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2-Pioneering ideas in management 1 Pioneering ideas in management Ridel A. 2.

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Presentation on theme: "2-Pioneering ideas in management 1 Pioneering ideas in management Ridel A. 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 2-Pioneering ideas in management 1 Pioneering ideas in management Ridel A. 2

2 2-Pioneering ideas in management 2 Preclassical contributors Classical viewpoint Behavioral viewpoint Quantitative viewpoint Contemporary viewpoint Scientific management Bureaucratic management Administrative management Early behaviorist Hawthorne studies relations movement Behavioral science approach Management science Operation management Management information system System theories Contingency theories Emerging view Management theories

3 2-Pioneering ideas in management 3 Preclassical contribution Robert Owen –British entrepreneur (Scotland?) – –To recognized the important of HR Interested: working, living condition of his –Tried to improve the living of –To be a radical

4 2-Pioneering ideas in management 4 Preclassical contribution Charles Babage –English mathematician – –As father of computing –To enthralled: work specialization –A bonus & a portion of wages

5 2-Pioneering ideas in management 5 Preclassical contribution Henry R. Towne –Company president –Mechanical engineer – –To run an org. effectively: good engineering skill + good business skills

6 2-Pioneering ideas in management 6 ContributorsPioneering ideas Robert Owen Advocated concern for working & living conditions of workers Charles Babbage Build the first practical mechanical calculator & a prototype of modern computer, predicted the specialization of metal work; suggested profit sharing. Henry R. Towne Outline the importance of mnt as a science & called for the development of management principles. The preclassical contributors and their pioneering ideas

7 2-Pioneering ideas in management 7 Full name: Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli Birth: May 3, 1469) Florence, Italy FlorenceItaly Death: June 21, 1527 (aged 58) Florence, Italy School/tradition: Renaissance philosophy, realism, classical republicanismRenaissance philosophy realismclassical republicanism Main interests: Politics, military theory, historyPoliticsmilitary theoryhistory

8 2-Pioneering ideas in management 8 Statue of Sun Tzu in Yurihama, Tottori, JapanYurihama, Tottori Japan Born: date of birth unknown Died: date of death unknown Occupation: Military commander Occupation EthnicityEthnicity: Chinese Writing period:722–481 BCE or 403–221 BCE (disputed) Subjects: Military strategy Notable work(s): The Art of WarThe Art of War

9 2-Pioneering ideas in management 9 Classical viewpoint - Scientific management - Bureaucratic management - Administrative management - Frederic Winslow Taylor,The Gilbreths Henry L. Gantt, - Max Weber - Henry Fayol, Chester Barnard

10 2-Pioneering ideas in management 10 Frederick Winslow Taylor (Philadelphia) The father of scientific management 3 main reasons principles of S.M –Workers Feared: productivity lose their jobs, how to handle? –Incentive may cause operating at a slow pace –Taylor feared: inefficient methods (working & rules) Frederick Winslow Taylor:

11 2-Pioneering ideas in management 11 Taylors Four Principles of Scientific Management 1. Scientifically study each part of a task and develop the best method of performing the task. 2. Carefully select workers and train them to perform the task by using the scientifically developed method. 3. Cooperate fully with workers to ensure that they use the proper method. 4. Divide work and responsibility so that management is responsible for planning work methods using scientific principles and workers are responsible for executing the work accordingly.

12 2-Pioneering ideas in management 12 The Gilbreths (husband & wife) = Frank ( ) + Lillian ( ) Taylors friend Consultant The GilbrethsHenry L. Gantt

13 2-Pioneering ideas in management 13 Max Weber German sociologist: consultant, professor, author Maximilian Weber: German political economist and sociologistGermanpolitical economistsociologist

14 2-Pioneering ideas in management 14 Key Characteristics of Webers Ideal Bureaucracy Specialization of labor Formal rules and procedures Impersonality Well-defined hierarchy Career advancement based on merit

15 2-Pioneering ideas in management 15 Henry Fayol French industrialist ( ) He delineated 5 major functions –Planning –Organizing –Commanding –Coordinating & controlling Henri Fayol (1841 in Istanbul – 1925 in Paris) was a French management theorist.Istanbul ParisFrenchmanagement

16 2-Pioneering ideas in management 16 Fayols 14 Principles of Management 1. Division of work 2. Authority 3. Discipline 4. Unity of command 5. Unity of direction 6. Subordination of individual interest to the general interest 7. Remuneration Efficiencies To give order, power For smooth running 1 supervisor only 1 plan, 1 who charge ( ) vs. ( )? Pay: fair

17 2-Pioneering ideas in management 17 Fayols 14 Principles of Management 8. Centralization 9. Scalar chain 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability and tenure 13. Initiative 14. Esprit de corps According to situation Hierarchical: top to bottom, com. path Materials keeping Kindness & justice Prevent turnover, why? Subordinate (creativity) Teamwork

18 2-Pioneering ideas in management 18 Born in Massachusetts Acceptance theory of authority OK if –Understand the com. –Com. org. purposes –Feel in line their need,.. – to comply? Chester Barnard

19 2-Pioneering ideas in management 19 Behavioral viewpoint - Early behaviorists - Hawthorne studies - Human relation movement - Hugo Münsterberg, Mary Parker Follett - 1 st set of studies, 2 nd set of studies, 3 rd set of studies, its impacts - Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor - Behavioral science approach

20 2-Pioneering ideas in management 20 Born in Germany ( ) The book argued: –Psychologists should Study jobs Find ways: suited job –Could: psychological cond. for do best work –Dev. influence strategy Born in Boston ( ), F Social worker Ideas: (conflict solution) –The functioning of group vs. proponent –Principle power vs. power over –Solution: satisfy both parties Hugo MünsterbergMary Parker Follett

21 2-Pioneering ideas in management 21 Hawthorne studies The Hawthorne studies are a group of studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Com. 1920s-1930s –A behavioral approach concerned for the workers. –To seeking greater efficiently: tool & methods

22 2-Pioneering ideas in management 22 Self-actualization Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs Maslows hierarchy of needs

23 2-Pioneering ideas in management 23 Physiological needs –Air, water, nourishment, sleep Safety –Living in safe area –Medical insurance –Job security –Financial reserve Social needs –Friends, belonging, love Esteem –Self-respect, achievement, attention, recognition, reputation Self-actualization –Truth, justice, wisdom, meaning Maslows hierarchy of needs Source: NetMBA, Business knowledge Center

24 2-Pioneering ideas in management 24 Self- actualization in service to society Safety Physiology Belonging Chinese needs hierarchy Self- actualization in individual development Self-esteem Belonging (social) Safety Physiology American needs hierarchy Source: Psychology, by Jane S. Halonen and John W. Santrock, 2/e, p.455

25 2-Pioneering ideas in management 25 Theory X And Theory Y Theory X: the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform Theory Y: the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction Douglas McGregor ( )

26 2-Pioneering ideas in management 26 Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility The ability to make innovative decision is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions. Labeled theory X (Negative)Labeled theory Y (Positive)

27 2-Pioneering ideas in management 27 Extra motivation theories Two-factor theory ERG Expectancy theory Equity theory Goal setting theory

28 2-Pioneering ideas in management 28 InputsOutputs Transformation process Feedback from environment Organizational resources Information Mnt functions Technology Products & services Profits & loses Employees growth & satisfaction Results Organizational status System theory

29 2-Pioneering ideas in management 29 A system that operates in continual interaction with its environment. A system that does little or no interacting with its environment & receives little feedback Open systemClosed system

30 2-Pioneering ideas in management 30 The ability of the whole to equal more than the sum of its parts. A viewpoint that argues that appropriate managerial action depends on the particular parameters of the situation SynergyContingency theory

31 2-Pioneering ideas in management 31 Source Management Kathry M. Bartol : University of Maryland, College Park David C. Martin : American University

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