3HELP: a new book for new (and not so new) teachers HOT SEAT QUESTIONS
4HOT SEAT QUESTION _____ Monday _____ June _____ noon _____ December 25th_____ spring_____ my birthday_____ the 1980s
5I N O N AT ANSWER at 6 pm, at noon, at this moment on Monday, on Dec. 5th,on my birthday_in June, in spring, in 1990,in the 80s, in the 20th century
6E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org We need your questions!!!!Book of HOT SEAT QUESTIONS for teachersRoyalties go to a TESOL scholarship fundYour name and school will appear with your questionHelp your fellow teachers and also TESOL students
7Teaching writing = QUESTIONS Why are students in this course? What should I do (in class)?What should they write about? (My decision?) What should we do about errors? How should I mark student writing? Wait…. Should I even mark student writing?Should students write in a journal? And then?So what about grammar? Vocabulary? Spelling? Punctuation?etc….,etc….,etc…. What to do???
8YOU must work on vocabulary! Importance of Vocab for ELLs 3 pieces of evidence
9Importance of Vocab for ELLs #1: Student VoicesIn exit surveys, secondary ELLs now in college complain their ESL courses needed(1) more opportunities to speak English in class(2) more teaching of vocabulary
10Importance of Vocab for ELLs #2: ReadingKnowledge of isolated vocabulary correlates VERY highly with reading proficiency(1) The best readers know how to use context clues to read, but(2) The best readers rely on context clues the least because they know the most words
11Importance of Vocab for ELLs #3: WritingVocabulary usage impacts writing scores by nativesIn experimental conditions, the best papers:(1) are longer(2) have the highest number of unique words (which means they use a lot of synonyms, which means they know more vocab)
12Teaching writing = QUESTIONS Why are students in this course? What should I do (in class)?What should they write about? (My decision?) What should we do about errors? How should I mark student writing? Wait…. Should I even mark student writing?Should students write in a journal? And then?So what about grammar? Vocabulary? Spelling? Punctuation?etc….,etc….,etc…. WHAT TO DO?????
14OUR (= teacher AND student) PROBLEM: So what are things we can control? And what are things we cannot control? Coming up with the items in the correct category is not as easy as it might appear…OUR (= teacher AND student) PROBLEM:What is obvious to you and me is not always soobvious to people not of our culture or not ofour language background -- especially when itcomes to WRITINGREVOLUTIONARY IDEA: I asked some advanced ESL students about WRITING and what was surprising here in the US(great DVD – see BIBLIOGRAPHY !!!) _ _ _
15Japanese observation about a dry cleaning garment bag… "Warning: To avoid danger of suffocation, keep this plastic bag away from babies and children. Do not use this bag in cribs, beds, carriages or playpens. The plastic bag could block nose and mouth and prevent breathing. This bag is not a toy.”Do we NEED to say this???
16Argentinean reaction: on an Airbus 320 recently… "Warning: This door must be closed during take-off and landing.”Do we NEED to say this???
17Turkish student: “American writing repeats too much… it’s redundant” P 1: This ___ will discuss XYZ by analyzing A, B, and CP 2: support #1 (about A)P 3: support #2 (about B)P 4: support #3 (about C; strongest)P 5: This ___ discussed XYZ by analyzing A, B, and CDo we NEED to say this???
18Serenity Prayer: What we CANNOT control students’ expectations / goals / needstime required to grade 100 essaysstudents’ ability to correct all of their own grammar errors instantly or independently (in x wks.)students’ English proficiency (in x wks.)students’ composition ability in L1
19Serenity Prayer: What we CAN control 1. the topics and therefore S’s & T’s interest2. writing tasks (what? #? # of rewrites?)3. the scoring procedures (YOUR TIME!)(no research to show that your grading = better student writing)4. what we do (and don’t) teach:4a. teach (selected) grammar only as needed4b. teach vocabulary at the adv. level
20What we CAN control 1. the topics and therefore our interest BOOK 2: GREAT PARAGRAPHS: Each chapter ends with 5 writing prompts for that rhetorical mode.BOOK 5: GREATER ESSAYS: ditto but the prompts are divided by subject (Humanities, Sciences, Business, Personal) [plus 10 “additional” topics per chapter]TOP 20: one large writing prompt for the grammar point
21What we CAN control 2. writing tasks (what? #? # of rewrites?) a. shorter, specific writing tasks(e.g., providing and following a model)b. numerous writing tasks(avoid the “I assign, you write, I grade” syndrome)c. limit number of rewritesd. more “all-class” tasks(Greater Essays: 3 versions of the same essay)(Great Paragraphs: all s’s work on same topic sent)(various books: Building Better Sentences TASK)
22Tasks that ALL students can do together and then check together Teach a CLASS: You don’t get paid enough or have enough time to teach 20 / 15 / 32 individual writing classes for the whole semesterTeach a CLASS: Limit your grading timeTeach a CLASS: Concrete activities that students can complete and check in pairs/groupsPractice building better sentences, which are the foundation for paragraphs, essays, and all types of writing.
23Sentence Combining in Small Groups Students work in 3s.There are 3 problems.Each student becomes A, B, or C.After Problem A, then student A will put that on the board. (All A students go to the board at the same time.Check all answers as a class.
24EXAMPLE for whole class The flag is Mexican.The flag is green.The flag is white.The flag is red.you: __________________________________________________________________
25from Great Paragraphs, p. 244 School uniforms should be mandatory. Problem Afrom Great Paragraphs, p. 244School uniforms should be mandatory.This should be for all students.The students are in the United States.This is for a number of reasons.you: __________________________________________________________________
26Matt plays tennis every Monday. Matt plays tennis at night. Problem BMatt plays tennis every Monday.Matt plays tennis at night.Matt enjoys this.Laura also enjoys this.you: __________________________________________________________________
27Karla is extremely happy. Karla got a car. Her car is new. Problem CKarla is extremely happy.Karla got a car.Her car is new.Karla’s car was a gift.The purpose of the gift was for her birthday.On this birthday, she turned 30.you: __________________________________________________________________
28What we CAN control 3. the scoring procedure (YOUR TIME!) (no research to show that your grading = better student writing)a. Mrs. Cameronb. specific feedback , not overkill(e.g., vocabulary: GIVE the word!)
29What we CAN control 4. What we do (and don’t) teach 4a. teach (selected) grammar ONLY AS NEEDED GRAM CLASS (no future perfect!) WRITING CLASS TEACH, not TEST, SPECIFIC EDITING(from Top 20 & others)“This paragraph contains 7 errors: spelling (1), word choice (2), s-v agr (3), topic sentence (1).”4b. TEACH VOCABULARY at the adv. Level Keep a vocabulary notebook… (Vocabulary Myths)
30Grammar Example #1VERB TENSES? Yes, but which ones? By the year 2020, perhaps the US population will have grown to almost 500 million. Future Perfect Tense???
31Grammar Example #1 VERB TENSES: present tense past tense present perfect tensepresent & perfect modal + verbpast perfectpassive voice of 1-5
32Grammar Example #2 ADJECTIVES BEFORE NOUNS? Opinion: an interesting bookDimension: a big appleAge: a new carShape: an oval maskColor: a black coatOrigin: a Canadian productMaterial: a plastic toya big round Malaysian opal friendship ringa delicious aged Dutch cheese snack
33Grammar Example #2 ADJECTIVES BEFORE NOUNS? Make your students use ONE adjectiveMake sure the adjective is BEFORE the noun it modifies
34A non-ESL-tainted co-author… from Greater Essays, Essay 4c, p. 102 Modern Music Technology: Downloading or Stealing?The recording industry is in a slump. Albums and CDsare not selling as much as they were several years ago, andthis trend shows no sign of reversing. For the industry as a whole, profits are down ten percent within the last three years. What has caused this downward spiral for the music industry? The answer is the same piece of equipment with which I am writing this essay: the personal computer. There are three reasons that the computer has had this deleterious effect on the recording industry.
35Evidence that Vocabulary is Critical in ESL Writing 1st SOURCE: Research studiesSantos (1988)Ferris (1994)Biber (1986)Engber (1995)Dordick (1996)2nd SOURCE: ESL Composition RubricsTeacher-generatedESL Profile (Jacobs et al. 1981)TOEFL ®
36Tips for Teaching / Inspiring Better Writing Remember students’ REAL objectivesRespect student time / money investment (don’t have students write only 3 or 4 assignments in a semester)Don’t teach a grammar course, teach a WRITING course (which means teaching grammar as actually needed, not as dictated from the “this-is-good-for-you” mentality)Collect many assignments, allow the papers to “die” in memory, mark many lightly/specifically, focus on a few in depth and through drafts
37Tips for Teaching / Inspiring Better Writing Concentrate on editing skills -- both surface language AND composition/meaningLet students work together, but don’t go crazy with peer editing (AKA: peer-editing is not THE solution)Work on sentence-level tasks (even at advanced!!)Encourage/Push vocabulary usage/growthWhen in doubt, go back to ……….37