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Canada & UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?

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Presentation on theme: "Canada & UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Canada & UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?
Dr. Walter Dorn Canadian Forces College 10 January 2008 UN Photo

2 “Concern for man himself and his fate should be the chief interest of all technical endeavors.
Never forget this in the midst of your diagrams and equations.” - Albert Einstein

3 Canadian Peacekeeping Tradition
1994 1988 1996 1992 1957 Peacekeeping Day proclaimed 2003/04 in most provinces: Aug 9 August 2004 in the new Peacekeepers’ Park in Calgary, Canada. First International Day of United Nations Peacekeepers observed on 29 May 2003 following its establishment by the General Assembly, in resolution 57/129, last year. 29 May 1948: day the first United Nations peacekeeping mission, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), began operations with a group of unarmed military observers in Palestine. Jockel has observed that where the international community’s perception of Canada was concerned, “[v]ague images of snow, mounties (sic), and hockey have been joined by those of Canadian peacekeepers.” Jockel 1994, Jockel, Joseph T. Canada and International Peacekeeping. Washington, D.C.: The Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Significant Issues Series, Volume XVI, Number 3, 1994. 2001 1993 2003 2007 2000 1995

4 Kitsilano Recreation Centre


6 Cdn Fatalities Plaque Dorn “We Remember” Gift of CSC 25

7 Canadian Association of Veterans in UN Peacekeeping (CAVUNP)

8 Peacekeeping defined the deployment of international military and civilian personnel to a conflict area, with the consent of the major parties to the conflict, [acting impartially] in order to: stop or contain hostilities or supervise the carrying out of a peace agreement. Source: modified from UN Website UN

9 Peace Support Operation (NATO doctrine)
Enforcement Peace Keeping Violence Potential Humanitarian Assistance Peace Building Peace Making s c UNHCR UNHCR As demonstrated by the video, the 1990’s saw a significant shift in what was traditionally called ‘peacekeeping’. Missions to such places as Somalia and the Former Republic of Yugoslavia fell well outside the traditional ‘Cyprus-type’ mission of manning outposts over a well established and respected area of separation/line of confrontation. The involvement of NATO in the FRY led to the adoption of a new set of definitions under the broad term of ‘Peace Support Operations.’ ‘Peace Keeping’ falls about mid way in this new continuum of operations. Peace Making (primarily a diplomatic activity) can take place throughout the spectrum. Peace Building (repair of infrastructure/CIMIC efforts) will normally take place once there is a safe environment for NGO and IOs to work; normally at the end of the conflict or when a truce has been agreed. Humanitarian Assistance can take place at any point of the spectrum, taking many different forms from direct aid to return of refugees to their homes. Finally Peace enforcement, is the use of military means to impose the mandate and ensure its compliance (through military action if necessary). These operations usually will involve the application of force or the threat of military violence. Increasing Force Source: adapted from PSTC, EO

10 Evolution of Peacekeeping: Historical & Functional
Four Types/Generations 1 – Observer 2 – Interposition 3 – Multidimensional 4 – Transitional administration Expanding functions

11 “The Soldier-Diplomat”
OBSERVER MISSIONS UN BGen. Angle HammarskjÖld & MGen. Burns “The Soldier-Diplomat”

12 “Internationalization” (UN-NY)
Secretariat Security Council General Assembly

- Separate combatants Uses Peacekeeping Forces in pre-formed units (battalions) - Armed for self-defence

14 UN UN “Fathers of peacekeeping” or (more accurately) “Founders of peacekeeping forces”

15 The Canadians are Coming!
Gardam, The Canadian Peacekeeper (1992) First contingent of Canadian troops to reach Egypt (Abu Suweir airport near Ismailia), 24 Nov 1956

16 NOBEL PEACE PRIZE 1957 “To Canada's Lester Bowles Pearson was given primarily for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations.” - Norwegian Nobel Committee Web site Address: Accessed 4 July 2002 Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Prize acceptance, Oslo, Dec. 11, 1957

17 UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

18 UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (2000-) Liaison officers
U N M E E UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (2000-) ASMARA ADDIS ABABA Liaison officers Military observers The Peacekeeping Force PH CMLO ASMARA, CMLO ADDIS ABABA JULY/AUGUST 2000 PH MIL OBS AUGUST 2000 – FEBRUARY 2001 PH FORCE UNITS NOVEMBER 2000 – APRIL 2001 R.Romses



21 Naval Peacekeeping

Political Military Humanitarian Police Social Reconstruction Judicial Economic


24 Difficult Missions,

25 Force Commanders BGen Robin Gagnon Gen Maurice Baril FC, UNTMIH
1997 Gen Maurice Baril FC, MNF (Eastern Zaire) 1996 None since

26 Eastern Congo: Robust Peacekeeping (MONUC)
Mi-25 Combat Helicopters

27 Uniformed UN Peacekeepers (Military and Police, 1991–2007)


29 A BIG STEP … Governing a territory during a transitional period
Goal: turn over power to a peaceful, stable country power governed by a local, democratically-elected leadership The “comprehensive approach”

30 East Timor: UNTAET UN Photo, 27 Sep. 2002 UN membership … UNMISET


32 Canadian Uniformed Personnel in UN PKO (Total Military and Police), 1990-2007

33 Canadian Military and Police in UN PKOs (2000-2007)
(Oct 31, 2007)

34 “Canada Pulls Out of Peacekeeping” (UNDOF)

35 Canadian Contributions
Currently: 57 soldiers 107 civilian police 250 civilians 56th rank in UN (Mil+CivPol) Cold War: 10% vs current 0.01% (factor of 100) Closeout of Op Danaca, UNDOF (Golan Heights, 25 March 2006)

36 Public Opinion: Canadian soldiers serving as peacekeepers
Again thinking about Canada’s military, how many Canadians do you think are currently serving as peacekeepers overseas? Is it…? Actual figure (August 2002): 267 Cdn pkrs, plus 1,500-1,800 in Bosnia Navigator-Dominion Institute Poll, taken August 2002,

37 Canadians View Canada “Canada is an essential contributor
to peacekeeping” Agree: 87% Disagree: 13% “World Sees Canada as Tolerant, Generous Nation” November 12, 2006 (Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research)

38 Cdn Uniformed Personnel (Percentage of UN, 1990-2007)

39 Canada's Rank Among UN Contributors (by contribution of uniformed personnel to UN peacekeeping, 1991–2007)

40 Darfur: Responsibility to Protect
Cdn uniformed personnel with UNAMID: 1 police; CF in support of AU: 11 officers

41 PM Martin Extracts a Promise
“I made four demands of Hillier before I agreed to the [Afghanistan] mission. “I want in but I want out” “Peacemaking and reconstruction” Darfur “all the troops I need” Haiti “if that blows up again” … none constrained by Afghanistan “or I wouldn’t agree to the mission.” Paul Martin, quoted in Janice Gross Stein and Eugene Lang, Unexpected War, p.191 “I made four demands of Hillier before I agreed to the [Afghanistan] mission. I want in, but I want out. We do peacemaking and reconstruction and win hards and mind. Darfur and you have to tell me I can have all the troops I need. And you must have the capacity for Haiti ift hat blows up again. I told him none of this could be constrained by Afghanistan or I wouldn’t agree to the mission.” Paul Marin, quoted in Janice Gross Stein and Eugene Lang, Unexpected War, p.191

42 Explaining the disconnect
Afghanistan The Military CDS Hillier 3BW Concentration Value of peacekeeping NATO The Critics

43 The Critics A “Peacekeeping Myth”? CF “only” peacekeepers
CF doesn’t need arms as peacekeepers Canada acting with purely “altruistic” motives Canada automatically participates UN useless “There is little or no point in committing Canada to UN operations until or that deficiency is rectified, should that ever occur.” - Sean Maloney, Cdn Military Journal, Spring 2007

44 Granatstein: "Who Killed the Canadian Military?"
“The Pearsonian peacekeeping myth … continues today to hurt the military (peaceful intervention leads to the faulty deduction that there is no need to acquire arms for the military). “Mike Pearson killed the military.” “Succeeding Liberal leaders have tried to emulate Pearson by sending Canadian Forces on a myriad of ‘peacekeeping’ missions. The peacekeeping myth, along with the reluctance to arm Canada’s military, has dealt the military a mortal blow. Mike Pearson killed the military.” (2004)

45 “Cold War by Other Means” (Maloney)
The Canadian peacekeeping myth now swung into full operation and the real reasons for Canadian involvement with UN peacekeeping, that is, power projection on behalf of NATO interests, was forgotten or at least deeply submerged in the halls of the Pearson building. There was now a significantly greater willingness to reactivity submit to UN requests for Canadian involvement: Isn't that what Canada just did? We've always done it, haven't we? After all, we invented peacekeeping, didn't we? Helpful Fixer or Hired Gun: Why Canada Goes Overseas. Sean M. Maloney, IRPP conference,"Challenges to Governance:Military Interventions Abroad and Consensus at Home“, Montreal, Nov 2000.

46 9/11 Changed Everything “Walter Dorn remains convinced that there is no life after or outside of the United Nations (UN). Holding such a view was once considered a sine qua non of respectability within the Canadian academic community. Given the events of 9/11, even the die-hard Canadian liberal left has moved on to a more reasoned and responsible position regarding Canada’s place in the world. Dorn has not. He is trapped well within the mystique of the blue beret, a mythological throwback to simpler times.” - Prof. James Finan & Major Michael Boire, RMC

47 Canadian Military Journal
“Great Canadian Peacekeeping Myth” ideology of “Canadian Exceptionalism”: Canada is different from the US in terms of “moral superiority” (Maloney); Anti-Americanism Canada motivated to keep the peace primarily by altruism and moral virtue: “false and misleading” (E. Wagner) “Canadian peacekeeping myth promulgated by observers such as Dorn and Newman is false” Wagner: - Two of the most prominent proponents of the peacekeeping myth are the academic, A. Walter Dorn, and the journalist, Peter C. Newman. In as complementary to the strategic interests of Canada and NATO.1 - Canada as internationalist, working for peace UN as “ultimate mechanism” to defuse conflict “demonstrating international leadership role” Performing “great humanitarian work.” - According to Andrew Coyne, a journalist for theNational Post, Harper was not “suggestingCanadians should ask what they can do for their country, but rather what they can do for the world.”26Indeed,Harper appeals to popular notions ofCanadian exceptionalism: “implicit in Mr. Harper’s address is a very different sort of nationalism: a nationalism of moral purpose. Canada exists to do good, for its own people and for theworld.”27 This is a truly succinct statement of the myth of peacekeeping. commentators like A. Walter Dorn and Peter C. Newman cling to a false view of the past in arguing that Canada has abandoned its cherished principles by participating in the Afghanistan operation.

48 Ignatieff Rejects “peacekeeping paradigm”
In failed and failing states, “there is no peace to keep,” making peacekeeping “so flawed that it must be abandoned altogether.” Recommends UN Secretariat should “stop running peacekeeping operations” Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada

49 From the Left Canada's Peacekeeping Myth By Richard Sanders The belief that Canada is a major force for global peace forms the basis of a powerful myth that is integral to our culture.  This myth shapes the image that we have constructed of ourselves and moulds the way that others see us.  Like all myths, it has very little basis in reality. 

50 Ways to Improve Peacekeeping (Canada)
Greater awareness of success Rapid & Proactive Funding and resources Intelligence Developed/Developing world partnership SHIRBIRG Technology


52 Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies
Tools of the Trade? (independent commissioned report)

53 TRADITIONAL TOOLS The Human Eye ... sometimes aided by binoculars
In peacekeeping missions, the UN has relied almost exclusively on the human eye for observation. Not sufficient ....


Limited capabilities ... over large areas at night for underground detection in remote/difficult terrain information recording, analyzing, sharing and storage

56 Tools of the Trade Conclusions
1. No technological fix … but technology can be of immense value in monitoring, preventing and mitigating conflict. 2. Technical monitoring can increase the safety and security of peacekeepers as well as the effectiveness of the mission. - Technology, which has long been used in the service of war-fighting, can be used for peacekeeping, making missions more effective and safer. This feeling was behind the C-34 request for a comprehensive examination of monitoring and surveillance technologies, request DPKO for dialogue Commission by DPKO to make such a study. Examined the ways in which the UN currently uses monitoring and surveillance technologies, and report I present to you today. [Culmination of two decades of research. For this particular, work interviewed two dozens persons in the UN Secretariat, many current and former peacekeepers and visited a mission for a case study.] The UN has tasked its peacekeepers with an immense array of monitoring tasks, from .... What I have found in my study is a « monitoring gap » between the mandates given to UN POs and their capacity to fulfill those mandates.

Increases range and accuracy of observation Permits continuous monitoring Increases effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness in some cases) Decreases intrusiveness Increases safety Provides recordings

58 In my paper I look at 9 categories of technology:
1. Satellite and Aerial Reconnaissance 2. Ground Imagery (Video) and Motion Sensors 3. Night Vision 4. Radars 5. Radio Monitoring (communications interception) 6. Acoustic and Seismic Sensors 7. Chemical/Biological/Nuclear sensors 8. “Blue Tracking” 9. Geographic Information Systems

59 Satellite imagery This Radarsat image shows the lake Kivu area near the Zaire/Rwanda border. It was acquired at a time of heavy rainfall and clouds. The close-up images on the right are of the Goma airstrip where many of the refugees were. The top image shows the Goma airstrip as it looked on November 12, 1996 with its single runway and relatively undisturbed neighboring terrain. At the lower right is the same area from an image acquired on November 22, ten days later. Between these two dates the United Nations announced that a relief effort would take place with a military support force. As a result, many refugees moved into the area as is evidenced by the white area immediately to the west of the airstrip. This shows that many of the trees have been removed and tents have been set up. The area has been generally disturbed. The image also indicates two vehicles which have been parked on the runways to interfere with landing aircraft by forces against the relief effort.


61 Aerial surveillance UAVs in EUFOR in DRC

62 Night Vision

63 Radars Aerial Ground Underground

64 MULTISENSOR SYSTEMS Reconnaissance Vehicles Coyote with Mobile GSR
low light TV IR sensors laser range finder Extendible mast Mobile

65 In my paper I look at 9 categories of technology:
1. Satellite and Aerial Reconnaissance 2. Ground Imagery (Video) and Motion Sensors 3. Night Vision 4. Radars 5. Radio Monitoring (communications interception) 6. Acoustic and Seismic Sensors 7. Chemical/Biological/Nuclear sensors 8. “Blue Tracking” 9. Geographic Information Systems

66 Op Taming Turncoat AERIAL MISSION TAKING OFF FROM RUTSHURU sensitize FARDC against desertion to join renegade commander N’Kunda Spotting groups of soldiers, moving in what direction

67 Special Committee on Peacekeeping
March 2007 UN Photo/Paulo Filgueiras

68 UN Special Committee “45. The Special Committee welcomes the study launched by the Secretariat on the use of advanced monitoring and surveillance technologies to tangibly improve operational capabilities, achieve results in the field and promote the safety and security of peacekeeping personnel. Recognizing the urgent need for Peacekeeping Operations to standardize the use of advanced technology, particularly in missions operating in dangerous environments or mandated with challenging tasks, the Special Committee requests the Secretariat to develop appropriate modalities for the use of advanced monitoring and surveillance technologies with due attention to legal, operational, technical and financial considerations as well as the consent of the countries concerned with regards to their application in the field.” Report of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping, 23 May 2007

69 Monitoring technologies not yet “tools of the trade,” but they can and should be. Canada can lead.

“We made at least a beginning then. If, on that foundation, we do not build something more permanent and stronger, we will once again have ignored realities, rejected opportunities and betrayed out trust.” Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Oslo, Dec. 11, 1957 Previous paragraph: “I do not exaggerate the significance of what has been done. It would be futile in a quarrel between, or in opposition to, big powers. But it may have prevented a brush fire becoming an all-consuming blaze … and it could do so again in similar circumstances in the future.

71 “Canadians are still the best peacekeepers on this earth at all levels: senior appointments, staff, and the basic soldier.” Col. Mike Hanrahan, Military Adviser at the Canadian Mission to the United Nations, CFC, 15 November 2004



74 Other Organizations UN NATO
Source: Richard Gowan and Ian Johnstone, “New Challenges for Peacekeeping: Protection, Peacebuilding and the War on Terror”, International Peace Academy, March 2007


76 Standby High Readiness Brigade for UN Peacekeeping

77 Canadian civilians deployed
Number two in UN PKOs 287 Cdn civilians About 2,000 “relating” to peace operations 1,200-1,500 public servants in “hardship” posts (embassies, consulates, CIDA field offices) over 500 employed by international organizations and NGOs Tasks: Managing missions Administering war zones Negotiating with warlords Delivering humanitarian assistance Organizing elections Monitoring human rights Helping to secure safety of vulnerable populations Advising fledgling governments Source: UN; PPC 2007 Rank Country # of Int’l Staff % 1 US 328 6 2 Canada 287 3 Kenya 212 4 UK 201 5 France 185 Philippines 182 7 India 140 8 Ghana 124 9 Ethiopia 111

78 Canada: 58% support, 26% oppose
poll of Jul-Aug 2007,

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