Presentation on theme: "Daily Spark Tuesday, March 2nd"— Presentation transcript:
1Daily Spark Tuesday, March 2nd In order to receive full credit, be sure to include today’s date and use complete sentences.Why did President James Monroe issue the Monroe Doctrine?
2Expansion and War in the United States PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusGrowth of the United StatesQuick Facts: Causes and Effects of Westward ExpansionMap: Westward Expansion of the United StatesThe Civil WarFaces of History: Abraham LincolnVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of the Women’s Suffrage Movement
3Expansion and War in the United States Main IdeaAs the United States began to expand west, conflicts erupted over territory and slavery.Reading FocusHow did the United States expand during the first half of the 1800s?What issues led to civil war in the United States?
4Growth of the United States In 1803 the U.S. completed the Louisiana Purchase; during the rest of the century, America would continue to grow and expand westward.Early 1800s, United States still young nationHad recently won independence, but Great Britain still harassing former colonySeizing American sailors to use in war with FranceHelping Native Americans fight settlers in NorthwestA Young NationUnited States, Great Britain went to war in 1812At war’s end, no territory changed hands; some felt America proved independence1820s, President James Monroe declared Americas off limits to further European colonization in Monroe DoctrineWar of 1812
5Texas and Mexico Texas Becomes State 1820, Moses Austin got permission from Spain to found small settlements in Texas, which was part of MexicoWhen Mexico gained independence from Spain, strict laws imposed on settlers in TexasSettlers fought for, achieved independence for Republic of TexasTexas Becomes State1845, Texas admitted to union as stateMexican government claimed Texas still part of MexicoLed to Mexican-American War, 1846 to 1848United States won the war and gained large territory (now the southwestern United States)
6The Move West Manifest Destiny Reasons for Moving By 1850, westward expansion of United States had been ongoing for half centuryUnited States claimed territory all the way to Pacific OceanRapid expansion led some Americans to believe they had God-given right to settle landTerm manifest destiny came to describe this beliefManifest DestinySettlers headed west for many reasons1848, gold discovered in California; massive migrationNational law promised 160 acres of free land to anyone making trip westThousands of Americans packed belongings into covered wagons, traveled westReasons for Moving
8Effects on Native Americans ConflictSettlers often moved onto land inhabited for years by Native AmericansFrequent conflict between Native Americans and settlersSome believed solution was to push Native Americans further westIndian Removal Act1830, Indian Removal Act called for relocation of five Indian nations to Indian Territory, part of Louisiana Territory in Great PlainsCherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek forced from homesCherokee MarchCherokee march to Indian Territory so deadly it became known as Trail of Tears; estimated that a quarter of those who made trip diedSubsequent laws moved Native Americans onto designated reservations
10What territories did the United States acquire between 1803 and 1850? SummarizeWhat territories did the United States acquire between 1803 and 1850?Answer(s): Louisiana, Texas, Mexican Cession
11The Civil WarAs the United States expanded west, the issue of slavery became a national problem. Many believed denying freedom to enslaved people was wrong. Some fought for abolition, or the end of slavery.Americans had to decide if new states would allow slaverySoutherners worried that new states without slavery might shift power in Congress, end all slaveryThe Road to War1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act created two new territories in WestSlavery issue left to residents of statesSet off bitter debate between anti- and pro-slavery citizensCompromisesAfter election of Abraham Lincoln as president, South Carolina separated from Union; this act called secessionOther southern states soon followedSouth Carolina
12War BeginsPro-slavery states seceded from union, set up own government, Confederate States of AmericaSelected Jefferson Davis as president, drafted own constitutionLincoln did not believe states had right to secedeOrdered supplies to American fort in Fort Sumter, South CarolinaFirst shots of Civil War fired at Fort SumterWar continued four yearsMore than 500,000 soldiers diedAs conflict grew, future of country in balance
13The Emancipation Proclamation January 1863, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, declared all slaves free in areas of Confederate states not already conquered by Union; Proclamation helped North in many waysMany southern slaves fled to North, which hurt Southern economyGave renewed purpose to Union soldiersCaused European powers to withdraw support from ConfederacyBattle of Gettysburg represented turning point in warUnion soldiers defeated Confederate troops, began to believe they could win warLincoln delivered famous speech at dedication of battlefieldThe Union PrevailsWar continued about one-and-a-half more yearsUnion forces gained advantageConfederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant in 1865War ended; issues remainedEnd of War
15Effects of the Civil War After the Civil War much of the South lay in ruins. Large areas were destroyed, and the economy was ruined. The final battles had also damaged railroads, roads, and bridges. Many Americans wondered how the federal government would treat the former Confederate states.Reconstruction was time of rebuilding in SouthDifficult because people had different ideas on how to solve problems caused by warCongress passed several laws, constitutional amendmentsReconstructionFourteenth: granted citizenship to all freed African Americans and equal rights “enjoyed by white citizens”Fifteenth: voting rights could not be denied based on raceAmendmentsReconstruction did not fully achieve goal of equal rights, but a foundation was laid for later civil rights movement in America.
16In what ways did Reconstruction succeed and in what ways did it fail? ContrastIn what ways did Reconstruction succeed and in what ways did it fail?Answer(s): It succeeded by passing the Civil Rights Act and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, protecting and extending rights of African Americans. It failed because southern states continued to pass discriminatory laws and prevented many African Americans from making a decent living.