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The local implementation of introduction/integration courses. Municipal answers to national policies? Tiziana Caponio and Monica Qurico Fieri.

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Presentation on theme: "The local implementation of introduction/integration courses. Municipal answers to national policies? Tiziana Caponio and Monica Qurico Fieri."— Presentation transcript:

1 The local implementation of introduction/integration courses. Municipal answers to national policies? Tiziana Caponio and Monica Qurico Fieri

2 Goals of the study 1. To explore the views of local stakeholders on the nexus between integration and admission/permanent residence 2. To provide a thorough mapping of integration compulsory and voluntary courses carried out at a local level, with details on the targeted group/s, funding and implementing agencies, types of programmes (just language, language and culture, vocational training etc.) and other relevant features (final exam, legal certification etc.) 3. To provide an assessment of the perceived impact of these courses on the integration trajectories of the immigrants concerned

3 Methodology Case studies, at least 1-2 cities/regions for each country Case studies, at least 1-2 cities/regions for each country Selected cases maximise difference in terms of immigrant resident groups and local economic structures Selected cases maximise difference in terms of immigrant resident groups and local economic structures What is the rationale behind the local implementation of integration programmes? Is implementation adapted to the specific necessities emerging at a local level? To what extent and in which ways? What is the rationale behind the local implementation of integration programmes? Is implementation adapted to the specific necessities emerging at a local level? To what extent and in which ways? Various research techniques Various research techniques Desk-research: analysis of the literature and of cities’ official documents Desk-research: analysis of the literature and of cities’ official documents In depth interviews to key informants, implementers and beneficiaries In depth interviews to key informants, implementers and beneficiaries

4 Reports Already drafted Already drafted Sweden: Malmoe and Almhult Sweden: Malmoe and Almhult Germany : Stuttgart Germany : Stuttgart Italy: Turin Italy: Turin Switzerland: Geneva Switzerland: Geneva Czech Republic: Pardubice Czech Republic: Pardubice To be drafted To be drafted Austria: Vienna and Innsbruck Austria: Vienna and Innsbruck The Netherlands: Enschede The Netherlands: Enschede Italy: Aosta Valley Italy: Aosta Valley Switzerland: Zurich Switzerland: Zurich Spain: Barcelona Spain: Barcelona UK: London (two districts) UK: London (two districts)

5 The contexts Pardubice Pardubice Regional capital city, among the few ones in the Czech Republic active in the country on immigrants integration Regional capital city, among the few ones in the Czech Republic active in the country on immigrants integration Industrial city Industrial city Malmoe Malmoe Third city in Sweden, economically in transition (from shipping industry to new economy) Third city in Sweden, economically in transition (from shipping industry to new economy) Characterised by the highest ratio of immigrant residents on the local population (30% in 2010) Characterised by the highest ratio of immigrant residents on the local population (30% in 2010) Almulth Almulth 15,000 inhabitants, located in the South of Sweden. 15,000 inhabitants, located in the South of Sweden. Ikea city: Ikea is a key actor in promoting the integration of their foreign workers Ikea city: Ikea is a key actor in promoting the integration of their foreign workers Turin Turin Third city in Italy, economically in transition (from industry to new economy) Third city in Italy, economically in transition (from industry to new economy) First immigrant community: Rumanians First immigrant community: Rumanians Geneva Geneva Capital of the French-speaking area of Switzerland, crucial relevance of the tertiary sector and services Capital of the French-speaking area of Switzerland, crucial relevance of the tertiary sector and services Stuttgart Stuttgart Capital of Baden-Württemberg Capital of Baden-Württemberg Major location for businesses in the automotive industry Major location for businesses in the automotive industry

6 Local integration frames - Preliminary results - A considerable degree of consistency between national policy approaches and local integration policy frames is reported, even though with some remarkable exceptions A considerable degree of consistency between national policy approaches and local integration policy frames is reported, even though with some remarkable exceptions Stuttgart Stuttgart Pioneer city in Germany with respect to integration policies (top-down and comprehensive approach) Pioneer city in Germany with respect to integration policies (top-down and comprehensive approach) Geneva and Turin Geneva and Turin Both cities are reported as having a more open stance towards immigrants’ integration when compared with the cantonal/national governments Both cities are reported as having a more open stance towards immigrants’ integration when compared with the cantonal/national governments Local leftwing majorities seem to make a difference (especially vis-à-vis national rightwing governments) Local leftwing majorities seem to make a difference (especially vis-à-vis national rightwing governments)

7 Local offer of integration courses - preliminary results - National integration programmes are in place only in: National integration programmes are in place only in: Stuttgart Stuttgart Financed and coordinated by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF), implemented by private and public organisations such as welfare organisations (Caritas, Awo), education centres, private language institutes etc. Financed and coordinated by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF), implemented by private and public organisations such as welfare organisations (Caritas, Awo), education centres, private language institutes etc. Target groups: newly arrived TNC and ethnic Germans; old residents in the categories specified by the law Target groups: newly arrived TNC and ethnic Germans; old residents in the categories specified by the law Malmoe and Almulth Malmoe and Almulth Compulsory Integration Plan for refugees and other persons with protection status (recipients of the Introduction Allowance) Compulsory Integration Plan for refugees and other persons with protection status (recipients of the Introduction Allowance) The municipalities are free to extend participation to Swedish for Immigrants courses also to other categories as long as they have not resided in Sweden longer than 36 months: The municipalities are free to extend participation to Swedish for Immigrants courses also to other categories as long as they have not resided in Sweden longer than 36 months: Both cities have extended this possibility to all immigrants (EU included) Both cities have extended this possibility to all immigrants (EU included) Courses are implemented both by public agencies and no profit organisations Courses are implemented both by public agencies and no profit organisations

8 Local offer of integration courses - preliminary results - In most of the cities considered, a plurality of voluntary integration courses has been reported In most of the cities considered, a plurality of voluntary integration courses has been reported Turin Turin Public courses for regular foreign residents (not just newly arrived) Public courses for regular foreign residents (not just newly arrived) NGOs courses focus on newly arrived (irregular immigrants included) NGOs courses focus on newly arrived (irregular immigrants included) Geneva Geneva Local, national and international NGOs coordinated by the BIE (Bureau de l’intégration des étrangers) and funded either by the Confederation or the Canton Local, national and international NGOs coordinated by the BIE (Bureau de l’intégration des étrangers) and funded either by the Confederation or the Canton Opened to all immigrants Opened to all immigrants Pardubice Pardubice Courses provided by NGOs and by the local branch of the governmental Centre for Supporting Immigrants’ Integration, and financed with public funds, only for TNC Courses provided by NGOs and by the local branch of the governmental Centre for Supporting Immigrants’ Integration, and financed with public funds, only for TNC Stuttgart Stuttgart Specific integration courses offered by the Municipality (conversation courses, basic German courses, “Mum is learning”) opened to both old and newcomers (EU included) Specific integration courses offered by the Municipality (conversation courses, basic German courses, “Mum is learning”) opened to both old and newcomers (EU included) Malmoe Malmoe The Municipality’s Education Administration offers Sfi-classes of the “not- newly arrived” immigrants (i.e. registered for more than 36 months in Sweden) The Municipality’s Education Administration offers Sfi-classes of the “not- newly arrived” immigrants (i.e. registered for more than 36 months in Sweden)

9 Local offer of integration courses - preliminary results - Contents of the courses Contents of the courses A combination of language and introduction (essentially civic integration) is prevalent A combination of language and introduction (essentially civic integration) is prevalent In Malmoe and Almulth the Integration Plan provides also labour market related activities (internships, information courses etc.) In Malmoe and Almulth the Integration Plan provides also labour market related activities (internships, information courses etc.) In Stuttgart, ‘Mum leans German’ courses are more centred on everyday matters for mothers: school issues, social services etc. In Stuttgart, ‘Mum leans German’ courses are more centred on everyday matters for mothers: school issues, social services etc.

10 Perceived impact In general, interviewed partners consider integration courses as having a positive impact on immigrants’ integration trajectories In general, interviewed partners consider integration courses as having a positive impact on immigrants’ integration trajectories Yet, there are some caveats Yet, there are some caveats Pardubice Pardubice The need of extending courses to EU nationals is emphasised (Rumanians, Bulgarians) The need of extending courses to EU nationals is emphasised (Rumanians, Bulgarians) Immigrants participation is reported as being low Immigrants participation is reported as being low Malmoe Malmoe Risk of a stigmatizing effect for those immigrants enrolled in SFI courses Risk of a stigmatizing effect for those immigrants enrolled in SFI courses Importance of stressing the link between language and professional training Importance of stressing the link between language and professional training Turin Turin Low participation rates Low participation rates Lack of resources to provide a more differentiated offer (e.g. language and professional training courses) Lack of resources to provide a more differentiated offer (e.g. language and professional training courses)

11 In the end… Two types of local implementation networks can be pointed out Two types of local implementation networks can be pointed out A top-down implementation network A top-down implementation network A central role is played by the Municipality/regional authority, that is not only responsible for funding but also for coordinating the organisations charged with delivery A central role is played by the Municipality/regional authority, that is not only responsible for funding but also for coordinating the organisations charged with delivery The courses’ offer is determined at “the top”, NGOs and other agencies just participate in provision The courses’ offer is determined at “the top”, NGOs and other agencies just participate in provision Malmoe, Almulth, Pardubice and Stuttgart Malmoe, Almulth, Pardubice and Stuttgart A bottom-up implementation network A bottom-up implementation network The municipality is just one actor among others; independent NGOs often undertake their autonomous initiatives catering to those immigrants who are considered to be more in need The municipality is just one actor among others; independent NGOs often undertake their autonomous initiatives catering to those immigrants who are considered to be more in need Turin (NGOs dealing also with irregular immigrants) and Geneva Turin (NGOs dealing also with irregular immigrants) and Geneva The courses’ offer is open and more dependent on initiatives from “below” (specialisation on marginalisation) The courses’ offer is open and more dependent on initiatives from “below” (specialisation on marginalisation)

12 Thank you for your attention!


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