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Mainsteaming responsibility in tourism development Obstacles and opportunities Mr.sci. Hrvoje Carić, env. mgmt. Institute for tourism, Zagreb, Croatia.

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Presentation on theme: "Mainsteaming responsibility in tourism development Obstacles and opportunities Mr.sci. Hrvoje Carić, env. mgmt. Institute for tourism, Zagreb, Croatia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mainsteaming responsibility in tourism development Obstacles and opportunities Mr.sci. Hrvoje Carić, env. mgmt. Institute for tourism, Zagreb, Croatia

2 Content: 1.Definition of sustainable development 2.Existing unsustainable trends 3.Redefenition 4.Sustainable and responsible development in practice (learning labs)

3 1.Definition of sustainable development – whats wrong 2.Existing unsustainable trends 3.Redefinition 4.Sustainable and responsible development in practice (learning labs)

4 Sustainable development (political definitions) Meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland) Improving the quality of life within the limits of carrying capacities of ecosystems. (Claude Martin, WWF)

5 Meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland) Improving the quality of life within the limits of carrying capacities of ecosystems. (Claude Martin, WWF) Antropo-centric Wide variety of interpretation Not very precise

6 1.Definition of sustainable development 2.Existing unsustainable trends 3.Redefinition 4.Sustainable and responsible development in practice (learning labs)

7 Dubrovnik long history and international visibility since the Classical Roman period and through famous medieval Republic The Icon of Croatian tourism UNESCO site Very rich: -Biodiversity -Landscape -Heritage Population

8 Trends (?): more cruise tourists, less stay, less … 2001 to 2009 cruising tourists increased 5 x passengers on the average have spent 1,68 days in Croatia (2009) Comparing 2009 to 2008, number of: -cruise arrivals have decreased by 8,3% -total days spent have decreased by 19,4% -total number of passengers increased by 5,3%. CroatiaDubrovnikDub. share Yearpassengers %

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11 Direct pollution cost assesment H. Carić Direct pollution cost assessment of cruising tourism in the Croatian Adriatic Financial Theory and Practice 34 (2) (2010) Poor environmental management practice of cruise companies and authorities in implementation of legislation make pollution from cruisers NEGATIVE EKSTERNALITY

12 Pollution typeDaily pollution quantity/guest Pollution for Croatian Adriatic Pollution for Dubrovnik port Solid Waste4 kg6.648 tones1.777 tones Air pollution CO 2 0,40 kg/km tones tones Black waters40 litters litters litters Gray waters340 litters litters litters Bilge water10 litters litters litters Hazardous waste0,16 kg kg kg Eco-toxic metal0,45 g748 kg266 kg Direct pollution costs are multiplications of daily pollution quantities with number of cruise guests and days spent: a) Croatian Adriatic = guest/days b) Dubrovnik port = guest/days

13 Direct pollution costs (DPC) for cruising tourism in 2009 based on EU prices of environmental management charges. All pollution loads are negative externalities, meaning that pollution is not properly treated and subsequently has an effect on the environment (Carić, 2010). Pollution typeDPC (EU)UnitDPC for Cro. Adriatic DPC for Dubrovnik Solid Waste0,15/kg Air pollution0,24/km/ passenger Black & gray waste waters 0,0089/lit Bilge water0,22/lit Hazardous waste 1,53/kg

14 Cost benefit analysis (financial) Direct pollution costs (DPC) Total calculated income for Croatian economy from cruising tourism in 2009 was 53 mil. max. DPC for Cro. Adriatic DPC for Dubrovnik 390 mil 328 mil

15 Comparative human impact (1) ratio (2) peak day impact (3) 5 cruisers = towns of Du. PollutionCruise guest pollution ratio 5 cruisers with guest pollute as Dubrovnik ( citizens) SOx (IMO 4,5%) (EU 1,5%) ?? CO 2 air pollution7, NOx air pollution11, ,8 Wastewater2, ,7 Waste4, ,12 in local person equivalents

16 Conflicting use of marine resource within tourism sector: mega cruising vs sea kayaking ALASKA Autor : Tom Bol, Crusise Controll

17 Foto Adam Benović

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19 Remains from air emission polluted a beach in Dubrovnik

20 Collisions of cruisers in front of old harbor anchoring area 2004: Armonia vs Club Med II anchor entanglement. Demolished underwater electricity and water piping 2008: MSC Poesia vs Costa Classica collision without significant consequences

21 1.Definition of sustainable development 2.Existing unsustainable trends 3.Redefinition 4.Sustainable and responsible development in practice (learning labs)

22 Sustainable development Exploatation < Regeneration

23 Local community Heritage (cultural, historic, traditional, ethical) Business Politics ENVIRONMENT Sustainable development (human systems vs. environment)

24 Local community Heritage Business Politics Process to develop synergy between human systems to contribute harmony with environment ENVIRONMENT

25 Local community Heritage Business Politics ENVIRONMENT Social, personal responsibility For environment responsibility for standard of living How to develop genuine responsibility in the world of individualism and opportunism …How to define responsibility, the meaning?

26 What is responsibility ? Every decision significant for tribe needs to consider impact on seven unborn generations. Lakota Sioux Is this too wise for us?

27 1.Definition of sustainable development 2.Existing unsustainable trends 3.Redefinition 4.Sustainable and responsible development in practice (learning labs)

28 S / R development in practice = quality care (protection of heritage) + income generation (responsible use for profit) + public benefit (especially local community) Heritage for development and development for heritage

29 Heritage - natural - traditional - historic - cultural Heritage is comparative advantage for local sustainable development, renewable.

30 Literature (for more details) Mowforth, M. Munt, I Tourism and Sustainability: Development and New Tourism in the Third World. Routledge, London. Duffy R., A Trip Too Far: Ecotourism, Politics and Exploitation. Stylus Pub Llc. Stronza A., Gordillo J. (2008.). Community Views Of Ecotourism, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, str.. 448–468, Machelworth P.C. and Carić H., Gatekeepers of Island Communities – Exploring the Pillars of (Un)Sustainable Development. Environment, Development and Sustainability.


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