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Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments Markus Haag Developing People Internationally Konstanz, Germany - 28 Sep 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments Markus Haag Developing People Internationally Konstanz, Germany - 28 Sep 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments Markus Haag Developing People Internationally Konstanz, Germany - 28 Sep 2007

2 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments Outline 1. Culture and e-learning 2. SECI model 3. Cross-cultural differences of the SECI modes 4. SECI model: impact of culture in e-learning 5. PhD research A Cross-Cultural Perspective

3 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 1. Culture and e-learning (E-)learning is situated and contextualised, relevant only in a mutually shared and negotiated context (Lave and Wenger, 1991) context is defined by culture context also shaped by individual learning styles and different educational systems Internet: both a culture of its own and created by culture? Hofstede (1986) names the following cross-cultural differences in learning: -- differences in social positions of teachers and students -- differences in the relevance of the curriculum/content -- differences in profiles of cognitive abilities, and -- differences in expected patterns of teacher/student and student/student interaction A Cross-Cultural Perspective

4 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 2. SECI model -1- SECI: -- four modes of knowledge conversion (socialisation, externalisation, combination, internalisation) -- continuous interaction between explicit and tacit knowledge A Cross-Cultural Perspective socialisationexternalisation internalisationcombination tacit to tacit tacit to explici t explicit to explicit explici t to tacit

5 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 2. SECI model -2- Integrating the concept of culture into KD in e-learning systems: -- Cultural value dimensions -- Offline learning and its context -- Online learning and its context -- Learning styles (cultural and individual) -- Interpersonal communication across cultures -- E-learning system usability Highly interdependent, becoming more salient or less salient depending on context and situation A Cross-Cultural Perspective

6 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 3. Cross-cultural differences of the SECI modes – General Culture determines behaviour Problem: different levels of culture national, regional, gender, generation, class, organisational, etc. Ba: a platform for advancing individual [italics by the presenter] and/or collective knowledge (Nonaka and Konno, 1998, p. 40) shared space for knowledge creation cultural context for learning, analogous to the notion of situated learning (Lave and Wenger, 1991) Plurality of ba; ba can be connected to another ba (Nonaka, Toyama and Konno, 2000) difficult to group e-learning processes into one specific ba A Cross-Cultural Perspective

7 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 3. Cross-cultural differences – Socialisation and originating ba Hypothesis S.1: E-learners from countries high on collectivism prefer to communicate when invited by their in-group to do so, whereas e-learners from countries high on individualism assert their individual opinion openly S.2: E-learners from countries high on collectivism are less likely than e- learners from countries high on individualism to express feelings, emotions and attitudes in online communication S.3: E-learners from a high power-distance culture are less likely than e- learners from a low power-distance culture to challenge the views of e-tutors S.4: E-learners from countries high on individualism focus more on the task in hand whereas e-learners from countries high on collectivism strive to maintain harmonious interpersonal relationships, also at the expense of achieving a task, if necessary A Cross-Cultural Perspective

8 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 3. Cross-cultural differences – Externalisation and interacting ba Hypothesis E.1: E-learners from countries high on individualism prefer to work through the learning materials on their own, whereas e-learners from countries high on collectivism prefer to work in groups E.2: E-learners from countries high on collectivism are less likely than e- learners from countries high on individualism to criticise peers openly in chats or asynchronous discussion forums E.3: E-learners from a high-context culture feel more uncomfortable than e- learners from a low-context culture when they interact with peers via online channels due to lack of contextual cues A Cross-Cultural Perspective

9 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 3. Cross-cultural differences – Combination and cyber ba Hypothesis C.1: E-learners from countries high on individualism prefer educational content (texts, videos, quizzes, other exercises, etc.) that tells them the why and how, whereas e-learners from countries high on collectivism prefer to learn the what C.2: E-learners from a high uncertainty avoidance culture prefer structured learning experiences (e.g. a linearly-structured online course), whereas e- learners from a weak uncertainty avoidance culture prefer self-guided and open learning experiences C.3: E-learners from a high power distance culture are more likely to prefer tasks set and discussions moderated by an e-tutor rather than ones peers than e-learners from a low power distance culture A Cross-Cultural Perspective

10 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 3. Cross-cultural differences – Internalisation and exercising ba Hypothesis I.1: different use of their newly acquired knowledge, expertise and skills, because of different cognitive background and situational context A Cross-Cultural Perspective

11 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 4. SECI model: impact of culture in e-learning A Cross-Cultural Perspective 0ffline learning and context Learning styles Cultural value dimensions Online learning and context Usability Socialisation (originating ba) Tacit to tacit Hypotheses: S.1, S.2, S.3, S.4 Externalisation (interacting ba) Tacit to explicit Hypotheses: E.1, E.2, E.3 Combination (cyber ba) Explicit to explicit Hypotheses: C.1, C.2, C.3 Internalisation (exercising ba) Explicit to tacit Hypothesis: I.1 Interpersonal communication across cultures

12 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments 5. PhD research focus on knowledge development processes and learning outcomes from the point of view of the learners focus groups, one-to-one interviews, surveys work-in-progress: shift from Hofstede to Schwartz applying and modifying the SECI model for individual knowledge development (as opposed to organisational knowledge creation) Comments / suggestions regarding methodology etc.? A Cross-Cultural Perspective

13 28 Sep 2007Markus Haag - Developing People Internationally Konstanz Knowledge Development in E-Learning Environments Thank you very much. Contact: A Cross-Cultural Perspective


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