Presentation on theme: "Interpreting the Pilgrimage of Grace"— Presentation transcript:
1Interpreting the Pilgrimage of Grace Religion & Religious Change in England, c
2Rebellion: why bother? Historical interest in rebellion because: Evidence of ‘ordinary’ peopleRevealing of social/economic/political attitudesSeen as part of the political system (rather than anomalous)Attitudes towards authority & monarchy.IT IS INTERESTINGIT SELLS LOTS & LOTS OF BOOKS
3The Pilgrimage of Grace Royal Supremacy only 3 years old – a profound challenge:Attacked RS as ‘heresy’ & called for Mary to be made legitimate; upheld monasticism – Parliament could not speak on these issues without the King’s permission.Memory: Wars of the Roses; Tudors a ‘new’ dynasty with little legitimacySerious – HVIII had to negotiate:Promised that Parliament would meet at York to discuss RS; that dissolved monasteries would stand.Wide geographical scope:Yorks/Lincs/Lancs/WestmorlandCrossed the social spectrum:30-60,000 (largest ‘popular’ revolt in English history)Nobles/gentry/commons/clerics unified (on some points)Nature of the Tudor State:No standing army/police‘Rise of the State’ part of the problem?
4The North – a problem: Mighty feudal overlords (Percys) Periodic lawlessness1489 – a significant rebellion (Yorkshire)Hostility/resistance to taxation endemic – instabilityCHALLENGE TO MONARCHICAL POWERS PREVALENT & PERSISTANT.Was this an opportunity for Henry to expand the Tudor state?
5The Pilgrimage of Grace – context: Context in HVIII’s reign:Royal Supremacy newDissolution – novel & ‘heretical’New taxation‘Novelty’ = illegitimacy in early modern minds.It was rarely the RATE of taxation, but its basis in custom which was significant in causing instability.Court factions surrounding Aragon; Seymour; Boleyn spanned out into the localities.Some historians see PofG as a court conspiracy.
9The Lincolnshire Rising, 1536: Based on 3 towns: Louth, Caitor, HorncastleLasted 2 weeks in October 1536.Royal commissions 1536:Dissolve smaller monasteries/ Collect Subsidies/ Assess the clergy.Arrival in Louth trigger – seized by men guarding Church treasures.Rumour (fear, anger, not understand crown intentions):Plate/jewel to be taken from parish Churches/ tax on cattle/ all gold to be confiscated.Churches to be pulled downNo one allowed to eat white bread/ goose without paying a tribute to HVIIIGentry involvement often contradictory:Assumed leadership after 2 daysMuster ‘troops’ through normal State methodsBut in negotiations with Duke of Suffolk (claiming that they were attempting to contain the rebellion from proceeding further South).Traditional mechanisms of containment failed:Lords Hussey, Clinton and Burgh fledSo many gentry/JPs involved – legitimacyFiltered out when Duke of Suffolk’s army within 40 miles – gentry fearful of prosecution for treason & sued for peace.
10The Pilgrimage of Grace: Series of different risings under the (loose) leadership of Robert Aske (lawyer):West & East Ridings (Yorks)/ Westmorland / RichmondshireProclamation at York October 1536:‘This pilgrimage we have undertaken it for the preservation of Christ’s church of this realm of England, the king our sovereign lord, the nobility and commons the same, and to the intent to make petition to the king’s highness for the reformation of that which is amiss within this realm and for the punishment of heretics and subverters of the laws.’Defence of Church/realm/king/community one and the same.
11‘Elites’ and ‘Commons’: Involvement of the North’s leading families.Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland (most powerful man in the North):Suspected in London (‘too powerful’).Not active, but passive acceptance of rebellion.Surrendered Wressle Castle to Aske & acknowledged him as ‘captain of the baronage’.Other family members had prominent roles: Sir Thomas Percy (marched with 5000 to York); Sir Ingram Percy (swore people to the Pilgrim’s cause); gentry leaders Percy tenants.Tension/mistrust of gentry by commonsBut insist on gentry leadership: why?Note – ‘leadership’ is loose, not militaristicParish by parish organisation far more significant in an active sense than the gentry
12‘Elites’ & ‘Commons’CommonsGentryAll nine rebel groups tried to secure gentry leadership:Symbolic: Lord Neville (13)Society of Orders a natural concept:SHOULD lead themAn obligationClergy not permitted active fighting roles.Bush: ‘aristocratic conspiracy of inaction’.Had contained agrarian unrests of 1535Stood aside here (tacit approval?)Fall of Pontefract Castle (hiding place) forced them to become involved.Damage limitation‘We were only trying to maintain order’Fearful of lives/property if refused.
13Causes: overview Whose rebellion? Motivations? ‘Popular’ – people vs regime? Genuine access to ‘ordinary’ sentiment?‘Feudal’High politics (Elton) – a conspiracy led by ostracised courtiers; utilising power-bases in the locality to achieve a political victory at Court.Motivations?Religion? (Moral)Economic/Social? (Banal)Dodds Sisters (1915) – Aske unable to halt ‘popular’ movement; two ‘movements’ (‘religious’ – gentry led – social/economic – anti-gentry).Documentation – did Cromwell distort issues to detract from religious motivations (thus safeguarding Crown policy)?
14A ‘court conspiracy’?James/Elton: national politics more important than local social/economic factors.– Darcy/Hussey & Aragonese faction at Court:Support KofA/Mary & oppose Boleyn marriage.Side-lined at Court – affront to noble honour.Rumours that contemplated revolt in 1534.1536 – potential return to royal favour:Aragon dead; Boleyn executedBUT: Hussey wanted Mary reinstated as legitimateCromwell prevented; ensured Hussey lost position in Mary’s household.Hussey’s wife imprisoned (allegations of encouraging resistance to the RS).Elton: PofG borne of frustration, manipulate popular discontent to their own ends.
15A ‘court conspiracy’?Some articles could be read as interpreting Elton’s view:Attack on Cromwell/Audley/Rich (& Cromwell’s key policies – Treason Act/Royal Supremacy/ ‘Heresy’)Second Succession Act (key to Aragonese party)Attack Henry’s Scottish claims – fearful of HVIII perusing heir through his sister Margaret (not want a foreign ruler).Gunn – remove Hussey, undercut Elton:Hussey = old, politically marginalised (local & national)At no point a significant leader of the PofG (actually indecisive).
16A ‘Feudal’ revolt?Historiographical context – English medieval history littered with ‘baronial revolts’:Brought their tenants with them because they were bound to their lords.Here pilgrims volunteered – took an oath; not feudal loyalty.PofG – noble involvement came from minor figures:Barons: Conyers; Latimer; Lumley; Scope.Powerful men not really take part:Earl of Derby (support HVIII); Lord Dacre (besieged); Earls of Cumberland (deserted by gentry clients – son married HVIII’s niece) & Westmorland (captured)Landed elites not stand together: Darcy’s sons not support him; Aske’s brother defended Skipton Castle.IF NOT A ‘FEUDAL’ REVOLT, WAS IT A ‘POPULAR’ ONE?
17A ‘popular’ rebellion?Question of all early modern rebellions: do the articles reflect the views of the rebels themselves?Aske not use materials from some petitions (re: landlords/gentry)Unpopular recent taxation:New subsidy issued in peace time (unique)1534 Subsidy Act (sold as a benefit to society)But, rebellion conservative:Not taxation per se; but novel taxes which breached customLincolnshire – articles demanded that the King claim no money unless in defence of the realm.Attack tithe barns – not Church itself that the target, but unpopular landlords in generalContext – two years of poor harvests + new taxes make living hard.Pontefract manifesto – two articles relating to economic issues:Enclosure (fencing-off the common land)Much more significant in later rebellions.Entry fines (payment upon taking upon a tenancy)More prevalent concern.
18Causes – religion: Against: For: Not ‘spiritual’: Religious objects/taxation/practices, but not spirit/doctrine.A cloak/ banner/ slogan / justification for other motivations:‘Functional’ approach to religion (remember Gregory)Real motivation material – greedy king.Mendacious clerics:Propaganda to dupe people into rebellingConfused:Continental & English reformers tied together in demands.Dissolution:Co-incidentalVisible & a moral issue.BUT – too easy (not reactionary)Fear/uncertainty:Rumour – what did the Reformation mean for them?What of parishes run through impropriation?Material fabric of late-medieval Catholicism:Purgatory; prayers for the dead; saints – all dependent on ‘material’ aspects of LMC.
19Religion: examples Traditional patterns of sanctity: East Riding (Yorks) – St. Wilfrid’s dayBanning of prayers to the PopeBenefits of monasteries:Praised ‘ghostly living’ as a part of being Christian – ‘speritual informacion, and preching’.Also soc/ec roles – food/gifts/charity/travellers.Help tenants: store documents/look after unmarried daughters & elderly.‘Commonwealth’ – united social/economic/religious.Re-establish dissolved houses:Cartmel/ Conishead/ Sawley/ St. Clements (York)Popular initiative; clerical lead elsewhere.Oaths to join:'Ye shall not enter into this our Pilgrimage of Grace for the common wealth but only for the love ye bear to God's faith and church militant and the maintenance thereof, the preservation of the king's person, his issue, and the purifying of the nobility and to expulse all villein blood and evil counsellors against the common wealth of the same. And that ye shall not enter into our said pilgrimage for no peculiar private profit to no private person but by counsel of the common wealth nor slay nor murder for no envy but in your hearts to put away all fear for the common wealth. And to take before you the cross of Christ and your heart's faith to the restitution of the church and to the suppression of heretics' opinions by the holy content of this book’
20What did they actually DO? Banner of the Five Wounds of Christ – Crusades- Christ’s cause- Made traditional offerings of pilgrimsRitual procession to York.How do we interpret behaviour as historians?
21The Crown’s reaction:Divide & rule (gentry & commons); propaganda on sinfulness of rebellion.Renewed rebellion in 1537 a mandate to display State power:Francis Bigod & followers believe Aske had been fooled by HVIII’s promises.HVIII’s reaction:Duke of Norfolk declared martial law.Proceed ‘without pity of circumstance’ to ‘such dreadful execution a good number….as shall be a fearful warning’.144 executions (known): public/ confession showing breach of Royal authority.Vindictive – legally could only prosecute for actions after the Doncaster pardon (‘evidence’ convicting Darcy/Aske largely invented).
22Consequences: Long-term: Short-term: The solidification of the Tudor regime in the North.Council of the North:Curb endemic violenceResolve local feudsControl Scottish borderIncreased the power of loyal families1537 – Northumberland signed over all lands to HVIII:Percy interest now destroyed.Henry convinced of the need for obedience.Persuaded that the monasteries were now a problem:Resistance to the RSDisobedience/pro-PopeSuperstition/ErrorIrony – if the ‘pilgrims’ intended to preserve LMC, their actions ultimately persuaded the king to proceed against it with greater vigour.