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Agency Mandates and Co-ordination Mechanisms

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Presentation on theme: "Agency Mandates and Co-ordination Mechanisms"— Presentation transcript:


2 Agency Mandates and Co-ordination Mechanisms

3 What is the international humanitarian system?
International ‘humanitarian system’ have a role in reducing human suffering arising from crises It Includes several agencies United Nations (UN) agencies The Red Cross Movement Non-government organisations (NGOs) Donors These are guided by certain fundamental humanitarian principles People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

4 Humanitarian Principles
Humanity “The right to receive humanitarian assistance, and to offer it, is a fundamental humanitarian principle, which should be enjoyed by all citizens of all countries”.  Impartiality “Aid is given regardless of the race, creed or nationality of the recipients and without adverse distinction of any kind. Aid priorities are calculated on the basis of need alone.”   Independence “Humanitarian aid is not a partisan or political act and should not be viewed as such. Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint… Humanitarian NGOs shall endeavour not to act as instruments of government foreign policy. Humanitarian NGOs are agencies which act independently from governments.”  Neutrality “Humanitarian assistance should be provided without engaging in hostilities or taking sides in controversies of a political, religious or ideological nature.” People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

5 What is humanitarian coordination?
Humanitarian coordination is essential because a coherent cooperative response to an emergency by all agencies will maximise the benefits and minimise errors in the response. “Co-ordination is not an end in itself, but rather a tool to achieve the goal of saving lives and reducing suffering. This must be achieved by delivering the right assistance, to the right place, and at the right time – enabling those affected by conflict and disasters to achieve their rights to protection and assistance”. People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

6 What is Humanitarian Co-ordination?
Strategic planning Gathering data and managing information Mobilising resources Ensuring accountability Having a clear division of labour Negotiating and maintaining a serviceable framework with host authorities Providing leadership Discussing policy and field level programme implementation People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

7 Importance of coordination
Emergency coordination is essentially about ensuring a collective humanitarian effort The combined results are expected to be greater than those of individuals The ‘value added’ from this coordination included: Regular information sharing within programme areas and beyond Partnership promotion Programme guidelines standardisation and devotion People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

8 Goal Achievement Commitment Coherent Coordination Cooperation
Competence Collaboration Commitment Transparency Confidence Trust Accountability Coherent Goal Achievement People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

9 Case study 1: Coordinating nutrition in emergencies: Rwanda 1994
During the humanitarian crisis in Rwanda during 1994 up to 200 NGOs became involved in the response No single agency had responsibility for coordinating the supplementary feeding activities of NGOs and the International Committee of the Red Crescent (ICRC) and consequently some camps for internally displaced people were not adequately covered In addition, there was no standardisation of programme monitoring Nutritional and food basket monitoring surveys were poorly coordinated, their implementation was largely adhoc In some camps this led to late implementation with consequent delays in identifying the need for selective feeding programmes People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

10 Case study 2: Emergency Nutrition Co-ordination Unit: Ethiopia
In 2000, with the support of UNICEF and WFP, an Emergency Nutrition Co-ordination Unit (ENCU) was established in Ethiopia as part of the DPPC (Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission). In 2005, the unit had six full time staff members.  The ENCU aims to improve the co-ordination of emergency nutrition assessments and responses, and targeting of food aid to the most needy areas and populations The ENCU, with close support from “SAVE THE CHILDREN” UK has co-ordinated the development of a new guideline for standardised emergency nutrition assessments and interventions Emergency nutrition surveys conducted across the country are compiled by the ENCU and kept in a comprehensive database The ECNU holds monthly multi-agency task force meetings at which the results from surveys are presented and discussed at the meetings. People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

11 Who are the main actors responding to nutrition emergencies?
There are four groups of actors who are active during a nutrition emergency UN agencies Donors International Red Cross Movement NGOs People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

12 United Nations Humanitarian System
The UN humanitarian system is composed of six key actors United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) World Food Programme (WFP) United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) World Health Organisation (WHO) Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

13 The Inter-Agency Standing Committee
The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), The Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) and the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) are all key coordination mechanisms used by the Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) Objectives: Sufficient humanitarian response capacity and enhanced leadership, accountability and predictability in "gap" sector/areas of response Adequate, timely and flexible humanitarian financing Improved humanitarian co-ordination and leadership More effective partnerships between UN and non-UN humanitarian actors People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

14 The IASC Cluster Approach
11 clusters were established in key response areas. The aim is to “strengthen predictability, response capacity, coordination and accountability by strengthening partnerships in key sectors of humanitarian response These include: Nutrition Education Camp management Health Shelter Water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) Agriculture Logistics Protection Telecommunications Early recovery People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

15 Nutrition Cluster The nutrition cluster’s lead agency is UNICEF
Its focus is on coordination Capacity building Emergency preparedness Assessment Monitoring Surveillance and response triggers Supplies The nutrition cluster has 35 agency members People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

16 Global cluster Coordinator with two staff based in UNICEF headquarters in New York The focus of work is on developing training modules as part of a wider capacity development strategy Strengthening and expanding a global roster to improve surge capacity (i.e. rapid response capacity) Improving the material resourcing of nutritional emergencies through regional stockpiles Producing practical tools to improve the consistency and quality of response efforts People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

17 Case study 5: Experience of using the cluster approach: Somalia 2007
Somalia has experienced chronic and complex emergencies for the past 15 years The nutrition situation is poor and nutritional vulnerability across wealth and livelihood groups is high Humanitarian agencies have been confronting difficulties relating to the poor security situation, lack of access to affected populations and lack of a central government control Operations in Somalia are managed from neighbouring Kenya The cluster approach was introduced in Somalia in early 2006 People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

18 Conti…. Achievements Regular field level co-ordination meetings to discuss implementation issues and gaps in programme activities Sharing of early warning information Standardisation of protocols for the treatment of severe malnutrition Documentation of level of programme coverage and identification of gaps Promotion of integration of other sectoral activities in the nutrition response People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

19 The Central Emergency Response Fund
The target for CERF is to hold $450 million for rapid response. e CAP. Although there has been the recent reform process, adequate and effective co-ordination remains a challenge in emergency response. People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

20 Case study 7: Challenges of coordinating the emergency response: Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004
On 26 December 2004, a massive earthquake off the west coast of Northern Sumatra led to a series of tsunamis that killed people in 14 countries around the Indian Ocean. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, India and Thailand were the hardest hit. Entire coastal zones were destroyed, with the tsunamis causing damage up to 3km inland in some cases. Over 227,000 people lost their lives and some 1.7 million were displaced. A massive media-fuelled, global response resulted, producing an estimated US$13.5bn in international aid. People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

21 Nutrition activities supported by the UN agencies
Each UN agency supports different types of nutrition-related activities in an emergency situation In order to coordinate their efforts, many of the UN agencies have a memorandum of understanding (MOU) which sets out the respective roles and functions of each agency in responding to a nutrition emergency People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

22 Case study 8: Co-ordination role of UNICEF: Zimbabwe 2004
In 2004 there was a vacuum in the coordination of nutrition activities in Zimbabwe UNICEF was given permission to establish the nutrition technical consultative group (NTCG) with a focus on consultation and sharing of best practice rather than coordination. The NTCG, chaired by UNICEF, met monthly and became increasingly accepted by Government as the UN nutrition coordination mechanism. Achievements of the NTCG included establishing a national food and nutrition sentinel site surveillance system (FNSSS) in 23 sites with flexibility to expand to respond to worrying trends and undertaking an intervention mapping exercise for the nutrition sector. The mapping exercise which describes who is doing what and where in the nutrition was a successful initiative to link coordination between the sectors. There was strong representation of different sectors in each of the coordination meetings along with strong informal linkages. The NTCG also acted as a forum for presenting, sharing and discussing best practice in nutrition and HIV – an emerging area where new findings and guidelines regularly enter the public domain. The NTCG has opened its membership to include agencies working in HIV. People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

23 Case study 9: Coordination of food security assessment: Kenya 1998
In 1998 the Government of Kenya (GoK) had little capacity for comprehensive early warning or coordination of food security activities in most areas of the country. In addition, within the central government, it was very unclear as to who/which structure had responsibility for early warning and food security coordination and analysis. Outside of the GoK, a large number of international organisations (donors, UN agencies and NGOs) were independently conducting their own early warning and food security data collection and analysis. The result of these activities and systems was: A large amount of inconsistent and sometimes misleading information that was confusing to decision makers; The development of parallel systems - one in the GoK and others among international organisations for implementing food security related emergency and mitigation activities. This situation was unacceptable to donors and many others who felt that as a result of the poor coordination, the effectiveness of interventions was limited and financial and other resources were not being used efficiently. People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

24 People Empowerment Advocacy & Communal Harmony (PEACH)

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