Presentation on theme: "Responding in the Red Zone: Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction for Students with Significant Behavioral Challenges Louisiana PBS Conference Sessions."— Presentation transcript:
Responding in the Red Zone: Scientifically-Based Reading Instruction for Students with Significant Behavioral Challenges Louisiana PBS Conference Sessions 5A & 5B Gregory J. Benner, Ph.D. Associate Professor University of Washington, Tacoma Telephone: (253) Fax: (253)
Big Picture Objectives The link between behavior and academic achievement Short chronicle of what we have learned What works to improve the responsiveness of students in the red zone to reading intervention Six keys to improved responsiveness
Potential Relationships Achievement Problem Behavior Achievement Problem Behavior Achievement Problem Behavior Achievement Problem Behavior Hinshaw, S.P. (1992). Psychological Bulletin
Child Factors Pre-natal, Natal, Post-Natal Early Externalizing Behavior Pattern Early Internalizing Behavior Pattern Childhood Maladjustment Childhood Maltreatment School Outcomes Risk Factors: Why the relationships Birth & Lifespan Adult Outcomes Risk Factors for Academic and Behavioral Problems at the Beginning of School (http://www.nimh.nih.gov) Family Factors Antisocial & Psychiatric Family History Socioeconomic Status Family Functioning Maternal Depression Family Structure Academic Competence Problems Classroom Deportment Problems Poor Academic & Vocational Outcomes Chronic Social Problems
Coercion Theory (Patterson, 1982; 1995) Problem Behavior Threat of Consequence Calm Surrender Threat of Consequence Non- Compliance Defiance Child Parent, Teacher, or Therapist Children become aware that if they continue to misbehave or respond to the parents coercive behavior with severe disruptive behavior they can shape parental (or teacher & therapists) behavior for their own benefit.
The relationship between problem behavior and language Benner, Nelson, & Epstein (2002). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Nelson, Benner, & Cheney (2005). Journal of Special Education
Effect Size Difference in Total Language ED Population General Population ES=1.2
Initial Entry ___________________________________ Entry in Last Position __________________________ Construct __________ df _______ Simple R ________ F _______ p _______ R 2 Increment ________ F Change _______ p _______ Total Language Age of Onset Externalizing Internalizing Expressive Language Age of Onset Externalizing Internalizing Receptive Language Age of Onset Externalizing Internalizing Regression Analyses for Externalizing and Internalizing Type Behaviors
The relationship between problem behavior and reading Nelson, Benner, Lane, & Smith (2005). Exceptional Children
Effect Size Difference in Broad Reading ED Population General Population ES=0.95
Initial Entry __________________________________ Entry in Last Position __________________________ Construct __________ df _______ Simple R _______ F _______ p _______ R 2 Increment ________ F Change _______ p _____ Broad Reading Age of Onset Externalizing Internalizing Regression Analyses for Externalizing and Internalizing Type Behaviors
Treatment nonresponders: Another way to look at the behavior reading linkage Nelson, Benner, & Gonzalez (2003). Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice
Rapid Naming/Serial Processing ES:.46 Rapid Naming/Serial Processing ES:.46 Behavior ES:.40 Behavior ES:.40 Memory ES:.30 Memory ES:.30 IQ ES:.28 IQ ES:.28 Phonological ES:.39 Phonological ES:.39 Most Influential Least Influential Demographic ES: -.01 Demographic ES: -.01 Literacy Outcomes Leaner Characteristic Associated with Literacy Outcomes
What Moderates the problem behavior reading linkage? (Benner, Nelson, Allor, Mooney, & Dai, 2008). Journal of Behavioral Education. (Benner, Allor, & Mooney, in press). Education and Treatment of Children. (Nelson, Benner, & Neill, 2006). Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Reading RTI Model and Students with Significant Behavior Problems Tend to be less responsive to behavioral and academic interventions Students with EBD may have comorbid: Dyslexia VIQ > 90 Phonological Processing delay Language Learning Disability* VIQ < 90 Language difficulties in early childhood Comorbid ADD/H
Important Ideas! There is a small relationship between externalizing behavior and academic achievement and language Students with in the behavioral red zone need very high quality explicit instruction Instruction of reading skills should emphasize achieving fluency (regardless of grade level) Students with the red zone could have dyslexia or language-based learning disabilities that limit responsiveness.
Improving Responsiveness to Reading Intervention Six components give us the highest probability of improved responsiveness to instruction. The primary role of supplemental instruction is to increase access to core instruction programs by teaching high priority skills and concepts
Component 1: Clear Understanding of Literacy Needs In-depth information about students skills and instructional needs help to pinpoint specific areas of reading that are at grade level Begin with the most foundational reading skill in need of improvement
Component 2: Target High Priority Reading Skills Example of high priority pre-reading and beginning reading skills and concepts Pre-ReadingBeginning Reading Print awareness Alphabet knowledge Phonemic awareness Rapid automatic naming Letter-sounds Decodable words and text Sight words Word families Mapping of sounds to print (spelling) Prefixes and suffixes Focus on Fluency or Automaticity
Component 3: Well Designed Supplemental Instruction High priority skills and concepts are organized into a sequential scope and sequence Progress systematically from prerequisite and easy skills and concepts to more complex ones Integrate skills and concepts within and across lessons to facilitate mastery Incorporate a mastery to fluency instruction sequence
26 a A m M aMmAa MAamA AMAmm amMaM s S ssmAa MSsmS ASAsm asMas Instructional Design and Delivery Example Mastery to Fluency
27 a A m M aMmAa MAamA AMAmm amMaM s S ssmAa MSsmS ASAsm asMas t T Samtt samTt MATaS amttM c C tcCsm MacSc TcCtS cmCtT
Where do I find Scientifically- Based Reading Interventions? OSPI Materials Review Report: 4 th -12 th grades OSPI Materials Review Report: 4 th -12 th grades Florida Center for Reading Research What Works Clearinghouse Oregon Reading First Promising Practices that Work
Component 4: Explicit Delivery of Supplementary Instruction Accountability and group alerting procedures Effective error correction Effect student questioning procedures
How Much Does Fidelity to Explicit Instruction Matter? 281 middle school students Screening criteria (conducted spring prior to intervention year) Median DIBELS ORF score fell in the at-risk category participated: 5th (<103), 6th (<104), 7th (<125), and 8th (<125). Corrective Reading Decoding Placement Test Ensure that the Corrective Reading Decoding strand was appropriate for addressing their word reading skill problems Establish homogenous groups and place students in the appropriate level (B1, B2, or C) Reference: Benner, G. J., Nelson, J. R., Stage, S. A., & Ralston, N. C. (2008). Fidelity of Implementation: Influence on the Effects of a Reading Intervention for Middle School Students Experiencing Reading Difficulties. Manuscript in Progress.
School Demographics School 1: Rural, 75 participants Enrollment: % free/reduced, 14% special education services Ethnic breakdowns: 51% Caucasian, 46% American Indian/Alaskan Native, 3% Hispanic, 1% African American. School 2: Rural, 63 participants Enrollment: % free or reduced, 12% special education services, 10% ELL Ethnic breakdowns: 58% Caucasian, 24% Hispanic, 14% American Indian/Alaskan Native, 2% Asian American, 1% African American. School 3: Urban, 143 participants Enrollment: % free or reduced lunch, 14% special education services, 3% ELL Ethnic breakdowns: 55% Caucasian, 23% African American, 15% Hispanic, 5% Asian American, 3% American Indian/Alaskan Native.
CR Intervention Levels Tier IV B1 (65 Lessons) then B2 (65 Lessons) Tier III B2 (65 Lessons) then C (125 Lessons) Tier II C (125 Lessons)
Participating Teachers School 1 (Rural) 3 general education teachers Mean years of teaching experience was 6.0 (SD = 3.6; Range = 2 to 9). Mean years teaching reading: 3.7 (SD = 2.9; Range= 2 to 7). School 2 (Rural) Two instructional specialists, 2 paraprofessionals Mean years of teaching or educational (in the case of the paraprofessionals) experience was 14.0 (SD = 5.0; Range = 8 to 20). Mean years teaching reading: 10.8 (SD = 8.1; Range= 3 to 20). School 3 (urban) 11 general education teachers, 2 special education teachers, 1 instructional specialist Mean years of teaching experience: 10.6 (SD = 9.0; Range = 2 to 34). Mean years teaching reading: 4.6 (SD = 6.2; Range= 0 to 16).
School 3 (14 Teachers) Fidelity and Gain 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Broad Reading Gain Fidelity Percentage
Table 1 Effects of the Corrective Reading Decoding Program on the Reading Skills of Students Fall Baseline _____________ Spring Post-Intervention _____________ Change _____________ t(1,280) _____________ Measure _____________ X ______ SD _____ X ______ SD _____ X ______ SD _____ BRS * PC * Note.BRS = Basic Reading Skills cluster. PC = Pa ssage Comprehension subtest. * p <.001.
Component 5: Mastery and General Outcome Progress Monitoring Ongoing progress monitoring General outcome Measures skills being taught over the entire year Relevant for short- and long-term goals Provides a measure of growth over an extended period of time Standardized administration and scoring Specific skills (mastery measurement) Measures a narrow band of skills being taught Most relevant for short-term goals Typically used with children with more significant learning problems Provides a measure of growth over a short specified period of time
Component 6: Manage Behavior During Instruction Supplemental instruction is integrated with behavioral interventions Implemented with fidelity Approaches PBS Self-management Student-Teacher Learning Game Think Time (Benner, in press). Journal of Direct Instruction. (Benner, Kinder, Beaudoin, Stein, & Hirschmann, 2005). Journal of Direct Instruction.
Example Expectations: Large and Small Group Demonstrate learner position: Students backs are against the back of the chair, feet are on the floor in front of the chair, and hands are together on desk/lap. Look at the focus of instruction: Students eyes are on the instructional materials, teacher, or peer. Answer on signal: Students start and stop on teacher signal (group and individual). Responses are teacher-initiated and subject focused: Students responses are only teacher-initiated and subject focused. Use classroom voice: Students use six-inch voices.
TeacherStudents 15 pts. 30 pts.
Book Nelson, J. R., Benner, G. J., & Mooney, P. (2008). Instructional practices for students with behavioral disorders: Strategies for reading, writing, and math. New York: Gilford Press.