Presentation on theme: "SATL IN PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS: SYSTEMIC PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS [SPCE] Ameen F. M. Fahmy Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry,"— Presentation transcript:
SATL IN PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS: SYSTEMIC PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS [SPCE] Ameen F. M. Fahmy Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ain shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt 1 ST PS-SATLC, Karachi Pakistan Nov.19-29, 2008
Fahmy and Lagowski have designed, implemented, and evaluated the systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (SATLC) Since (1998). Pungente, and Badger (2003) stated that the primary goal when teaching introductory organic chemistry is to take students beyond the simple cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension using skills of synthesis and analysis – rather than rote memory. The use of systemics, in our view, will help students to understand interrelationships between concepts in a greater context.
SATL help students in development of their mental framework with higher – level of cognitive processes such as analysis and synthesis, which is very important requirement in the learning of our chemistry students. By "systemic" we mean an arrangement of concepts or issues through interacting systems in which all relationships between concepts and issues are made, clear up front, to the teachers and learners.
Fig: 1a: Linear representation of concepts concept Fig: 1b: systemic representation of concepts concept
Presented at the 16th ICCE, Budapest, Hungry, (August, 2000). One Semester Course: (16 Lects - 32hrs). During the academic years (1998/ / /2001). SATL- Aliphatic Chemistry. (Text book) Presented at the 3ed Arab conference on SATL (April, 2003). (15 Lessons - Three Weeks) Oct SATL- Classification of Elements Presented at the 15th ICCE, Cairo, Egypt, (August, 1998). (9 Lessons Two weeks) March SATL- Carboxylic acids and their derivatives (Unit) Data Duration / Date Title of SATLC Material University Level - Pre- Pharmacy. - Second year, Faculty of Science. Pre- University - Secondary School (2nd Grade). Student Sample A list of SATL studies is given in (Table I). All of these studies required the creation of new student learning materials, as well as the corresponding teacher-oriented materials. Table (1):
Presented at the 7th ISICHC, Alex., Egypt (March, 2000). (10 Lects hrs). During the academic years: (1999/ /2001). SATL- Heterocyclic Chemistry. (Text book) - Third year, Faculty of Science. In preparationOne Semester Course: (16 Lects-32 hrs). During academic years ( ). ( ) SATL- Aromatic Chemistry (Text book) (12) - Second year, Faculty of Science. Presented at the 17th ICCE Beijing (August 2002) One Semester Lab Course 24hrs (2hr/week) During academic year ( ). From SATL- to Benign Analysis - First year Faculty of Science More SATL chemistry courses were produced by the Science Education Center at Ain Shams University, which are still under experimentation in different universities and school settings.
We started teaching of any course by Systemic diagram (SD0) that has determined the starting point of the course, and we ended the course with a final systemic diagram (SDf) and between both we crossover several Systemics (SD1, SD2,…..) Fig (3): Systemic teaching strategy SD0 SDf SD2 SD1 Stage (1) Stage (2) Stage (3) (maximum Unknown chemical relation) (All chemical relations are known) (?) ( ) (?) Educational standards and objectives Educational standards and objectives
1- SATL-CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS The periodicity of the properties within the horizontal periods is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 4), and within the vertical groups is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 7). The details of the transformation of the linear approach to the corresponding systemic closed concept cluster were presented Our experiments about the usefulness of SATL to learning Chemistry at the pre-college level was conducted in the Cairo and Giza school districts. Fifteen SATL based lessons in inorganic chemistry taught over a three - week period were presented to a total 130 students. The achievement of these students was then compared with 79 students taught the same material using standard (linear) method. PRE-COLLEGE COURSES
Electronegativity Atomic radius Electronaffinity Ionization energy Non-metallic property Metallic property Acidic property Basicproperty By increasing the atomic number in periods ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Figure (4): periodicity of properties of the elements within the periods
The periodicity of the properties through the periods can be illustrated systemically by changing the diagram in Figure (4) to systemic diagram (SD1-P) Figure (5). The previous diagrams of periods represent linear separated chemical relations between the atomic number and Atomic radius – Ionization energy - electron affinity - electronegativity - metallic and non-metallic properties - basic and acidic properties.
Electronegativity Amphoteri c property Metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic property Acidic property Atomic radius By increasing atomic number within the periods 3 ? ? 5 7 ? 11 ? 14 ? 9 ? 8 ? 12 ? 16 ? 15 ? 18 ? 20 ? 1 ? 2 ? 10 ? 17 ? ? 4 ? ? 6 ? Non-metallic property Figure (5): Systemic Diagram (SD 1 - P) for the periodicity of properties of elements within periods
Electronegativity Amphoteric property Metallic property Non-metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic property Acidic property Atomic radius By increasing atomic number within the periods The oxidation number for element in its oxide Figure (6): Systemic Diagram (SD 2 - P) for the periodicity of the Properties for the elements within periods After study of the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify systemic diagrams (SD1-P) Figure (5) to (SD2-P) Figure (6), for periods.
Figure (7): Periodicity of the properties of the elements within the groups represents linear separate relations: Atomic radius Electron affinity Ionization energy Non- metallic property Metallic property Acidic property Basic property By increasing the Atomic number in groups ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? Electronegativity Periodicity of the properties of the elements within the groups
Also the periodicity of the properties within groups can by illustrated systemically be changing Figure (7) to systemic diagram (SD 1 -G) Figure(8). Electronegativity Metallic Property Non-metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic Property Acidic property HX Atomic radius By increasing Atomic number within the groups 3 ? ? 5 7 ? 11 ? 14 ? 9 ? 8 ? 12 ? 16 ? 15 ? 18 ? 20 ? 19 ? 17 ? 10 ? 13 ? 2 ? ? 1 4 ? 6 ? Figure (8): Systemic Diagram (SD 1 - G) for the periodicity of properties of the elements within groups
Electronegativi ty Metallic Property Non- metallic property Ionization energy Electron affinity Basic Property Acidic property HX Atomic radius By increasing Atomic number within the groups Figure (9): Systemic Diagram (SD 2 - G) for the periodicity of the properties of elements within groups After study the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify (SD1-G) Figure (8) to (SD2-G) Figure (9).
LINEAR AND SYSTEMIC PERIODS In the periodic table the graduation in properties are studied in a linear method from left to right increasing or decreasing. e.g.: In period (2) The linear graduation of the properties in the second period starting from lithium to Neon increasing or decreasing. LiBeBCNOFNe Linear Period (2)
But in systemic period the graduation in the properties are studied systemically starting from any element in the period to any other element as shown in the Figure (10). Figure (10): Systemic period (2) lt shows increasing or decreasing in the given property on moving from one element to another through the systemic period. N Be B C O F Ne ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Li ? ??
The systemic period is characterized from the linear period in the following: Solve the abnormality in the periodicity of some of the properties. Because it finds the relation between each element and the next element in a certain property till the end of the period. Find a relation between any element of the period and all the other elements. eg:The electron affinity increases by increasing atomic number with the exception of Beryllium and nitrogen and Neon. LiBeBCN OFNe (abnormal)
N +31 Be +66 B -29 C -121 O -142 F -332 Ne +99 increases Li increases decreases Figure (11): Periodicity of electron affinity in systemic period (2) In the case of systemic approach the relation takes place between any two elements from the point of electron affinity as shown in Figure (11).
Generally the systemic period (SD-P) can be drawn as follow. Notice: As the (-ve) value increases the amount of energy released increases so the electron affinity increases. EG V S 2 P 3 EG II S 2 EG III S 2 P 1 EG IV S 2 P 2 EG VI S 2 P 4 EG VII S 2 P 5 EG VIII S 2 P 6 EGI S 1 ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? ? ? E = element G = group (?) = Increasing or decreasing Fig(12): systemic period
LINEAR AND SYSTEMIC GROUPS EP2 EP3 EP4Increasing Or decreasing EP5 EP6E = element EP7P = period EP1 Figure (13): Linear Group The graduation in the properties through groups in the periodic table are studied in linearity from top to bottom as shown in Figure (13) ))
Figure (14): Systemic Group EP 3 EP 4 EP 5 EP 6 EP 7 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? EP 1 EP 2 ? ? ? (?) = Increasing or decreasing The characteristics of systemic groups are the same as systemic periods In systemic group the graduation in the properties are to be studied systematically. Starting from any element to another. It can be represented by the following systemic diagram (SD-G) Fig (14).
Example: systemic group -1 K RbCs Fr LiNa (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases (a.r.) increases. Prop. (2-3) decreases 1- (a.r.) decreases. 2- (I.P.) increases. 3- Electronegativity increases Figure (15): Periodicity of Properties of (atomic radius - Ionization potential - Electronegativity) through systemic group (SG-1). The results, of experimentation indicate that a greater fraction of students exposed to systemic techniques in the experimental group, achieved at a higher level than did the control group taught by linear techniques. The overall results are summarized in Figures (16 and 17).
Before After Eltabary Roxy "boys" Nabawia Mosa"girls" Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" all the exp. (group) Figure 16: Percent of students in the experimental groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the systemic intervention period
Before After Eltabary Roxy "boys" Nabawia Mosa"girls" Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" all the control (group) Figure 17: Percent of students in the control groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indiate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the linear intervention period.
Implementing the systemic approach for teaching and learning using two units of general chemistry within the course has no negative effects on the ability of the students to continue their linear study of the remainder of the course using the linear approach. Teachers feedback indicated that the systemic approach seemed to be beneficial when the students in the experimental group returned to learning using the conventional linear approach. After the experiment both teachers and learners retain their understanding of SATL techniques and continue to use them. The results from the pre-university experiment point to a number of conclusions that stem from the qualitative data from surveys of teachers and students, and from anecdotal evidence. Teachers from different experiences, and ages can be trained to teach by the systemic approach in a short period of time with sufficient training.
*SATLC improved the students ability to view the chemistry from a more global perspective. *SATLC helps the students to develop their own mental framework at higher-level cognitive processes such as application, analysis, and synthesis. *SATLC increases students ability to learn subject matter in a greater context. *SATLC increases the ability of students to think globally. CONCLUSION
Literature (1) Michael, P., Badger R., J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80, 779. (2) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J., The use of Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning for 21st Century, J pure Appl. 1999, [15th ICCE, Cairo, August 1998]. (3) Fahmy, A. F. M., Hamza, M. A., Medien, H. A. A., Hanna, W. G., Abdel- Sabour, M. : and Lagowski, J.J., From a Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Chemistry (SATLC) to Benign Analysis, Chinese J.Chem. Edu. 2002, 23(12),12 [17th ICCE, Beijing, August 2002]. (4) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J; Systemic Reform in Chemical Education An International Perspective, J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80 (9), (5) Fahmy, A.F. M., Lagowski, J. J., Using SATL Techniques to Assess Student Achievement, [18th ICCE, Istanbul Turkey, 3-8, August 2004]. (6) Fahmy, A.F. M., Lagowski, J. J., Systemic multiple choice questions (SMCQs) in Chemistry [19th ICCE, Seoul, South Korea, August 2006].
(10) Fahmy A. F. M., Hashem, A. I., and Kandil, N. G.; Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aromatic Chemistry. Science, Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (2000) (9) Fahmy A. F. M., El-Hashash M., Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry. Science Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (1999) (7) Fahmy, A. F. M., El-Shahaat, M. F., and Saied, A., International Workshop on SATLC, Cairo, Egypt, April (2003) (8) Fahmy, A.F.M., Lagowski, J.J.; Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aliphatic Chemistry; Modern Arab Establishment for printing, publishing; Cairo, Egypt (2000)
Research Group Prof. Dr. El-Shahat, M. T. (Egypt) ) Mrs. Said, A. (Egypt Prof. Dr. Lagowski, J. J. (USA) (Founder) Prof. Dr. Abdel – Sabour, M. (Egypt)