motiviation in PE. Identify several methods for motivating students. Use the following categories to help generate ideas: Intrinsic Extrinsic Teacher."— Presentation transcript:
Identify several methods for motivating students. Use the following categories to help generate ideas: Intrinsic Extrinsic Teacher Curriculum Climate Miscellaneous
Responses Choose activities Play music students like Teams – sport ed Novel or new activities Assignment – develop their own activity (jigsaw) Model enthusiasm and wellness Incentives – open gym, extra credit, captainship Feedback - positive Competition – tournament Teacher qualities – concerned, approachable, fun Benefits of physical activity Grades
Flow (enjoyment) channel Viewing Success is formed by: -Perceived ability -Competence -Past experiences -Choice of tasks -Failing forward
Records Fitness – large posters for each of the health-related fitness components separate by grade and sex. Cooperative activities Turnstile, keypunch, etc (timed) Adventure activities
Technology: Pedometers, HR monitors, video analysis (moviemaker skills), picture boards Enjoyment Specifically, they demonstrated the mediating role of enjoyment in explaining the relationship between students' experiences in PE and their level of physical activity outside of school. QUITE a connection! Cox, A., Williams, L., & Smith, A. (2007). Motivation in physical education and physical activity behavior outside of school. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 154- 155.
Promoting Intrinsic Motivation Freedom to make choices (both in activities and within lessons) Allow students to choose between either a drive or a wrist shot in a hockey unit achieves the desired outcome of having them practice striking skills while providing them freedom in which striking skill to practice. Allow students to modify activities: Providing a choice of slower moving or larger balls in a handball unit or a lowered basket in a basketball unit are ways to increase a youngster's intrinsic motivation to participate. The most important point is that the successful outcome Alderman, A., Beighle, A., and Pangrazi, R. (2006). Enhancing motivation in physical education: promoting intrinsic motivation, enhancing perceived physical competence, and creating a mastery-oriented environment will increase students' enjoyment of physical activity. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 77(2), 41.
Choice The results revealed that the girls in the choice group reported more intrinsic motivation, experienced less external control, and felt less motivated in the physical education setting. The authors reported that these results are supported by a number of other studies indicating that students are more motivated and self- determined when they think the environment supports autonomy. Johnson, D. (2005). The effect of choice on motivation. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 76(1), 8.
Perceived Physical Competence Sense of accomplishment and skill improvement, not necessarily skill level (Ali). Enough time to practice skills with an emphasis on quality of movement (i.e., practicing correctly) Okay, you have one minute to hit the target 25 times" quantity over quality. Better to give an appropriate amount of time to practice versus trials.
Emphasizing the outcome of a skill, (e.g., successfully making a free-throw), decreases a student's willingness to take risks or perform the skill in the future. For example, a student who uses proper technique when shooting a basketball but fails to make the shot might believe that she performed the skill incorrectly even though the technical points of the shot were performed correctly. Instead, stress the technique (e.g., "Nice Barbara, you kept your elbow in and really followed through. Keep it up, your shot is looking great"). Suggest grading based upon technique rather than execution or a combination of the two. Allow students to practice in a scatter formation rather than a circle to avoid the perception others are watching them.
Teaching Style The student teachers were filmed teaching three lessons each, adopting a different teaching style for each. The teaching styles selected were command/practice, reciprocal and guided discovery. Results revealed that the reciprocal and guided discovery styles resulted in more mastery and less performance-focused teaching behaviors and more adaptive cognitive and affective responses than the command/practice style. Morgan, K., & Kingston, K. (2005). Effects of different teaching styles on the teacher behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupil? European Physical Education Review, 11(3), 257-285.
Teaching Styles Methods are ways of organizing and presenting the learning experiences to children Vary your teaching methods to prevent student boredom See styles on next slide
Teaching StyleDescriptionPE Example CommandTeacher makes all decisions, like follow the leader Side to target – students turn sideways preparing to throw Practice (includes stations) Students carry out teacher-prescribed tasks as modeled while receiving teacher feedback Groups of four practice the "dig" in volleyball. Stations with different VB skills at each ReciprocalStudents work in pairs: one performs, the other provides feedback (may utilize criteria sheet) In twos, practice the set shot in basketball while providing feedback to partner Self-CheckStudents assess their own performance against criteria sheet prepared by teacher Checking off skill cues for each exercise in a weight training circuit TaskStudents are provided with legitimate options for skill practice that have a range of difficulty (low to high) Choose batting practice off a tee, tossed from the side, or an underhand toss. Using hurdles set at various heights & distances Guided DiscoveryStudents answer questions in a series that lead to the discovery of a concept (typically movement related) Pupils try different start positions for the forward roll in gymnastics. Problem Solving (includes synthesis) Students solve problems or create programs with assistance from the teacher, multiple solutions (divergent) Devising a new cooperative game within parameters. Devise solution to Spiders Web project adventure challenge ExplorationStudents explore concepts or equipment with less teacher direction Explore strategies to score a goal Explore how to use a scarf.
Assessment Teacher observation, self-observation, checklists, peer observation, and event task were the most commonly used forms of authentic assessment; portfolio and essay were the least commonly used techniques. Public school physical education teachers in this study perceived that authentic assessment use enhanced positively the self- concept, motivation, and skill achievement of their students. Communicate fitness results and grades to parents Mintah, J. (2003). Authentic assessment in physical education: Prevalence of use and perceived impact on students' self-concept, motivation, and skill achievement. Measurement in Physical Education & Exercise Science, 7(3), 161-164.
General Motivational Ideas Motivation: Design activities that will challenge all students. Design lessons that students will find meaningful. Give the students explanations of what they are learning and how it applies to life outside the school setting (THE WHY of PE) Eliminate changing days if possible (table tennis or yard games unit for example) Rewards (choice of activity, stickers, privilege) Provide students with lots of specific feedback. That was a great backhand, youre awesome! Be caring and accepting of all students. Treat all students equally regardless of skill level, gender, race, culture, or socioeconomic status. Avoid favoritism
General Motivational Ideas Mowling, C., Brock, S., Eiler, K., & Rudsill, M. (2004). Student motivation in physical education: Breaking down barriers. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(6), 40-46.
General Motivational Ideas Teacher: Be enthusiastic about teaching PE Avoid public proclamation of the winner Avoid fishbowl activities Avoid situations about personal competence Last one puts the equipment away Use a variety of teaching strategies and instructional models to keep class fresh
General Motivational Ideas Administration Administrators often lack the familiarity with physical education to see it as an important part of the overall curriculum EDUCATE THEM - Invite administrators to observe or join in with PE classes. Teach them about our discipline; they control instructional time. Setting Give students opportunities to improve their own surroundings by designing attractive bulletin boards, locker rooms, and playing areas Be creative with equipment. Students and teachers may need to improvise equipment (e.g., milk containers, soda bottles, sock balls, dollar store items, panty hose racquets, etc.).
Other Motivational Factors Teams (sport ed) Social environmental factors included supportive/non-judgmental classmates and school athletic facilities If the facilities are run-down, it gives the impression PE is not important. Physical activity behaviors of the family and family encouragement, participation in out-of-school athletic activities, media, and social preconceptions Hassandra, M., & Goudas, M. (2003). Examining factors associated with intrinsic motivation in physical education: A qualitative approach. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 4(3), 211-213.
Barriers to Motivation Humiliation Changing Sweating (1 st period especially) Gender appropriateness (boys=basketball, girls=dance) Lack of or non-stylish clothing/sneakers How can PE overcome these barriers? Papacharisis, V., & Goudas, M. (2003). Perceptions about exercise and intrinsic motivation of students attending a health-related physical education program. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 97(3), 689-696.
Barriers to Motivation Intervention for Overweight/Obese Students Determine status – how? Intervene – how?
Barriers to Motivation There is a noticeable pattern in student enjoyment of physical education, as students grow older, they like PE less, particularly among females. This has been document in countless research studies What may account for this pattern? Parish, L, & Treasure, D. (2003). Physical activity and situational motivation in physical education: influence of the motivational climate and perceived ability. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 74(2), 173-182.