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Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Daily Spark Tuesday, March 2 nd In order to receive full credit, be sure to include todays date and use complete.

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Presentation on theme: "Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Daily Spark Tuesday, March 2 nd In order to receive full credit, be sure to include todays date and use complete."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Daily Spark Tuesday, March 2 nd In order to receive full credit, be sure to include todays date and use complete sentences. Why did President James Monroe issue the Monroe Doctrine?

2 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Growth of the United States Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of Westward Expansion Map: Westward Expansion of the United States The Civil War Faces of History: Abraham Lincoln Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of the Womens Suffrage Movement Expansion and War in the United States

3 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Reading Focus How did the United States expand during the first half of the 1800s? What issues led to civil war in the United States? Main Idea As the United States began to expand west, conflicts erupted over territory and slavery. Expansion and War in the United States

4 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 In 1803 the U.S. completed the Louisiana Purchase; during the rest of the century, America would continue to grow and expand westward. Early 1800s, United States still young nation Had recently won independence, but Great Britain still harassing former colony –Seizing American sailors to use in war with France –Helping Native Americans fight settlers in Northwest A Young Nation United States, Great Britain went to war in 1812 At wars end, no territory changed hands; some felt America proved independence 1820s, President James Monroe declared Americas off limits to further European colonization in Monroe Doctrine War of 1812 Growth of the United States

5 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Texas Becomes State 1845, Texas admitted to union as state Mexican government claimed Texas still part of Mexico Led to Mexican-American War, 1846 to 1848 United States won the war and gained large territory (now the southwestern United States) Texas and Mexico 1820, Moses Austin got permission from Spain to found small settlements in Texas, which was part of Mexico When Mexico gained independence from Spain, strict laws imposed on settlers in Texas Settlers fought for, achieved independence for Republic of Texas

6 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Settlers headed west for many reasons 1848, gold discovered in California; massive migration National law promised 160 acres of free land to anyone making trip west Thousands of Americans packed belongings into covered wagons, traveled west Reasons for Moving By 1850, westward expansion of United States had been ongoing for half century United States claimed territory all the way to Pacific Ocean Rapid expansion led some Americans to believe they had God-given right to settle land Term manifest destiny came to describe this belief Manifest Destiny The Move West

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8 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Conflict Settlers often moved onto land inhabited for years by Native Americans Frequent conflict between Native Americans and settlers Some believed solution was to push Native Americans further west Cherokee March Cherokee march to Indian Territory so deadly it became known as Trail of Tears; estimated that a quarter of those who made trip died Subsequent laws moved Native Americans onto designated reservations Indian Removal Act 1830, Indian Removal Act called for relocation of five Indian nations to Indian Territory, part of Louisiana Territory in Great Plains Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Creek forced from homes Effects on Native Americans

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10 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Summarize What territories did the United States acquire between 1803 and 1850? Answer(s): Louisiana, Texas, Mexican Cession

11 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 As the United States expanded west, the issue of slavery became a national problem. Many believed denying freedom to enslaved people was wrong. Some fought for abolition, or the end of slavery. Americans had to decide if new states would allow slavery Southerners worried that new states without slavery might shift power in Congress, end all slavery The Road to War 1854 Kansas- Nebraska Act created two new territories in West Slavery issue left to residents of states Set off bitter debate between anti- and pro-slavery citizens Compromises After election of Abraham Lincoln as president, South Carolina separated from Union; this act called secession Other southern states soon followed South Carolina The Civil War

12 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 War Begins Pro-slavery states seceded from union, set up own government, Confederate States of America Selected Jefferson Davis as president, drafted own constitution Lincoln did not believe states had right to secede –Ordered supplies to American fort in Fort Sumter, South Carolina –First shots of Civil War fired at Fort Sumter War continued four years –More than 500,000 soldiers died –As conflict grew, future of country in balance

13 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 January 1863, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, declared all slaves free in areas of Confederate states not already conquered by Union; Proclamation helped North in many ways Many southern slaves fled to North, which hurt Southern economy Gave renewed purpose to Union soldiers Caused European powers to withdraw support from Confederacy Battle of Gettysburg represented turning point in war Union soldiers defeated Confederate troops, began to believe they could win war Lincoln delivered famous speech at dedication of battlefield The Union Prevails War continued about one-and-a- half more years Union forces gained advantage Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant in 1865 War ended; issues remained End of War The Emancipation Proclamation

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15 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Reconstruction did not fully achieve goal of equal rights, but a foundation was laid for later civil rights movement in America. After the Civil War much of the South lay in ruins. Large areas were destroyed, and the economy was ruined. The final battles had also damaged railroads, roads, and bridges. Many Americans wondered how the federal government would treat the former Confederate states. Reconstruction was time of rebuilding in South Difficult because people had different ideas on how to solve problems caused by war Congress passed several laws, constitutional amendments Reconstruction Effects of the Civil War Fourteenth: granted citizenship to all freed African Americans and equal rights enjoyed by white citizens Fifteenth: voting rights could not be denied based on race Amendments

16 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 4 Contrast In what ways did Reconstruction succeed and in what ways did it fail? Answer(s): It succeeded by passing the Civil Rights Act and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, protecting and extending rights of African Americans. It failed because southern states continued to pass discriminatory laws and prevented many African Americans from making a decent living.

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