Presentation on theme: "Responding in the Red Zone: Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction for Students with Significant Behavioral Challenges Louisiana PBS Conference Sessions."— Presentation transcript:
1 Responding in the Red Zone: Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction for Students with Significant Behavioral Challenges Louisiana PBS Conference Sessions 5A & 5BGregory J. Benner, Ph.D.Associate ProfessorUniversity of Washington, TacomaTelephone: (253)Fax: (253)
2 Big Picture Objectives The link between behavior and academic achievementShort chronicle of what we have learnedWhat works to improve the responsiveness of students in the red zone to reading interventionSix keys to improved responsiveness
4 Risk Factors: Why the relationships Birth & LifespanSchool OutcomesAdult OutcomesPoor Academic& Vocational OutcomesChild FactorsPre-natal, Natal, Post-NatalEarly Externalizing Behavior PatternEarly Internalizing Behavior PatternChildhood MaladjustmentChildhood MaltreatmentAcademicCompetenceProblemsFamily FactorsAntisocial & Psychiatric Family HistorySocioeconomic StatusFamily FunctioningMaternal DepressionFamily StructureClassroomDeportmentProblemsChronicSocialProblemsRisk Factors for Academic and Behavioral Problems at the Beginning of School (http://www.nimh.nih.gov)4
5 Coercion Theory (Patterson, 1982; 1995) ProblemBehaviorThreat of ConsequenceCalmSurrenderNon-ComplianceDefianceChildParent, Teacher, or TherapistChildren become aware that if they continue to misbehave or respond to the parent’s coercive behavior with severe disruptive behavior they can shape parental (or teacher & therapists) behavior for their own benefit.5
6 The relationship between problem behavior and language Benner, Nelson, & Epstein (2002). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.Nelson, Benner, & Cheney (2005). Journal of Special Education
7 Effect Size Difference in Total Language ED PopulationGeneral PopulationES=1.2
8 Regression Analyses for Externalizing and Internalizing Type Behaviors Initial Entry___________________________________Entry in Last Position__________________________Construct__________df_______Simple R________FpR2 IncrementF ChangeTotal LanguageAge of Onset1.010.01.909Externalizing4.314.01.004.126.58.000Internalizing90.39.887.041.22.305Expressive Language.070.77.988.303.81.006.095.01.002.140.47.832.020.65.659Receptive Language.050.34.560.283.17.016.105.73.0010.53.7881.55.1788
9 The relationship between problem behavior and reading Nelson, Benner, Lane, & Smith (2005). Exceptional Children
10 Effect Size Difference in Broad Reading ED PopulationGeneral PopulationES=0.95
11 Regression Analyses for Externalizing and Internalizing Type Behaviors Initial Entry__________________________________Entry in Last Position__________________________Construct__________df_______Simple RFpR2 Increment________F Change_____Broad ReadingAge of Onset1.05.41.525Externalizing4.356.97.000.247.74Internalizing220.127.116.110.031.21.30311
12 Treatment nonresponders: Another way to look at the behavior reading linkage Nelson, Benner, & Gonzalez (2003). Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice
13 Leaner Characteristic Associated with Literacy Outcomes Most InfluentialRapid Naming/Serial ProcessingES: .46BehaviorES: .40LiteracyOutcomesPhonologicalES: .39MemoryES: .30IQES: .28Least InfluentialDemographicES: -.01
14 What Moderates the problem behavior reading linkage? (Benner, Nelson, Allor, Mooney, & Dai, 2008). Journal of Behavioral Education.(Benner, Allor, & Mooney, in press). Education and Treatment of Children.(Nelson, Benner, & Neill, 2006). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
16 Reading RTI Model and Students with Significant Behavior Problems Tend to be less responsive to behavioral and academic interventionsStudents with EBD may have comorbid:DyslexiaVIQ > 90Phonological Processing delayLanguage Learning Disability*VIQ < 90Language difficulties in early childhoodComorbid ADD/H
17 Important Ideas!There is a small relationship between externalizing behavior and academic achievement and languageStudents with in the behavioral red zone need very high quality explicit instructionInstruction of reading skills should emphasize achieving fluency (regardless of grade level)Students with the red zone could have dyslexia or language-based learning disabilities that limit responsiveness.17
18 Improving Responsiveness to Reading Intervention Six components give us the highest probability of improved responsiveness to instruction.The primary role of supplemental instruction is to increase access to core instruction programs by teaching high priority skills and concepts
19 Component 1: Clear Understanding of Literacy Needs In-depth information about students’ skills and instructional needshelp to pinpoint specific areas of reading that are “at grade level”Begin with the most foundational reading skill in need of improvement
23 Component 2: Target High Priority Reading Skills Example of high priority pre-reading and beginning reading skills and conceptsPre-ReadingBeginning ReadingPrint awarenessAlphabet knowledgePhonemic awarenessRapid automatic namingLetter-soundsDecodable words and textSight wordsWord familiesMapping of sounds to print (spelling)Prefixes and suffixesFocus on Fluency or Automaticity
24 Component 3: Well Designed Supplemental Instruction High priority skills and concepts are organized into a sequential scope and sequenceProgress systematically from prerequisite and easy skills and concepts to more complex onesIntegrate skills and concepts within and across lessons to facilitate masteryIncorporate a mastery to fluency instruction sequence
29 Where do I find Scientifically-Based Reading Interventions? OSPI Materials Review Report: 4th-12th gradesFlorida Center for Reading ResearchWhat Works ClearinghouseOregon Reading FirstPromising Practices that Work
30 Component 4: Explicit Delivery of Supplementary Instruction Accountability and group alerting proceduresEffective error correctionEffect student questioning procedures
32 How Much Does Fidelity to Explicit Instruction Matter? 281 middle school studentsScreening criteria (conducted spring prior to intervention year)Median DIBELS ORF score fell in the “at-risk” category participated: 5th (<103), 6th (<104), 7th (<125), and 8th (<125).Corrective Reading Decoding Placement TestEnsure that the Corrective Reading Decoding strand was appropriate for addressing their word reading skill problemsEstablish homogenous groups and place students in the appropriate level (B1, B2, or C)Reference: Benner, G. J., Nelson, J. R., Stage, S. A., & Ralston, N. C. (2008). Fidelity of Implementation: Influence on the Effects of a Reading Intervention for Middle School Students Experiencing Reading Difficulties. Manuscript in Progress.
33 School Demographics School 1: Rural, 75 participants Enrollment: 22253% free/reduced, 14% special education servicesEthnic breakdowns: 51% Caucasian, 46% American Indian/Alaskan Native, 3% Hispanic, 1% African American.School 2: Rural, 63 participantsEnrollment: 25060% free or reduced, 12% special education services, 10% ELLEthnic breakdowns: 58% Caucasian, 24% Hispanic, 14% American Indian/Alaskan Native, 2% Asian American, 1% African American.School 3: Urban, 143 participantsEnrollment: 58559% free or reduced lunch, 14% special education services, 3% ELLEthnic breakdowns: 55% Caucasian, 23% African American, 15% Hispanic, 5% Asian American, 3% American Indian/Alaskan Native.
34 CR Intervention Levels Tier IVB1 (65 Lessons) then B2 (65 Lessons)Tier IIIB2 (65 Lessons) then C (125 Lessons)Tier IIC (125 Lessons)
35 Participating Teachers School 1 (Rural)3 general education teachersMean years of teaching experience was 6.0 (SD = 3.6; Range = 2 to 9).Mean years teaching reading: 3.7 (SD = 2.9; Range= 2 to 7).School 2 (Rural)Two instructional specialists, 2 paraprofessionalsMean years of teaching or educational (in the case of the paraprofessionals) experience was 14.0 (SD = 5.0; Range = 8 to 20).Mean years teaching reading: 10.8 (SD = 8.1; Range= 3 to 20).School 3 (urban)11 general education teachers, 2 special education teachers, 1 instructional specialistMean years of teaching experience: 10.6 (SD = 9.0; Range = 2 to 34).Mean years teaching reading: 4.6 (SD = 6.2; Range= 0 to 16).
36 School 3 (14 Teachers) Fidelity and Gain 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%12345678Broad Reading GainFidelity Percentage
38 Table 1Effects of the Corrective Reading Decoding Program on the Reading Skills of StudentsFallSpringBaselinePost-InterventionChanget(1,280)____________________________________________________MeasureXSDXSDXSD______________________________________________BRS90.078.4893.999.653.924.6012.87*PC87.508.7591.879.114.367.578.71*Note.BRS = Basic Reading Skills cluster. PC = Passage Comprehension subtest. *p< .001.
40 Component 5: Mastery and General Outcome Progress Monitoring Ongoing progress monitoringGeneral outcomeMeasures skills being taught over the entire yearRelevant for short- and long-term goalsProvides a measure of growth over an extended period of timeStandardized administration and scoringSpecific skills (mastery measurement)Measures a narrow band of skills being taughtMost relevant for short-term goalsTypically used with children with more significant learning problemsProvides a measure of growth over a short specified period of time
43 Component 6: Manage Behavior During Instruction Supplemental instruction is integrated with behavioral interventionsImplemented with fidelityApproachesPBSSelf-managementStudent-Teacher Learning GameThink Time(Benner, in press). Journal of Direct Instruction.(Benner, Kinder, Beaudoin, Stein, & Hirschmann, 2005). Journal of Direct Instruction.
44 Example Expectations: Large and Small Group Demonstrate learner position: Students’ backs are against the back of the chair, feet are on the floor in front of the chair, and hands are together on desk/lap.Look at the focus of instruction: Students’ eyes are on the instructional materials, teacher, or peer.Answer on signal: Students start and stop on teacher signal (group and individual).Responses are teacher-initiated and subject focused: Students’ responses are only teacher-initiated and subject focused.Use classroom voice: Students use six-inch voices.