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Canada & UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave? Dr. Walter Dorn Canadian Forces College 10 January 2008 UN Photo.

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Presentation on theme: "Canada & UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave? Dr. Walter Dorn Canadian Forces College 10 January 2008 UN Photo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Canada & UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave? Dr. Walter Dorn Canadian Forces College 10 January 2008 UN Photo

2 Concern for man himself and his fate should be the chief interest of all technical endeavors. Never forget this in the midst of your diagrams and equations. - Albert Einstein

3 Canadian Peacekeeping Tradition

4 Kitsilano Recreation Centre


6 Cdn Fatalities Plaque We Remember Gift of CSC 25 Dorn

7 Canadian Association of Veterans in UN Peacekeeping (CAVUNP)

8 Peacekeeping defined the deployment of international military and civilian personnel to a conflict area, with the consent of the major parties to the conflict, [acting impartially] in order to: –stop or contain hostilities or –supervise the carrying out of a peace agreement. Source: modified from UN Website UN

9 Peace Support Operation (NATO doctrine) Violence Potential Violence Potential Source: adapted from PSTC, EO Increasing Force Peace Enforcement Peace Enforcement Peace Keeping Peace Keeping Humanitarian Assistance Humanitarian Assistance UNHCR Peace Building Peace Building

10 Evolution of Peacekeeping: Historical & Functional Four Types/Generations 1 – Observer 2 – Interposition 3 – Multidimensional 4 – Transitional administration Expanding functions

11 OBSERVER MISSIONS UN The Soldier-Diplomat BGen. Angle Hammarskj Ö ld & MGen. Burns

12 Internationalization (UN-NY) Secretariat General Assembly Security Council

13 INTERPOSITIONAL FORCES - Separate combatants - Uses Peacekeeping Forces in pre-formed units (battalions) - Armed for self-defence

14 Fathers of peacekeeping or (more accurately) Founders of peacekeeping forces UN

15 The Canadians are Coming! Gardam, The Canadian Peacekeeper (1992) First contingent of Canadian troops to reach Egypt (Abu Suweir airport near Ismailia), 24 Nov 1956

16 NOBEL PEACE PRIZE 1957 Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Prize acceptance, Oslo, Dec. 11, 1957 To Canada's Lester Bowles Pearson was given primarily for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations. - Norwegian Nobel Committee Web site

17 UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

18 UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (2000-) ASMARA ADDIS ABABA Liaison officers Military observers The Peacekeeping Force R.Romses



21 Naval Peacekeeping

22 MULTIDIMENSIONAL PEACEKEEPING Political Humanitarian Economic JudicialReconstructionSocial Military Police


24 Difficult Missions,

25 Force Commanders BGen Robin Gagnon FC, UNTMIH 1997 Gen Maurice Baril FC, MNF (Eastern Zaire) 1996 None since

26 Eastern Congo: Robust Peacekeeping (MONUC) Mi-25 Combat Helicopters

27 Uniformed UN Peacekeepers (Military and Police, 1991–2007)


29 A BIG STEP … Governing a territory during a transitional period Goal: turn over power to a peaceful, stable country power governed by a local, democratically-elected leadership The comprehensive approach

30 East Timor: UNTAET … UNMISET UN Photo, 27 Sep UN membership


32 Canadian Uniformed Personnel in UN PKO (Total Military and Police),

33 Police: 101 Military: 56 (Oct 31, 2007) Canadian Military and Police in UN PKOs ( )

34 Canada Pulls Out of Peacekeeping (UNDOF) /

35 Canadian Contributions Currently: 57 soldiers 107 civilian police 250 civilians 56 th rank in UN (Mil+CivPol) Cold War: 10% vs current 0.01% (factor of 100) Closeout of Op Danaca, UNDOF (Golan Heights, 25 March 2006)

36 Again thinking about Canadas military, how many Canadians do you think are currently serving as peacekeepers overseas? Is it…? Navigator-Dominion Institute Poll, taken August 2002, Public Opinion: Canadian soldiers serving as peacekeepers

37 Canadians View Canada Canada is an essential contributor to peacekeeping Agree: 87% Disagree: 13% World Sees Canada as Tolerant, Generous Nation November 12, 2006 (Angus Reid Global Monitor: Polls & Research)

38 Cdn Uniformed Personnel (Percentage of UN, )

39 Canada's Rank Among UN Contributors (by contribution of uniformed personnel to UN peacekeeping, 1991–2007)

40 Darfur: Responsibility to Protect Cdn uniformed personnel with UNAMID: 1 police; CF in support of AU: 11 officers

41 PM Martin Extracts a Promise I made four demands of Hillier before I agreed to the [Afghanistan] mission. –I want in but I want out –Peacemaking and reconstruction –Darfur all the troops I need –Haiti if that blows up again … none constrained by Afghanistan or I wouldnt agree to the mission. –Paul Martin, quoted in Janice Gross Stein and Eugene Lang, Unexpected War, p.191

42 Explaining the disconnect Afghanistan The Military –CDS Hillier –3BW –Concentration –Value of peacekeeping –NATO The Critics

43 A Peacekeeping Myth? –CF only peacekeepers –CF doesnt need arms as peacekeepers –Canada acting with purely altruistic motives –Canada automatically participates –UN useless There is little or no point in committing Canada to UN operations until or that deficiency is rectified, should that ever occur. - Sean Maloney, Cdn Military Journal, Spring 2007

44 Granatstein: "Who Killed the Canadian Military?" The Pearsonian peacekeeping myth … continues today to hurt the military (peaceful intervention leads to the faulty deduction that there is no need to acquire arms for the military). Mike Pearson killed the military. (2004)

45 Cold War by Other Means (Maloney) The Canadian peacekeeping myth now swung into full operation and the real reasons for Canadian involvement with UN peacekeeping, that is, power projection on behalf of NATO interests, was forgotten or at least deeply submerged in the halls of the Pearson building. There was now a significantly greater willingness to reactivity submit to UN requests for Canadian involvement: Isn't that what Canada just did? We've always done it, haven't we? After all, we invented peacekeeping, didn't we? Helpful Fixer or Hired Gun: Why Canada Goes Overseas. Sean M. Maloney, IRPP conference,"Challenges to Governance:Military Interventions Abroad and Consensus at Home, Montreal, Nov 2000.

46 9/11 Changed Everything Walter Dorn remains convinced that there is no life after or outside of the United Nations (UN). Holding such a view was once considered a sine qua non of respectability within the Canadian academic community. Given the events of 9/11, even the die-hard Canadian liberal left has moved on to a more reasoned and responsible position regarding Canadas place in the world. Dorn has not. He is trapped well within the mystique of the blue beret, a mythological throwback to simpler times. - Prof. James Finan & Major Michael Boire, RMC

47 Canadian Military Journal Great Canadian Peacekeeping Myth –ideology of Canadian Exceptionalism: Canada is different from the US in terms of moral superiority (Maloney); Anti-Americanism –Canada motivated to keep the peace primarily by altruism and moral virtue: false and misleading ( E. Wagner) –Canadian peacekeeping myth promulgated by observers such as Dorn and Newman is false

48 Ignatieff Rejects peacekeeping paradigm –In failed and failing states, there is no peace to keep, making peacekeeping so flawed that it must be abandoned altogether. –Recommends UN Secretariat should stop running peacekeeping operations Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada

49 From the Left Canada's Peacekeeping Myth By Richard Sanders The belief that Canada is a major force for global peace forms the basis of a powerful myth that is integral to our culture. This myth shapes the image that we have constructed of ourselves and moulds the way that others see us. Like all myths, it has very little basis in reality.

50 Ways to Improve Peacekeeping (Canada) Greater awareness of success Rapid & Proactive Funding and resources –Intelligence Developed/Developing world partnership SHIRBIRG Technology


52 Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies Tools of the Trade? (independent commissioned report)

53 TRADITIONAL TOOLS The Human Eye... sometimes aided by binoculars


55 PROBLEMS OF UNAIDED MONITORING Limited capabilities... – over large areas – at night – for underground detection – in remote/difficult terrain – information recording, analyzing, sharing and storage

56 Tools of the Trade Conclusions 1. No technological fix … but technology can be of immense value in monitoring, preventing and mitigating conflict. 2. Technical monitoring can increase the safety and security of peacekeepers as well as the effectiveness of the mission.

57 BENEFITS OF MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Increases range and accuracy of observation Permits continuous monitoring Increases effectiveness (including cost- effectiveness in some cases) Decreases intrusiveness Increases safety Provides recordings


59 Satellite imagery


61 Aerial surveillance UAVs in EUFOR in DRC

62 Night Vision

63 Radars Ground Aerial Underground

64 MULTISENSOR SYSTEMS Reconnaissance Vehicles Coyote with –GSR –low light TV –IR sensors –laser range finder –Extendible mast Mobile



67 Special Committee on Peacekeeping March 2007 UN Photo/Paulo Filgueiras

68 UN Special Committee 45. The Special Committee welcomes the study launched by the Secretariat on the use of advanced monitoring and surveillance technologies to tangibly improve operational capabilities, achieve results in the field and promote the safety and security of peacekeeping personnel. Recognizing the urgent need for Peacekeeping Operations to standardize the use of advanced technology, particularly in missions operating in dangerous environments or mandated with challenging tasks, the Special Committee requests the Secretariat to develop appropriate modalities for the use of advanced monitoring and surveillance technologies with due attention to legal, operational, technical and financial considerations as well as the consent of the countries concerned with regards to their application in the field. Report of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping, 23 May 2007

69 Monitoring technologies not yet tools of the trade, but they can and should be. Canada can lead.

70 BUILD ON THAT FOUNDATION We made at least a beginning then. If, on that foundation, we do not build something more permanent and stronger, we will once again have ignored realities, rejected opportunities and betrayed out trust. –Lester B. Pearson, Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Oslo, Dec. 11, 1957

71 Canadians are still the best peacekeepers on this earth at all levels: senior appointments, staff, and the basic soldier. -Col. Mike Hanrahan, Military Adviser at the Canadian Mission to the United Nations, CFC, 15 November 2004



74 Other Organizations NATO UN Source: Richard Gowan and Ian Johnstone, New Challenges for Peacekeeping: Protection, Peacebuilding and the War on Terror, International Peace Academy, March 2007


76 Standby High Readiness Brigade for UN Peacekeeping

77 Canadian civilians deployed Number two in UN PKOs 287 Cdn civilians About 2,000 relating to peace operations 1,200-1,500 public servants in hardship posts (embassies, consulates, CIDA field offices) over 500 employed by international organizations and NGOs Tasks: Managing missions Administering war zones Negotiating with warlords Delivering humanitarian assistance Organizing elections Monitoring human rights Helping to secure safety of vulnerable populations Advising fledgling governments Source: UN; PPC 2007 RankCountry# of Intl Staff % 1US3286 2Canada2876 3Kenya2124 4UK2014 5France1854 6Philippines1824 7India1403 8Ghana1242 9Ethiopia1112

78 poll of Jul-Aug 2007, Canada: 58% support, 26% oppose

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