Presentation on theme: "FUNGAL DISEASES IN THE RESPIRATORY, EXCRETORY & CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS By: Macatangay, Rachel C. BS BIO 3A."— Presentation transcript:
FUNGAL DISEASES IN THE RESPIRATORY, EXCRETORY & CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS By: Macatangay, Rachel C. BS BIO 3A
E XAMPLE OF F UNGAL DISEASE IN THE : Respiratory system - Histoplasmosis -Aspergillosis Circulatory -Endocarditis Excretory -Emphysematous Cystitis
F UNGAL D ISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM What is histoplasmosis? Histoplasmosis is an infection that varies in symptoms and seriousness. It usually affects the lungs. When it affects other parts of the body, it is called disseminated histoplasmosis. What is the infectious agent that causes histoplasmosis? Histoplasmosis is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a fungus. How do people get histoplasmosis? Histoplasmosis is spread through the air. The disease is not spread from person to person.
What are the signs and symptoms of histoplasmosis? Most infected persons have no symptoms. Acute lung infection are tiredness, fever, chills, chest pains, and a dry cough. The chronic lung infection is like tuberculosis and occurs mostly in persons who already have lung disease. Disseminated histoplasmosis results in a variety of serious symptoms and can involve all body organ. How is histoplasmosis diagnosed? Diagnosis can be made by laboratory culture or a blood test. Treatment Persons with mild disease usually get better on their own. Severe cases of acute histoplasmosis and all cases of chronic and disseminated disease are treated with fungus-killing medicines. Patients with severe infection should be treated with amphotericin B for 1-2 weeks. Patients with cavitary lesions (chronic)must be treated with itraconazole and should be given for one year.
What is Aspergillosis? Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response Causative Agent. Aspergillus fungus. There are several forms of aspergillosis : Pulmonary aspergillosis- usually develops in people who already have lung problems (such as asthma or cystic fibrosis). This infection almost always occurs in people with a weakened immune system due to cancer, AIDS, leukemia, an organ transplant, chemotherapy, or other conditions or medications that lower the number of normal white blood cells or weaken the immune system. Aspergilloma -with past lung disease or lung scarring (such as tuberculosis or lung abscess). Symptoms Cough Coughing up blood or brownish mucus plugs Fever General ill feeling (malaise) Wheezing Weight loss Other symptoms depend on the part of the body affected, and may include: Blood in the urine Bone pain Chest pain Chills Decreased urine output
Signs and tests Aspergillus antibody test Chest x-ray Complete blood count CT scan Galactomannan (a molecule from the fungus that is sometimes found in the blood) Immunoglobulin E (IgE) blood level Lung function tests Sputum stain and culture for Aspergillus Tissue biopsy Treatment Treated an antifungal drug called voriconazole. It can be given by mouth or directly into a vein (IV). Amphotericin B, echinocandins, or itraconazole can also be used. Immunosuppressive drugs- - most often prednisone taken by
F UNGAL D ISEASES OF THE CIRCULATORY What is Fungal Endocarditis? is an inflammation of the heart muscle, the hearts valves, or the lining of the hearts chambers. What are the infectious agent that causes Endocarditis? It is caused by filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, and the yeast, Candida albicans. What causes infective endocarditis? It can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms that enter your bloodstream.
How do people get endocarditis? These fungi( Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans which are opportunistic pathogens) enter the body through wounds, such as surgical incisions, the insertion of catheters (tubes) into already existing wounds, or the sharing of contaminated needles by drug users. Aspergillus fumigatus produce huge amounts of air-borne spores but does not cause infections when inhaled while Candida albicans does not produce air-borne spores.It spreads to new places by being carried there.
What are the symptoms? For acute endocarditis, -includes flu, with a fever, night sweats, muscle aches and pains, and decreased energy. For chronic endocarditis, -you may feel feverish and chilled, be very tired, lose weight, and have joint pain, night sweats, or the symptoms of heart failure. Other symptoms may include red spots on the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet (called Janeway lesions ), or red, painful sores on the tips of your fingers and toes (called Osler's nodes ).
What is the treatment for Fun gal endocarditis? The treatment of fungal endocarditis can require surgery to remove colonies of fungi from the heart, and anti-fungal drug therapy for 6-8 weeks. How is endocarditis diagnosed? It includes blood culture, a complete blood count (CBC) or a CT ("cat") scan of the chest. Some cases are "culture-negative", meaning no fungus or bacterium can be found. What complications can result from endocarditis? Stroke and organ damage Develop pockets of collected pus (abscesses) in other parts of your body, including the brain, kidneys, spleen or liver. Heart failure.
FUNGAL DISEASES OF THE EXCRETORY What is Emphysematous cystitis ? is a rare disease entity caused by fungal pathogens. infection of the urinary bladder produced by gas forming organisms. What is the infectious agent that causes Emphysematous cytitis? The most common organism is E. coli, but other organisms include Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, Clostridium perfringens, and Candida albicans.
What is the symptom of emphysimatous cystitis? o The urine is found to contain albumin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and bacteria. Acute cystitis lasts between one and two weeks. What is the treatment for emphysimatous cystitis? Emphysematous cystitis requires aggressive treatment with parenteral antibiotics and bladder drainage.