A Radiologic Technologist (or Radiographer) medical professional medical professional trained to safely use x-ray radiation to image different parts of patients bodies trained to safely use x-ray radiation to image different parts of patients bodies Provide diagnostic images so the physician can make a diagnosis
Medical Radiographer (X-ray Technologist) use sophisticated imaging equipment to image parts of the human body challenging field challenging field assist physicians by producing images of diagnostic quality responsibility to explain the process to the patients position them and the equipment correctly and adhere to the principles of radiation protection. know how to maintain equipment, process images and keep patient records.
Radiologic Technologist R.T. Dawn Charman, M.Ed., RT (R)(M), CRT(R)(F) Kelly Clark, M.S.R.T. RT (R)(CT), CRT(R)(F) Mina Colunga, B.S.R.T. RT (R), CRT(R)(F) ARRT – R.T. State of California– C.R.T.
Radiologic Technologist is a licensed professional This program here is for an entry level into the profession Both Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine would require additional education Certification/licenses ARRTAmerican Registry of Radiologic Technologies –Provides national certification –After taking the exam CRT--California Registered Technologist –After completing ARRT exam you pay a fee and get your California license to practice –A separate test is taken for fluoroscopy
Radiologic Technologists All types of EXAMS & PEOPLE PATIENTS ARE: INFANTS ELDERLY ALL CLASSES ALL ETHICITY ALL BACKGROUND HEAD TO TOES TRAUMA SPECIAL PROCEDURES CRITICAL PATIENTS WALK INS SURGERY
Critical Thinking Involves sound, professional judgement Applied with high ethical standard And integrity
Critical Thinking Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Critique Achieved through Role Playing Lab experiments Case Studies
Patient Communication Interacting with the patient Interacting with family and friends Methods of Effective Communication Age as a factor in Patient Interactions
Communication & Adapting to Special Condition Patients Traumatized Patients Visually Impaired Patients Speech and Hearing Impaired Patients Non-English Speaking Patients Mentally Impaired Patients Substance Abusers
Education in the Radiologic Sciences DIDACTIC – Curriculum Specifically describes the objectives What the students will learn ….. Instructional Activities – LECTURE CLINICAL - Hospital See and do ….
LEARNING COGNITIVE – thought / knowledge PSYCHOMOTOR – physical actions AFFECTIVE – guided by feelings
FIG. 5–1 The articulation of didactic, laboratory, and clinical instruction. (From Ford C, ed: Clinical education for the allied health professions, St Louis, 1978, Mosby.) RT Programs Didactic and Clinical Education
Some studies of spinal trauma have recorded a missed injury rate as high as 33%.
communited Open fracture
INFANTS & CHILDREN
TECHNOLOGIST FLUOROSCOPY Dawn Charman RT (R), (F) CONTRAST MEDIA (X-RAY DYE)
ARRT Standards Accrediting Agencies Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Nuclear Medicine Technology (JRCNMT) Committee on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) in collaboration with the Joint Review Committee on Education in Diagnostic Medical Sonography (JRC-DMS) Regional Institutional Accrediting Agencies (degree-granting divisions) WSAC Conjoint Accreditation Services of the Canadian Medical Association Australian Institute of Radiography
Accrediting Agencies SCHOOLS/PROGRAMS Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) HOSPITAL ACCREDITATION – JCAHO Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare (Hospital) Organizations
Alphabet Soup NATIONAL & STATE LICENSES ARRT = (R.T.) American Registry of Radiologic Technology R.T. – Certification in Radiologic Technology CRT – Certified Radiologic Technology State of California, Dept of Health - Radiation Health Branch –Licensing to practice in California C.R.T. (R) (F) (M) Radiography, Fluoroscopy, Mammography
5 Primary Exams Radiography (R) Radiography (R) Nuclear Medicine Technology (NM) Radiation Therapy (T) Sonography (US) (RDMS) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR) candidates must have successfully completed a formal educational program in the respective discipline that is accredited by a mechanism acceptable to ARRT.
Post Primary Cardiovascular- Interventional Radiography (Note: No longer available for new candidates) Mammography Computed Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Note: Both a primary and post-primary track) Quality Management Sonography (Note: Both a primary and post- primary track) Bone Densitometry Vascular Sonography Cardiac-Interventional Radiography Vascular-Interventional Radiography Breast Sonography Registered Radiologist Assistant
Alphabet Soup KNOW THESE! J.R.C.E.R.T - Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology J.C.A.H.O – Joint Commission of Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations A.R.R.T- American Registry of Radiologic Technologists
MAMMOGRAPHY Dawn Charman, RT (M) RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF THE BREAST Dx for breast cancer
Bone Densitometry low dose Radiation
BONE DENSITOMETRY JOE RUIZ, RT (R) (BD) POST PRIMARY EXAM BEGAN IN JANUARY 2001 ??? May also have certification w/o RT ???? MEASURING MINERAL CONTENT AND DENSITY OF BONES
FIG. 1–7 A nuclear medicine technologist performs procedures requiring the use of radioactive substances. (Courtesy of Philips Medical Systems.)
CAT SCAN & MRI
Computed Tomography Kelly Clark, RT (R) (CT) 1995 began post primary exam
FIG. 1–9 A computed tomographic technologist uses a computerized x-ray system to produce sectional anatomic images of the body. (Courtesy of Philips Medical Systems.) CT SCANNER USES RADIATION – AND A COMPUTER TO RECONSTRUCT IMAGES 3-D
C T SCANNER
Electron BeamTomography EBT WHOLE BODY SCANNER
Risk factor HIGH DOSES ? WHAT YOU DONT KNOW ……. FALSE POSITIVES NOW THAT YOU KNOW – WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO ABOUT IT? =
Radiation Dose EBT scans expose the patient to about 1/5th the radiation of a multi-slice CT scanner. OR so they tell you.. $$$$$$$$
Magnetic Resonance Imaging RT (R) (MRI) or RT (T) (MRI) or (N) (MRI) 1995 ARRT began post primary exams
MRI SIGNAL PRODUCTION Images are crated by interaction of Magnet field, radio waves with tissue Atoms – Nucleus – Electrons
MRI SAFETY USE NON MAGNETIC MATERIALS CAN CAUSE HARM TO PATIENT & PERSONELL 1 REPORTED DEATH FROM O2 TANK & 6YO PATIENT
MRI NOT IONIZING RADIATION USES MAGENTIC RESONANCE (RADIO WAVES) Jane Schultz, R.T. (MR)
RADIOGRAPHY VS MRI BONE vs Soft Tissue
PET Scan & SPECT Scan PET = Positron Emission Tomography Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography X-rays/MRI with Radioisotopes
PET Scan showing diffuse spread of prostate cancer to bone. PET has the advantage over traditional bone scanning in its ability to differentiate active from dormant disease.
ANGIOGRAPHY/ CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGY is a specialized radiographic examination where the images of the blood vessels of the body are demonstrated by injection of contrast media.
CARDIAC-INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY Mike Smith, RT (R) (CI) POST PRIMARY EXAM BEGAN IN JANUARY 2003
ANGIOGRAPHY is a specialized radiographic examination where the images of the blood vessels of the body are demonstrated by injection of contrast media
Cardiovascular Interventional Radiography Jane Smith, RT (R) (CVI) Angiography 1991 began post primary exam for CVIT Radiographers
VASCULAR-INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY JOE CAR, RT (R) (VI) POST PRIMARY EXAM BEGAN IN JANUARY 2003
NUCLEAR MEDICINE use radioactive isotopes to make images
Nuclear Medicine RT (NM) ARRT or NMTCB
NM – Images collected after injections of a RADIOISOTOPE
The tracer travels into the blood vessels until it arrives to the bone
PET Scan & SPECT Scan PET = Positron Emission Tomography Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
Prostate cancer metastasized in bones
PET NUCLEAR MED + CT or MRI- co-registration
RADIATION THERAPY R.T.(T) 2 YRS ADDITIONAL EDUCATION CITY OF HOPE LLU CAL STATE LONG BEACH The branch of Radiology that involves the treatment of disease by means of high energy x-rays or radioactive substances
RADIATION THERAPY branch of Radiology that involves the treatment of disease by means of high energy x-rays (GAMMA) or radioactive substances
Radiation Therapy RT (T) = Registered technologist in radiation therapy technology Medical dosemetrists are involved in treatment planning and dose calculations 1-4 year program
ULTRASOUND uses a technique similar to Navy SONAR to produce diagnostic images.
ULTRASOUND Cypress College Orange Coast LLU 1 – 2 years
Diagnostic Medical Sonographers RT (R) (S) or RT (S) or (RDMS) American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers ARRT in 1999 began post primary exam ARRT in 2005 began primary exam
Determines depth Ultrsound beam is transmitted and reflected – as special crystal at the end of the transducer can determine the type of tissue
Uses SOUND WAVES (NOT X-RAYS) real time images
ULTRASOUND uses a technique similar to Navy SONAR to produce diagnostic images.
2D vs. 3D/4D
U/S & the real thing
Breast Sonography Post Primary Exam Valuable for Technologists that specialize in Mammography
New - RA Radiology Assistant (Like PA) Weber State (On line – Utah) LLU 3 others in US (2007 – more) $$$$ NEW GRADS = 100 K/YEAR (?) PART OF RADIOLOGIST GROUP As of 2007 – NOT APPROVED BY STATE to Work as RA in California
TRAVELING TECHNOLOGIST = SEE THE WORLD AND GET $$$
Other working opportunities… Registry (local) Registry (local) Registry (out of state) Registry (out of state) X rays taken around the world !! X rays taken around the world !!
Variety of Work Settings physicians offices, clinical outpatient facilities, free standing imaging centers, mobile imaging centers portable services to rehabs Mammos to under privileged areas Urgent care
SALARY RANGES RTs NEW R.T. = $ 25 -$38 PER HOUR ON-CALL + O.T. $45,000 – $60,000 YR ADVANCE SPECIALTIES $ 30 - $50 PER HOUR A GREAT SHORTAGE IN ALL HEALTH CARE – A GREAT NEED TO AQUIRE NEW TECHNOLOGIST TO THIS AREA
Professional Organizations ASRT – American Society of Radiologic Technologis CSRT – California Society Society of Radiologic Technologists RTEC – Radiologic Technology Educators of California International Societies, other state societies, other modalities