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Pioneering ideas in management

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Presentation on theme: "Pioneering ideas in management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pioneering ideas in management
Ridel A., NUM 25 March 2017 2 Pioneering ideas in management Ridel A. 2-Pioneering ideas in management Management & Organizational Development

2 Preclassical contributors Classical viewpoint Behavioral viewpoint
Management theories Preclassical contributors Classical viewpoint Behavioral viewpoint Quantitative viewpoint Contemporary viewpoint Scientific management Early behaviorist Management science System theories Bureaucratic management Hawthorne studies Operation management Contingency theories Administrative management relations movement Management information system Emerging view Behavioral science approach 2-Pioneering ideas in management

3 Preclassical contribution
Robert Owen British entrepreneur (Scotland?) To recognized the important of HR Interested: working, living condition of his  Tried to improve the living of  To be a radical 2-Pioneering ideas in management

4 Preclassical contribution
Charles Babage English mathematician As father of computing To enthralled: work specialization A bonus & a portion of wages 2-Pioneering ideas in management

5 Preclassical contribution
Henry R. Towne Company president Mechanical engineer To run an org. effectively: good engineering skill + good business skills 2-Pioneering ideas in management

6 2-Pioneering ideas in management
The preclassical contributors and their pioneering ideas Contributors Pioneering ideas Robert Owen Advocated concern for working & living conditions of workers Charles Babbage Build the first practical mechanical calculator & a prototype of modern computer, predicted the specialization of metal work; suggested profit sharing. Henry R. Towne Outline the importance of mn’t as a science & called for the development of management principles. 2-Pioneering ideas in management

7 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Full name: Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli Birth: May 3, 1469) Florence, Italy Death: June 21, 1527 (aged 58) Florence, Italy School/tradition: Renaissance philosophy, realism, classical republicanism Main interests: Politics, military theory, history 2-Pioneering ideas in management

8 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Born: date of birth unknown Died: date of death unknown Occupation: Military commander Ethnicity: Chinese Writing period:722–481 BCE or 403–221 BCE (disputed) Subjects: Military strategy Notable work(s): The Art of War Statue of Sun Tzu in Yurihama, Tottori, Japan 2-Pioneering ideas in management

9 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Classical viewpoint - Scientific management - Frederic Winslow Taylor, Henry L. Gantt, The Gilbreths - Bureaucratic management - Max Weber - Administrative management - Henry Fayol, Chester Barnard 2-Pioneering ideas in management

10 Frederick Winslow Taylor
(Philadelphia) The father of scientific management 3 main reasons→ principles of S.M Workers Feared: productivity ↑ → lose their jobs, how to handle? Incentive may cause operating at a slow pace Taylor feared: inefficient methods (working & rules) Frederick Winslow Taylor: 2-Pioneering ideas in management

11 Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management
Scientifically study each part of a task and develop the best method of performing the task. Carefully select workers and train them to perform the task by using the scientifically developed method. Cooperate fully with workers to ensure that they use the proper method. Divide work and responsibility so that management is responsible for planning work methods using scientific principles and workers are responsible for executing the work accordingly. 2-Pioneering ideas in management

12 2-Pioneering ideas in management
The Gilbreths Henry L. Gantt The Gilbreths (husband & wife) = Frank ( ) + Lillian ( ) Taylor’s friend Consultant 2-Pioneering ideas in management

13 Max Weber German sociologist: consultant, professor, author 1864-1920
Maximilian Weber: German political economist and sociologist 2-Pioneering ideas in management

14 Key Characteristics of Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
Specialization of labor Formal rules and procedures Impersonality Well-defined hierarchy Career advancement based on merit 2-Pioneering ideas in management

15 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Henry Fayol French industrialist ( ) He delineated 5 major functions Planning Organizing Commanding Coordinating & controlling Henri Fayol (1841 in Istanbul – 1925 in Paris) was a French management theorist. 2-Pioneering ideas in management

16 Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management
Division of work Authority Discipline Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual interest to the general interest Remuneration Efficiencies To give order, power For smooth running 1 supervisor only 1 plan, 1 who charge () vs. (  )? Pay: fair 2-Pioneering ideas in management

17 Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management
Centralization Scalar chain Order Equity Stability and tenure Initiative Esprit de corps According to situation Hierarchical: top to bottom, com. path Materials keeping Kindness & justice Prevent turnover, why? Subordinate (creativity) Teamwork 2-Pioneering ideas in management

18 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Chester Barnard Born in Massachusetts Acceptance theory of authority OK if Understand the com. Com. →org. purposes Feel in line their need, .. ..able to comply? 2-Pioneering ideas in management

19 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Behavioral viewpoint - Early behaviorists - Hugo Münsterberg, Mary Parker Follett - Hawthorne studies - 1st set of studies, 2nd set of studies, 3rd set of studies, its impacts - Human relation movement - Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor - Behavioral science approach 2-Pioneering ideas in management

20 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Hugo Münsterberg Mary Parker Follett Born in Germany ( ) The book argued: Psychologists should Study jobs Find ways: suited job Could: psychological cond. for do best work Dev. influence strategy Born in Boston ( ), F Social worker Ideas: (conflict solution) The functioning of group vs. proponent Principle power vs. power over Solution: satisfy both parties 2-Pioneering ideas in management

21 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Hawthorne studies The Hawthorne studies are a group of studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Com. 1920s-1930s A behavioral approach concerned for the workers. To seeking greater efficiently: tool & methods 2-Pioneering ideas in management

22 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Self-actualization Esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs 2-Pioneering ideas in management

23 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Physiological needs Air, water, nourishment, sleep Safety Living in safe area Medical insurance Job security Financial reserve Social needs Friends, belonging, love Esteem Self-respect, achievement, attention, recognition, reputation Self-actualization Truth, justice, wisdom, meaning Source: NetMBA, Business knowledge Center 2-Pioneering ideas in management

24 American needs hierarchy Chinese needs hierarchy
Source: Psychology, by Jane S. Halonen and John W. Santrock, 2/e, p.455 2-Pioneering ideas in management

25 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Theory X And Theory Y Theory X: the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform Theory Y: the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction Douglas McGregor ( ) 2-Pioneering ideas in management

26 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Labeled theory X (Negative) Labeled theory Y (Positive) Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility The ability to make innovative decision is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions. 2-Pioneering ideas in management

27 Extra motivation theories
Two-factor theory ERG Expectancy theory Equity theory Goal setting theory 2-Pioneering ideas in management

28 Feedback from environment
System theory Products & services Profits & loses Organizational resources Mn’t functions Employees growth & satisfaction Information Technology Inputs Transformation process Outputs Feedback from environment Results Organizational status 2-Pioneering ideas in management

29 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Open system Closed system A system that operates in continual interaction with its environment. A system that does little or no interacting with its environment & receives little feedback 2-Pioneering ideas in management

30 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Synergy Contingency theory The ability of the whole to equal more than the sum of its parts. A viewpoint that argues that appropriate managerial action depends on the particular parameters of the situation 2-Pioneering ideas in management

31 2-Pioneering ideas in management
Source Management Kathry M. Bartol: University of Maryland, College Park David C. Martin : American University 2-Pioneering ideas in management


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